Molecular cloning, expression, and chromosomal localization of the human earliest lymphocyte activation antigen AIM/CD69, a new member of the C-type animal lectin superfamily of signal-transmitting receptors

Servicio de Immunología, Hospital de la Princesa, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain.
Journal of Experimental Medicine (Impact Factor: 12.52). 09/1993; 178(2):537-47.
Source: PubMed


The activation of T lymphocytes, both in vivo and in vitro, induces the expression of CD69. This molecule, which appears to be the earliest inducible cell surface glycoprotein acquired during lymphoid activation, is involved in lymphocyte proliferation and functions as a signal transmitting receptor in lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, and platelets. To determine the structural basis for CD69 function, the cDNA coding for CD69 was isolated by a polymerase chain reaction-based strategy using oligonucleotides deduced from peptide sequences of the purified protein. The isolated cDNA exhibited a single open reading frame of 597 bp coding for CD69, and predicted a 199-amino acid protein of type II membrane topology, with extracellular (COOH-terminal), transmembrane, and intracellular domains. The CD69 clone hybridized to a 1.7-kb mRNA species, which was rapidly induced and degraded after lymphocyte stimulation, consistent with the presence of rapid degradation signals at the 3' untranslated region. Transient expression of the polypeptide encoded by CD69 cDNA in COS-7 cells demonstrated that it presented properties comparable to native CD69 protein. The CD69 gene was regionally mapped to chromosome 12 p13-p12 by both somatic cell hybrid DNA analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled with GTG banding (G bands by trypsin using Giemsa). Protein sequence homology search revealed that CD69 is a new member of the Ca(2+)-dependent (C-type) lectin superfamily of type II transmembrane receptors, which includes the human NKG2, the rat NKR-P1, and the mouse NKR-P1 families of NK cell-specific genes. CD69 also has a structural homology with other type II lectin cell surface receptors, such as the T cell antigen Ly49, the low avidity immunoglobulin E receptor (CD23), and the hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptors. The CD69 protein also shares functional characteristics with most members of this superfamily, which act as transmembrane signaling receptors in early phases of cellular activation.

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Available from: Elena Fernández-Ruiz, Jan 07, 2014
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    • "Consequently, reduced surface CD4 levels were found in PMA-treated T cells by FACS analysis (Fig. 2B and C). During T cell activation, CD69 is highly up-regulated while ADAM17-mediated CD62L shedding is enhanced [26], [27], [28], [29], [30]. Therefore, PMA-induced T cell activation is confirmed by reduced and enhanced surface expression of T cell activation markers CD62L and CD69, respectively (Fig. 2C). "
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    ABSTRACT: Higher soluble CD4 (sCD4) levels in serum have been detected in patients of infectious and chronic inflammatory diseases. However, how and why sCD4 is produced remains poorly understood. We establish sensitive ELISA and WB assays for sCD4 detection in conditioned medium of in vitro cell culture system and serum of chronic inflammatory patients. Serum samples from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (n = 79), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (n = 59), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) (n = 25), gout (n = 31), and normal controls (n = 99) were analyzed using ELISA for sCD4 detection. Results from each assay were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test. Dunn's multiple comparison post-test was then applied between groups. We confirm that cells expressing exogenous CD4 produce sCD4 in a constitutive and PMA-induced manner. Importantly, sCD4 production in a heterologous expression system is inhibited by GM6001 and TAPI-0, suggesting receptor shedding by matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-like proteinases. Moreover, similar findings are recapitulated in human primary CD4(+) T cells. Finally, we show that serum sCD4 levels are increased in patients of chronic inflammatory diseases including RA and SLE, but not in those with gout. Intriguingly, sCD4 levels in RA patients are correlated positively with the disease activities and higher sCD4 levels seem to associate with poor prognosis. Taken together, we conclude that CD4 is shed from cell surface by a MMP-like sheddase and sCD4 level is closely related with the inflammatory condition in certain chronic diseases. Hence, sCD4 might be considered an important parameter for RA disease progression with potential diagnostic importance.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "CD69 is a type II TM protein of the C-type lectin family [13] and exists in its mature form in cells as a disulphide-linked dimer [14]. For a long time it was known simply as a marker that is upregulated onto the surface of T cells within hours of cell activation [15], [16]. More recently however, data from several studies have indicated an important role for the protein in the regulation of immune cell trafficking. "
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    ABSTRACT: A functional sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor antagonist specifically inhibited the egress of activated allospecific T cells from draining popliteal lymph nodes in alloantigen-sensitised mice. The level of S1P receptor 1 (S1PR1) mRNA was similarly reduced 1 and 3 days after mitogenic activation of T cells. However, the response of these cells to the S1PR1-specific agonist SEW2871 was only reduced on the first day after T cell activation with normal receptor-mediated Akt-phosphorylation restored by day 3. Longitudinal analysis of CD69 expression showed that almost all T cells expressed this antigen on days 1 and 3 after activation. However, the absolute level of cell-surface expression of CD69 peaked on undivided T cells and was then halved by each of the first 3 cycles of mitosis. CD69-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced the maximal level of CD69 expression by undivided, mitogen-stimulated T cells. These cells retained their capacity to phosphorylate Akt in response to stimulation with SEW2871. These data show that S1P receptors are involved in controlling the egress of activated T cells from lymph nodes, and that S1PR1 function is regulated by the level of T cell surface CD69. They suggest a potential for augmentation of this process to deplete alloreactive effector cells after organ transplantation.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Cluster of differentiation 69 (CD69) is a C-type lectin expressed as a disulfide-linked homodimeric membrane protein [11]. The CD69 gene is located within the natural killer (NK) gene complex on mouse chromosome 6 and human chromosome 12 [12,13]. CD69 was initially detected on the surface of activated lymphocytes and is known as a very early activation marker antigen [14-16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cluster of differentiation 69 (CD69), an early activation marker antigen on T and B cells, is also expressed on activated macrophages and neutrophils, suggesting that CD69 may play a role in inflammatory diseases. To determine the effect of CD69 deficiency on bleomycin(BLM)-induced lung injury, we evaluated the inflammatory response following intratracheal BLM administration and the subsequent fibrotic changes in wild type (WT) and CD69-deficient (CD69-/-) mice. The mice received a single dose of 3 mg/kg body weight of BLM and were sacrificed at 7 or 14 days post-instillation (dpi). Lung inflammation in the acute phase (7 dpi) was investigated by differential cell counts and cytokine array analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In addition, lung fibrotic changes were evaluated at 14 dpi by histopathology and collagen assays. We also used reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to measure the mRNA expression level of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) in the lungs of BLM-treated mice. CD69-/- mice exhibited less lung damage than WT mice, as shown by reductions in the following indices: (1) loss of body weight, (2) wet/dry ratio of lung, (3) cytokine levels in BALF, (4) histological evidence of lung injury, (5) lung collagen deposition, and (6) TGF-β1 mRNA expression in the lung. The present study clearly demonstrates that CD69 plays an important role in the progression of lung injury induced by BLM.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · Respiratory research
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