Literature Review

Sweeteners: State of knowledge review

Article· Literature ReviewinNeuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 17(3):313-45 · February 1993with 184 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/S0149-7634(05)80015-6 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Sweeteners are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this paper is to review our current knowledge of sweet taste from chemical, biochemical, electrophysiological, psychophysical, and psychological points of view. The most common sweetners likely to be used in food and pharmaceuticals will be examined in detail. First, the chemical structures of sweet compounds including saccharides, diterpene glycosides, polyols, amino acids, dipeptides, and other nonsugars will be discussed. Second, biochemical approaches to understanding sweetner receptors will be reviewed. Third, electrophysiological and behavioral approaches to understanding sweetner receptors will be discussed. Fourth, psychophysical studies in humans will be shown to be consistent with biochemical and neurophysiological data. In addition, the basic mechanisms of sweet taste revealed by psychophysical studies will be given, including the role of multiple receptor sites, hydrogen bonding, and sodium transport. Finally, the factors that affect preference for sweet taste including the psychological and physiological variables associated with sweet preference will be explored.

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  • ... With the development of chromatography and spectroscopy methods, human routine sensory assessment of compounds was gradually discontinued. Nevertheless, the unintentional discovery of many sweet taste compounds continued in the years to follow (Schiffmann & Gatlin, 1993;Davies, 2010). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Abstract The search for new sweeteners technologies has increased substantially in the past decades as the number of diseases related to the excessive consumption of sugar became a public health concern. Low carbohydrates diets help to reduce ingested calories and to maintain a healthy weight. Most natural and synthetic high potency non-caloric sweeteners, known to date, show limitations in taste quality and are generally used in combination due to their complementary flavor characteristics and physicochemical properties in order to minimize undesirable features. The challenge of the food manufacturers is to develop low or calorie-free products without compromising the real taste of sugar expected by consumers. With the discovery of the genes coding for the sweet taste receptor in humans, entirely new flavor ingredients were identified, which are tasteless on their own, but potentially enhance the taste of sugar. These small molecules known as positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) could be more effective than other reported taste enhancers at reducing calories in consumer products. PAMs could represent a breakthrough in the field of flavor development after the increase in the knowledge of safety profile in combination with sucrose in humans.
  • ... ASs are extensively tested for potential adverse health effects on humans because they are used as food additives [37,44,45]. Although the measured concentrations of some ASs range up to microgram per liter levels in surface water, groundwater and drinking water, there is a huge safety margin regarding potential adverse health effects [36]. ...
  • ... Dubois et al. (1991) Alitame 0.3 2,955 (5) Dubois et al. (1991) Ampame 11.9/17.8 50 (2) Mazur et al. (1970) ASME 6.9 140 (2) Brussel et al. (1975) Aspartame 5 196 (5) Dubois et al. (1991) Brazzein 0.16 2,000 (2) Ming and Hellekant (1994) CAM 0.18 1,500 (2) Nofre and Tinti (1987) CAMPA 0.028 15,000 (2) Nofre et al. (1996) CCGA 0.21 7,000 (2) Nofre et al. (1989) CGA 0.77 2,700 (2) Nofre et al. (1989) Cyanosuosan 2.5 650 (2) Tinti et al. (1982) Cyclamate 9.9 31 (5) Dubois et al. (1991) DMGA 0.027 120,000 (2) Nofre et al. (1990) D-Phenylalanine 0.1 M 7 (2.2) Solms et al. (1965) D-Tryptophan 19.5 35 (0.376) Shallenberger (1993) Dulcin 1.59 250 (2) Paul (1922) Fructose 0.3 M 1.28 (5) Dubois et al. (1991) MAGAP 0.055 20,000 (2) Nofre and Tinti (1994) Monellin 0.03 3,000 Morris and Cagan (1972) NC-00174 0.23 200,000 (2) Nagarajan et al. (1996) NC-00351 0.022 30,000 (3) Nagarajan et al. (1996) NHDHC 0.49 905 (5) Dubois et al. (1991) Saccharin 1.6 440 (5) Dubois et al. (1991) SC-45647 0.12 28,000 (2) Nofre et al. (1990) Stevioside 0.62 120 (5) Dubois et al. (1991) Suosan 1.1 950 (2) Petersen and Müller (1948) Super-aspartame 0.23 3,900 (5) Nofre and Tinti (1987) TGC 0.17 3,000 (2) Tinti et al. (1981) Sucralose 0.5 635 (5) Dubois et al. (1991) Xylitol 0.82 M 0.97 (5) Schiffman and Gatlin (1993) Different concentrations of Ampame were used for stimulation the chorda tympani (CT) and glossopharyngeal (NG) nerve. Values in parentheses are sucrose concentrations used for comparison. ...
