Structure/function studies of human β-cell glucokinase: Enzymatic properties of a sequence polymorphism, mutations associated with diabetes, and other site-directed mutants

Thomas Jefferson University, Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.57). 07/1993; 268(20):15200-4.
Source: PubMed


Glucokinase plays a key role in the regulation of glucose metabolism in insulin-secreting pancreatic beta-cells and in the liver. Recent studies have shown that mutations in this enzyme can lead to the development of a form of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance and onset during childhood. Here, we report the catalytic properties of five additional missense mutations associated with diabetes (Glu70-->Lys, Ser131-->Pro, Ala188-->Thr, Trp257-->Arg and Lys414-->Glu), one polymorphism present in both normal and diabetic subjects (Asp4-->Asn), and three site-directed mutations (Glu177-->Lys, Glu256-->Ala, and Lys414-->Ala). The Trp257-->Arg mutation generated an enzyme that had an activity that was less than 0.5% of that for native human beta-cell glucokinase. By contrast, the Glu70-->Lys, Ser131-->Pro, Ala188-->Thr, and Lys414-->Glu mutations had a Vmax that was 20-100% of normal but a Km for glucose that was 8-14-fold greater than the native enzyme. There was no effect of the Asp4-->Asn polymorphism or the Glu177-->Lys substitution on glucokinase activity. The Lys414-->Ala substitution had no effect on Vmax but increased the Km for glucose 2-fold and the Glu256-->Ala substitution caused a approximately 200-fold decrease in Vmax. These studies have led to the identification of additional residues involved in glucokinase catalysis and substrate binding.

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    • "These residues have a primary effect on the rate of protein folding, noncovalent interactions, and kinetic stability. Any mutations in the protein will reflect the variations in the biochemical function of the protein [18]. Determining such key residues would greatly enhance to understand the stability and reactivity of GK under normal and MODY2 condition [19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Glucokinase (GK) is the predominant hexokinase that acts as glucose sensor and catalyses the formation of Glucose-6-phosphate. The mutations in GK gene influence the affinity for glucose and lead to altered glucose levels in blood causing maturity onset diabetes of the young type 2 (MODY2) condition, which is one of the prominent reasons of type 2 diabetic condition. In view of the importance of mutated GK resulting in hyperglycemic condition, in the present study, molecular dynamics simulations were carried out in intact and 256 E-K mutated GK structures and their energy values and conformational variations were correlated. Energy variations were observed in mutated GK (3500 Kcal/mol) structure with respect to intact GK (5000 Kcal/mol), and it showed increased -turns, decreased -turns, and more helix-helix interactions that affected substrate binding region where its volume increased from 1089.152 Å to 1246.353 Å. Molecular docking study revealed variation in docking scores (intact = -12.199 and mutated = -8.383) and binding mode of glucose in the active site of mutated GK where the involvement of A53, S54, K56, K256, D262 and Q286 has resulted in poor glucose binding which probably explains the loss of catalytic activity and the consequent prevailing of high glucose levels in MODY2 condition.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013
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    • "Although affinity for glucose is not altered by this mutation, the affinity for the second substrate, ATP is increased. This latter effect was also observed for the MODY2 mutation p.Ser131Pro [36], suggesting a role of this region of the protein in the regulation of the affinity for this substrate. "
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    ABSTRACT: Glucokinase (GK) acts as a glucose sensor in the pancreatic beta-cell and regulates insulin secretion. Heterozygous mutations in the human GK-encoding GCK gene that reduce the activity index increase the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion threshold and cause familial, mild fasting hyperglycaemia, also known as Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young type 2 (MODY2). Here we describe the biochemical characterization of five missense GK mutations: p.Ile130Thr, p.Asp205His, p.Gly223Ser, p.His416Arg and p.Ala449Thr. The enzymatic analysis of the corresponding bacterially expressed GST-GK mutant proteins show that all of them impair the kinetic characteristics of the enzyme. In keeping with their position within the protein, mutations p.Ile130Thr, p.Asp205His, p.Gly223Ser, and p.His416Arg strongly decrease the activity index of GK, affecting to one or more kinetic parameters. In contrast, the p.Ala449Thr mutation, which is located in the allosteric activator site, does not affect significantly the activity index of GK, but dramatically modifies the main kinetic parameters responsible for the function of this enzyme as a glucose sensor. The reduced Kcat of the mutant (3.21±0.28 s(-1) vs 47.86±2.78 s(-1)) is balanced by an increased glucose affinity (S(0.5) = 1.33±0.08 mM vs 7.86±0.09 mM) and loss of cooperativity for this substrate. We further studied the mechanism by which this mutation impaired GK kinetics by measuring the differential effects of several competitive inhibitors and one allosteric activator on the mutant protein. Our results suggest that this mutation alters the equilibrium between the conformational states of glucokinase and highlights the importance of the fine-tuning of GK and its role in glucose sensing.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    • "number of patients suffering from gestational diabetes mellitus (Stoffel et al. 1993). Furthermore , production of synthetic glucokinase encoded for by some of the mutant genes resulted in a marked reduction in catalytic activity in vitro, consistent with reduced insulin secretion (Gi&-Jain et al. 1993; Matschinsky et al-1993; Stoffel et al. 1993; Takeda et d. 1993). Rats with radiationinduced B-cell turnours had reduced glucokinase activity that correlated with an impaired insulin response to glucose (Lenzen et al. 1987). In gene transfection studies, yeast hexokinase decreased the glucose threshold for stimulation of insulin secretion in mice, and normalized glycemia in progeny of diabetic anima"
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    ABSTRACT: In this study the glucose responsiveness of isolated, overnight-cultured islets of obese LA/N-corpulent (cp/cp) rats was compared with glucose phosphorylating activity to determine whether changes in the function of glucokinase could be identified. Islets from both male and female cp/cp rats showed a left-shifted concentration response to glucose, with EC50 values of 1.5 and 4.6 mM, respectively, compared with 9.2 mM for lean control islets. Islets from cp/cp rats were partially resistant to inhibition by mannoheptulose, a glucokinase inhibitor. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were 10 mM in cp/cp vs. 3 mM in lean rat islets. Glucose phosphorylating potential was markedly increased in islets of male cp/cp, but not female cp/cp, compared with lean rats. The maximal velocity (Vmax) of hexokinase was increased 5-fold, while the Km of glucokinase was significantly decreased, in male cp/cp compared with the lean control islets(3.6 vs. 35.2 mM). The Km for glucokinase was also decreased in female cp/cp rat islets (17.2 mM). The data from male cp/cp rat islets are consistent with the idea that increased glucose phosphorylation capacity can contribute to insulin hypersecretion and an extreme leftward shift in the concentration-response curve. However, other factors must also be considered because female cp/cp rats have moderately increased insulin secretory capacity without marked changes in total glucose phosphorylating capacity.
    Full-text · Article · May 1995 · Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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