Patterns of psychiatric comorbidity, cognition, and psychosocial functioning in adults with ADHD

Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston 02114.
American Journal of Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 12.3). 01/1994; 150(12):1792-8. DOI: 10.1176/ajp.150.12.1792
Source: PubMed


Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common disorder of childhood, its status as a disorder in adults is not clear. The authors reasoned that if the adult diagnosis of the disorder is a valid clinical entity, it should be similar to the childhood disorder with regard to patterns of psychiatric and cognitive findings.
Eighty-four adults with a clinical diagnosis of childhood-onset attention deficit hyperactivity disorder confirmed by structured interview who were referred for treatment were studied. Findings were compared with those from a preexisting study group of referred children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, nonreferred adult relatives of those children who also had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and adults without the disorder who were relatives of normal children. Subjects were evaluated with a comprehensive battery of psychiatric, cognitive, and psychosocial assessments.
The referred and nonreferred adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were similar to one another but more disturbed and impaired than the comparison subjects without the disorder. The pattern of psychopathology, cognition, and functioning among the adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder approximated the findings for children with the disorder.
These results show that referred and nonreferred adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have a pattern of demographic, psychosocial, psychiatric, and cognitive features that mirrors well-documented findings among children with the disorder. These findings further support the validity of the diagnosis for adults.

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    • "). This instrument was used previously in other studies to assess childhood pathologies retrospectively (Biederman et al., 1993; Koyuncu et al., 2014; McGough et al., 2005; Tamam, Karakuş, & Ozpoyraz, 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: Our aim in this study is to evaluate the impacts of inattentive and combined types of childhood ADHD (ADHD-I, ADHD-C) in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Methods: A total of 142 adult outpatients with a primary diagnosis of SAD were included. All patients were assessed by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSMIV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children–Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL), ADHD module and a clinical and sociodemographic data form and scales were filled out. Results: Childhood ADHD comorbidity rates was found to be 88 (62%) in patients with SAD, and 63 of these patients had the diagnosis of ADHD-I. ADHD-I group had higher scores of social anxiety and avoidance and had earlier onset of SAD than the ADHD-C group. Conclusion: The inattentive subtype of ADHD may have a more specific relationship with SAD than ADHD-C. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX)
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Attention Disorders
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    • "Spouses of adults with ADHD, who themselves are not diagnosed with ADHD, report feeling resentful and overwhelmed due to inadequate emotional support and an unequal distribution of household tasks pertaining to planning, organizing, financial decisions, and maintaining family harmony (Robin & Payson, 2002; Weiss, Weiss, & Trokenberg-Hechtman, 1999). Thus, it not surprising that, when compared with controls, ADHD status is associated with lower relationship satisfaction and a higher incidence of divorce (Biederman et al., 1993; Murphy & Barkley, 1996). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study compared the romantic relationships of adolescents with and without ADHD with regard to romantic involvement, relationship content, and relationship quality. Method: A community sample of 58 participants (30 ADHD, 28 Comparison), ages 13 to 18, completed questionnaires assessing various features of romantic relationships. Results: Adolescents with ADHD reported having more romantic partners than their typically developing (TD) peers. Females with ADHD were found to have shorter romantic relationships than TD adolescents while males with ADHD reported their age of first intercourse to be nearly 2 years sooner than TD peers. Irrespective of gender, adolescents with ADHD had nearly double the number of lifetime sexual partners. However, the romantic relationships of adolescents with and without ADHD did not differ on levels of aggression or relationship quality. Conclusion: Given the outcomes associated with poor-quality romantic relationships, comprehensive assessments of adolescents with ADHD should include queries into their romantic relationships.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Attention Disorders
    • "Schmitz and colleagues (2010) found higher rates of SAD in a group of 6-to 18-year-old patients with predominantly inattentive type ADHD than in a control group without ADHD (23.9% vs. 5%). In another study, 32% of adult patients with ADHD had comorbid SAD and this was also higher than the SAD rate found in the control group without ADHD (Biederman et al., 1993). Moreover, in a study of childhood, generalized SAD and ADHD were found to be associated among 7 to 18 years of age patients (Chavira, Stein, Bailey, & Stein, 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of childhood ADHD comorbidity in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD), and the influence of this comorbidity on various demographic and clinical variables in SAD. Method: A total of 130 patients with SAD were assessed with K-SADS-PL's (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version) behavioral disorders module to determine the childhood diagnosis of ADHD. Patients with or without a comorbid childhood ADHD were compared in terms of clinical characteristics and rating scores. Results: The mean age at onset of SAD was lower, and lifetime major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder (BD) comorbidity were higher in the SAD-ADHD group than in the SAD-without ADHD group. Conclusion: We have found high ADHD comorbidity in patients with SAD. Presence of comorbid ADHD was associated with increased severity, functional impairment, and BD comorbidity.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Journal of Attention Disorders
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