Segmental Wall Motion Abnormalities in Patients Undergoing Total Hip Replacement
Department of Anesthesia, Stanford University Medical Center, CA 94305-5117. Anesthesia & Analgesia
(Impact Factor: 3.47).
10/1993; 77(4):743-9. DOI: 10.1213/00000539-199310000-00015
We examined the effect of methylmethacrylate cement on venous embolization and cardiac function in 20 patients having total hip arthroplasty under general anesthesia. Segmental wall motion abnormalities and intracardiac targets (presumably emboli) were investigated by making videotaped recordings of the transgastric short axis and longitudinal 4-chamber views of the heart with transesophageal echocardiography at different points during surgery. The incidence of segmental wall motion abnormalities was the most frequent during insertion of cemented femoral prostheses (8 of 14 patients had wall motion abnormalities). This was significantly different from baseline measurements taken at the beginning of surgery (P < 0.05). In addition, there were also significantly more segmental wall motion abnormalities in patients having a cemented femoral component compared to those having an uncemented femoral prosthesis (P < 0.05). The incidence of wall motion abnormalities during acetabular and femoral reaming and during wound closure was not significantly different from baseline. Intracardiac targets (emboli) were seen in all 20 patients during surgery. The largest number of emboli occurred during reaming of the femur and during insertion of the femoral prosthesis. Significantly more emboli were seen with cemented components (P < 0.02). Most emboli were small (< 2 mm) and appeared similar to the microbubbles produced by agitating saline with a small amount of air. Six patients also had larger (> 5 mm) emboli that appeared to be solid material. One patent foramen ovale was detected (5% incidence). There were no adverse cardiac or neurologic events, and heart rate and arterial blood pressure remained within normal limits throughout surgery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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- "uration when nail insertion was com - bined with cementation . The benefits of cement are that it gives additional strength ( Harrington et al . 1976 , Harrington 1997 ) in femora with wide - spread disease or large lytic lesions . The harmful effects of methylmethacrylate are well document - ed in the literature ( Ware et al . 1991 , Pinto 1993 , Propst et al . 1993 , Fujimura et al . 1995 ) . The important effect of cement may be to seal the fem - oral shaft and increase intramedullary pressure more during pressurization and nail or prosthesis insertion than is usually encountered ( Pietak et al . 1997 ) ."
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ABSTRACT: Intramedullary nail fixation is a common treatment for metastatic tumors of the femur with overt or impending femoral fracture. This procedure sometimes causes severe cardiorespiratory and vascular dysfunction. The clinical relevance of this is not dear. We reviewed 45 operations in 43 patients, where intramedullary nail fixation was used to treat metastatic femoral fractures and impending fractures. We studied the incidence of intraoperative oxygen desaturation and hypotension associated with intramedullary manipulation as markers of cardiorespiratory and vascular dysfunction. Acute oxygen desaturation and hypotension occurred in 11 of our 45 patients. Of these, 3 died, 2 required intensive care postoperatively and 6 made uneventful recoveries. We hope to highlight a serious complication in this patient group.
Available from: Brendan Mullen
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ABSTRACT: Haemodynamic changes during bilateral cemented arthroplasty (BCA) were compared in dogs anaesthetized with isoflurane/N2O (ISOF) or diazepam/fentanyl (100 microg x kg(-1))N2O(FENT). Eight animals were anaesthetized with each regimen. After establishing monitoring and recording baseline values, BCA was performed. Haemodynamic measurements included aortic blood pressure (ABP), pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), right and left atrial pressures, and cardiac output. These were recorded at 30, 60, 180 and 300 sec after BCA. Lungs were removed and examined postmortem using quantitative morphometry. Groups demonstrated similar increases in PAP (ISOF 15 +/- 2 to 32 +/- 7, FENT 19 +/- 4 to 38 +/- 13; P> 0.05 between groups, P< 0.05 vs baseline). The proportion of lung vasculature occluded by fat was not different between groups (ISOF 9.63 +/- 3.38%, FENT 8.85 +/- 2.20%). Stroke volume decreased similarly in both groups (P> 0,05 between groups, P< 0.05 vs baseline). However, ABP decreased within one minute of BCA in ISOF (111 +/- 17 to 55 +/- mmHg, P< 0.05 and two of eight dogs died. All FENT dogs survived and hypotension (118 +/- 20 to 102 +/- 24 mmHg) was transient and less severe (P< 0.05 vs ISOF). Increased heart rate (HR) was noted in FENT following BCA (73 +/- 8 to 108 +/- 25 beats x min(-1); P< 0.05). Baseline HR was higher in ISOF (P< 0.05) and no increase in HR was noted. Systemic vascular resistance decreased in ISOF (P< 0.05), but not FENT (P> 0.05 vs baseline, P< 0.05 vs ISOF). To assess the role of slower baseline HR in FENT (73 +/-8) versus ISOF (131 +/- 5), six FENT dogs were paced (130 beats x min(-1)) with epicardial leads and an AV sequential pulse generator to simulate the ISOF group's baseline HR. Haemodynamic stability was maintained in this group in spite of a more rapid baseline HR. The choice of anaesthetic regimen strongly influenced acute haemodynamic changes in response to BCA.
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