  • ... Unfortunately, all of the existing non-caloric sweeteners fail to mimic the taste of real sugar. These alternative sweeteners can exhibit objectionable off-tastes (bitter, metallic, liquorish, cooling), inadequate temporal properties (slow onset and/or lingering of sweet taste), or even a limited sweetness intensity at higher concentrations[3,4]. The recent discovery of the human sweet receptor, hTAS1R2/ hTAS1R3[5], and its application in the high-throughput screening of natural extract and synthetic libraries, has led to the discovery of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the human sweet receptor as an alternative approach to reducing the caloric content of food and beverage products currently sweetened with sucrose or high fructose corn syrup[6][7][8]. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    A toxicological evaluation of N-(1-((4-amino-2,2-dioxido-1H-benzo[c][1,2,6]thiadiazin-5-yl)oxy)-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-2,6-dimethylisonicotinamide (S2218; CAS 1622458-34-7), a flavour with modifying properties, was completed for the purpose of assessing its safety for use in food and beverage applications. S2218 exhibited minimal oxidative metabolism in vitro, and in rat pharmacokinetic studies, the compound was poorly orally bioavailable and rapidly eliminated. S2218 was not found to be mutagenic in an in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay, and was found to be neither clastogenic nor aneugenic in an in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus assay. In subchronic oral toxicity studies in male and female rats, the NOAEL was 140 mg/kg bw/day (highest dose tested) for S2218 sulfate salt (S8069) when administered as a food ad-mix for 13 consecutive weeks. Furthermore, S2218 sulfate salt demonstrated a lack of maternal toxicity, as well as adverse effects on fetal morphology at the highest dose tested, providing a NOAEL of 1000 mg/kg bw/day for both maternal toxicity and embryo/fetal development when administered orally during gestation to pregnant rats.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The peripheral sensitivity and palatability of different carbohydrates was evaluated and their nutritional value assessed in adult females of D. suzukii by means of an electrophysiological, behavioural and metabolic approach. The electrophysiological responses were recorded from the labellar “l” type sensilla stimulated with metabolizable mono- and disaccharides (glucose and maltose) and a non-metabolizable sugar (sucralose); the response rating and the palatability to the same sugars, evaluated by recording the proboscis extension reflex (PER), was maltose>glucose>sucralose. The nutritional value of carbohydrates was assessed by means of survival trials and fatty acids profile. Flies fed on a diet containing maltose had a longer lifespan than flies on monosaccharides, while flies fed on a diet containing sucralose had a shorter one. In addition, the ability to store fat seems to be influenced by the different sugars in the diet and is in relationship with their palatability. In fact, data showed a higher synthesis of palmitic and palmitoleic acids, most likely derived from de-novo lipogenesis with glucose as precursor, in flies fed with maltose and glucose than with non-metabolizable sucralose. In conclusion, these results suggest that the ability to select different sugars on the basis of their palatability may favour the storage of energy reserves such as fat by de-novo lipogenesis, determining a longer survival capability during prolonged periods of fasting.
  • ... ASs can also enter into wastewater treatment plants from households and industrial effluents and they eventually reside in the receiving environmental bodies [43]. Since they are used as food additives [37,44,45], ASs are extensively tested for potential adverse health effects on humans. Although the measured concentrations of some ASs range up to microgram per liter levels in surface water, groundwater, and drinking water, there is a huge safety margin regarding potential adverse health effects [36]. ...
    Chapter
    Full-text available
    This chapter presents the degradation and mineralization of emerging trace contaminants artificial sweeteners (ASs) in aqueous solution by electro-Fenton process in which hydroxyl radicals were formed concomitantly by •OH formed from electrocatalytically generated Fenton’s reagent in the bulk solution and M(•OH) from water oxidation at the anode surface. Experiments were performed in an undivided cylindrical glass cell with a carbon-felt cathode and a Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode. The effect of catalyst (Fe²⁺) concentration and applied current on the degradation and mineralization kinetics of ASs was evaluated. The absolute rate constants for the reaction between ASs and •OH were determined. The formation and evolution of short-chain carboxylic acids as well as released inorganic ions, and toxicity assessment during the electro-Fenton process have been reported and compared.
  • ... psychophysical evaluations to which all other sweet-tasting substances are compared. Sucrose taste is described as pure and clean (Schiffman and Gatlin 1993). Other common disaccharides used in food include lactose (derived from galactose and glucose), maltose (formed by two units of glucose) and trehalose (formed from two glucose units joined by a 1-1 alpha bond). ...
    ... Among monosaccharides, glucose (Figure 7.1) elicits a sweet taste and is approximately 75% as sweet as sucrose. Fructose (Figure 7.1) occurs naturally in fruits, some root vegetables and honey and is the sweetest of the natural sugars (Schiffman and Gatlin 1993). Carbohydrates are not only used as sweet agents; they are also sometimes added to food products because of their texturing capacities. ...
