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A Dark Side of the American Dream: Correlates of Financial Success as a Central Life Aspiration

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Abstract

Aspiring for financial success is an important aspect of capitalist cultures. Three studies examine the hypothesis that values and expectancies for wealth and money are negatively associated with adjustment and well-being when they are more central to an individual than other self-relevant values and expectancies. Studies 1 and 2 use 2 methods to show that the relative centrality of money-related values and expectancies is negatively related to college students' well-being and mental health. Study 3, using a heterogeneous noncollege sample, extends these findings by showing that a high centrality of aspirations for financial success is associated with interview ratings of lower global adjustment and social productivity and more behavioral disorders. Discussion is focused on the deleterious consequences of materialistic world views and the need to examine differential effects of content regarding goals and values.

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... Whatever the reason, empirical researchers tend to ignore the rich clinical and existential literature on meaning (e.g., Frankl, 1959Frankl, /1963Jung, 1933;Maslow, 1968;Rogers, 1961; see Yalom for a review) and to equate subjective well-being with happiness as operationalized by composite measures of life satisfaction and positive and negative affect (e.g., Diener, 1984;Myers, 1992;Veenhoven, 1991). But the more meaningful aspects of well-being have recently been regaining some credibility in mainstream personality and social psychology (e.g., see Baumeister, 1992;Brickman, 1987;Chamberlain & Zika, 1988;Deci & Ryan, 1991;DeVogler & Ebersole, 1981;Kasser & Ryan, 1993;Klinger, 1977;Little, 1989, in press;McAdams, 1993;Reker, Peacock, & Wong, 1987;Ryff, 1989;Ryff & Keyes, 1995;Sheldon & Kasser, 1995;Vallacher & Wegner, 1985;Wong & Fry, in press). ...
... Happiness measures of affect and satisfaction are typically relied upon as the gold standard of well-being, even though research in support of these measures has been predominantly data driven and theory weak (Headey, Kelley, & Wearing, 1993). But the hegemony of happiness is beginning to wane as researchers (Kasser & Ryan, 1993;Ryff, 1989;Ryff & Keyes, 1995;Sheldon & Kasser, 1995;Waterman, 1993) call for more meaningful indicators, contending that conventional measures of subjective well-being miss important aspects of what it means to be psychologically well. In both of our studies, orthogonal measures of happiness and meaning were empirically differentiated. ...
... This finding is consistent with the theories of Bruner (1991) and Vallacher and Wegner (1985), who contended that meaning is symbolically mediated by action. It is also consistent with recent research showing that personality integration is associated with meaningful aspects of well-being such as self-actualization and vitality (Kasser & Ryan, 1993;Sheldon & Kasser, 1995;Sheldon, Ryan, & Reis, 1996). ...
Article
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Personal Projects Analysis (B. R. Little, 1983) was adapted to examine relations between participants’ appraisals of their goal characteristics and orthogonal happiness and meaning factors that emerged from factor analyses of diverse well-being measures. In two studies with 146 and 179 university students, goal efficacy was associated with happiness and goal integrity was associated with meaning. A new technique for classifying participants according to emergent identity themes is introduced. In both studies, identity-compensatory predictors of happiness were apparent. Agentic participants were happiest if their goals were supported by others, communal participants were happiest if their goals were fun, and hedonistic participants were happiest if their goals were being accomplished. The distinction between happiness and meaning is emphasized, and the tension between efficacy and integrity is discussed. Developmental implications are discussed with reference to results from archival data from a sample of senior managers.
... Even so, research suggests that excessive pursuits of goals that emphasize being rich, famous, and physically attractive-goals that are labeled as extrinsic aspirations-can be detrimental to psychological well-being and interpersonal relationship functioning (Bradshaw et al., 2023;Kasser & Ryan, 1993, 1996, 2001. This occurs when such aspirations are given more weight than aspirations that are said to be intrinsic to well-being (e.g., the pursuit of meaningful relationships, personal growth, and community contributions). ...
... These aspirations, though not unhealthy per se, do not inherently satisfy basic needs. As such, to the extent these aspirations are prioritized over and above other aspirations (in particular, intrinsic aspirations), people may become distracted from pursuits and activities that otherwise satisfy basic needs and promote well-being (Bradshaw et al., 2023;Kasser & Ryan, 1993, 1996. This is especially the case within interpersonal relationships. ...
... We encourage future research to replicate our work with a broader variety of national groups (and relational well-being indices) and explore nation-level boundary conditions. SDT (Bradshaw et al., 2023;Deci & Ryan, 2000Kasser & Ryan, 1993, 1996 contends that people's wellbeing can be compromised when they aspire to be rich, famous and physically attractive above all else. Our work extends this analysis of aspirations for self to the aspirations parents hold for their children. ...
Article
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Self-determination theory suggests that holding extrinsic aspirations (e.g., getting rich) over and above other aspirations bears negative implications for one’s relational well-being. The present research examined whether this pattern generalizes to the aspirations people hold for significant others and more specifically whether parents’ extrinsic aspirations for children (AFC), relative to other AFC, predict their well-being in their relationships with children. We also examined whether this relationship varies depending on parents’ interdependent self-construal. Results of four correlational studies (N = 998 parents) revealed that, overall, relative extrinsic AFC predicted lower relational well-being. However, this relationship was attenuated among parents high (vs. low) in interdependent self-construal. This pattern of moderation was observed among U.S. parents at different stages of parenthood and partially replicated among a sample of Chinese parents. The findings suggest that interdependent self-construal could buffer against the negative implications of prioritizing extrinsic AFC for parental well-being.