    ... Its temporal profile in the mouth is slow compared to that of sucrose. Its well-known liquorice aftertaste, its poor organoleptic and pharmacological properties limit the use of glycyrrhizic acid as a sweetener (Schiffman and Gatlin 1993). With respect to regulatory status, glycyrrhizic acid has been accepted as a flavouring agent only in the US, and its use as a sweetener is not approved in Europe. ...
    Chapter
    The sense of taste, along with the sense of smell, is one the most important senses involved in the perception of food by humans. Taste is stimulated when fundamental nutrients or harmful compounds, such as toxic molecules, activate specialised receptors located in taste buds. Humans are able to perceive and discriminate five main different taste qualities, sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami (the taste of some amino acids such as glutamate). This chapter reviews the characteristics of the main tasting molecules known to be the most important to contribute to these five basic tastes. New tastants and taste enhancers, which have been generated using classical approaches or novel technologies based on taste receptor screening, are also described.
  • ... Based on the observed results, it seems that what really affects sweetness perception is only the sweetener type. Indeed, it is well known that different types of sweeteners display varying times of onset, duration, decay and extinction ( Schiffman & Gatlin, 1993). For example, carbohydrate sugars have an early onset of maximum sweetness intensity and a short extinction time ( Schiffman & Gatlin, 1993). ...
    ... Indeed, it is well known that different types of sweeteners display varying times of onset, duration, decay and extinction ( Schiffman & Gatlin, 1993). For example, carbohydrate sugars have an early onset of maximum sweetness intensity and a short extinction time ( Schiffman & Gatlin, 1993). While large protein sweeteners, such as thaumatin and monellin tend to have a significant delay in the time to maximum sweetness intensity and take much longer to extinguish ( Kinghorn & Compadre, 2001;Naim et al., 2002;Schiffman & Gatlin, 1993). ...
    ... For example, carbohydrate sugars have an early onset of maximum sweetness intensity and a short extinction time ( Schiffman & Gatlin, 1993). While large protein sweeteners, such as thaumatin and monellin tend to have a significant delay in the time to maximum sweetness intensity and take much longer to extinguish ( Kinghorn & Compadre, 2001;Naim et al., 2002;Schiffman & Gatlin, 1993). However, in this study MNEI and Y65R had a lower overall sweetness compared to the other sweeteners. ...
    Article
    Natural sweet proteins may be used as sugar replacer in simple liquid food systems but their applicability in more complex matrices has not been investigated yet. Gelling agent nature and texture characteristics as well as type and distribution of a stimulus in a gel could affect taste perception through inhibition or enhancement of tastants migration to the receptors. The mechanical, non-oral texture and time-intensity sweetness characteristics of sweet proteins MNEI and super sweet Y65R mutant, aspartame and saccharin added at a concentration iso-sweet to 40g/L of sucrose in three agar gel concentrations (1%, 1.5% and 2%) were evaluated. The results have shown that agar concentration and agar sweetener interaction particularly affect mechanical fracture stress and non-oral hardness of the sweetened gels. Time intensity results illustrated that unlike in solution, the intensity of sweet taste in a gelled system over time decreases. Indeed, the behavior of the sweet proteins differed greatly in the gelled system compared to when they are in solution. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Chapter
    This chapter gives an overview of the physicochemical and sensory properties of aroma and taste compounds from food, their interactions with the food matrix, and their release during food breakdown in the mouth. In order to be perceived by the taste or olfactory receptors, aroma and taste compounds have first to be released in the saliva, which depends on the food matrix composition and structure, and on the masticatory behavior. Aroma compounds have then to be transported from the oral to the nasal cavity. Different mechanistic models have been developed to understand better aroma and taste compounds release in function of both food and individual, however, they are still not able to predict sensory perception, which also depends on other physiological mechanisms at the central and peripheral levels.
  • Chapter
    The consumption of artificial sweeteners is very popular because they are low in calories. Although, Food and Drug Administration has approved aspartame, acesulfame-k, neotame, cyclamate and alitame for use as per acceptable daily intake value, but it is becoming increasingly evident that breakdown products of these sweeteners may produce harmful metabolic effects in the visceral tissues and brain. Thus, aspartame is hydrolyzed into phenylalanine, aspartic acid, and methanol. Phenylalanine regulates neurotransmitters, whereas aspartic acid plays an important role in inducing excitotoxicity in the brain. Lastly methanol is oxidized into formaldehyde and diketopiperazine, a carcinogen, which mediates a number of other highly toxic effects. In experimental rats saccharin is known to cause bladder cancer. Steviol, a natural extract from the Stevia plant is a mutagen, but the safety of steviol glycoside as well as steviol oxidatives has been proven. Sucralose (Splenda™) is chlorinated sucrose, which is 600 times sweeter than sucrose. Sucralose has been reported to cause dizziness, head and muscle aches, stomach cramps, diarrhea, chronic inflammation and bladder issues in rodents and humans. So far studies performed on the safety of artificial sweeteners have been a major concerned due to their neurological effects and cancer-related issues.