... That is, from a total of ten studies identified on individualismeight were quantitative (Arrindell et al., 1997;Schyns, 1998;Oyserman et al., 2002;Triandis & Gelfand, 1998) and two were qualitative . The reviewed research on materialism again largely used quantitative research methods, with eight of the key studies used employing quantitative techniques Kasser, Rosenblum, Sameroff, Deci, Niemiec & Ryan, 2014;1993;Richins & Dawson, 1992;Vohs, Mead & Goode, 2006) and only one utilizing a qualitative approach . ...
... The depth of studies detailing associations between materialism and wellbeing show that the cultural promotion of materialism is not conducive to wellbeing. Furthermore, the behaviours and social outcomes that materialistic values can drive such as competitiveness, insecurity and poor needs satisfaction are concerning, and need to be further explored (Kasser & Ryan, 1993;Vohs et al., 2006). ...
... Like with the case of individualism, the review also shows associations between people's prioritization of materialistic pursuits in life and behaviours and traits not conducive to positive psychological wellbeing outcomes. These include feelings of insecurity (Kasser & Ryan, 1993;1996;), competitiveness Kasser et al., 2014) and poor psychological need satisfaction Richins & Dawson, 1992;Vohs, 2006). ...
... Richin viewed materialism as a value, where individuals with higher levels of materialism prioritize acquisition centrality, happiness, and success. Kasser and Ryan (1993) further elaborated on Richin's view by proposing that materialism is a set of values that prioritize material possessions and wealth over other life goals, such as relationships, personal growth, and community involvement. They also suggested that materialistic values are associated with negative outcomes, such as decreased wellbeing and increased social isolation. ...
... Materialism increases the feeling of loneliness (Pieters, 2013). Moreover, materialism is also associated with behavioral disorders, such as antisocial behavior (Kasser &Ryan, 1993). ...
... To examine the predictive relation between materialism and its dimensions (success, Centrality, and Happiness) and life-satisfaction the step-wise multiple regression was conducted. Richins and Ryan (1992) and Kasser and Ryan (1993).Moreover, dimensions of materialism viz Happiness, centrality and success were also found to be significantly negatively related to life-satisfaction. Further, this study finds out that in the sample of this particular research, there is a moderate level of materialism. ...
Article
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Materialism is the attitude that material goods and worldly possessions contribute to the highest value in life. In this fast-developing world, materialistic lifestyles become a source of happiness because of our mental set, which is rooted in our childhood. Still, the fact is that materialism does not give real peace and life satisfaction. The present study was conducted to see the impact of materialism on life satisfaction among university students. The study sample consists of 100 university students (50 males and 50 females), ranging from 22 to 30 years from various departments of Aligarh Muslim University. Richins and Dawson (1992) materialistic values scale was used to measure materialistic value and satisfaction with life scale (Diener et al. 1985) was used to measure life satisfaction. Pearson product-moment correlation, t-test, and Step-wise regression were used for analyses. The findings of the study explored that there was a significant impact of materialism on life satisfaction. Materialism was found to be negatively correlated with life satisfaction along with its dimensions of centrality, happiness, and success. The results further revealed that there was no significant difference between males and females regarding materialism. The findings of the present study may lack generalizability because of the small sample from one university. Therefore, the researcher encouraged to use of a larger sample for future research.
... Materialism is referred to an aspiration toward happiness and success in life through the acquisition and possession of goods [23,24]. It is also viewed as the tendency of people to value social image [25,26]. Consumers who are interested in overseas markets and actively gather information explore global brands to fulfill and express their fame, success, wealth, and social status [25,26]. ...
... It is also viewed as the tendency of people to value social image [25,26]. Consumers who are interested in overseas markets and actively gather information explore global brands to fulfill and express their fame, success, wealth, and social status [25,26]. Thus, it is expected that as consumers become more globally minded, their materialistic tendencies would increase [27,28]. ...
... The present study postulates a direct relationship between materialism and consumers' exploratory buying tendencies for environmentally friendly products based on materialistic life goals and CST. Specifically, materialistic values emphasizing extrinsic life goals, such as material success and social status [24,26], are likely to strengthen an exploratory buying tendency toward environmentally friendly products. Given the assertion that one of the materialistic personality traits is nongenerosity, which is motivated by an egoistic interest in oneself rather than others [23], this conjecture may seem somewhat contradictory. ...
Article
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The increasing number of consumers possessing a global mindset has led to the emergence of environmentally friendly materialist consumers who find pleasure in owning environmentally friendly brands and products. We examine why and how such consumers emerge by studying consumers of luxury apparel products, which actively promote environmentally conscious values on a global scale. Structural equation modeling and mediation analysis were conducted on consumers in China and Japan—two countries with high consumption of this product category and a contrasting awareness of environmental consciousness. Our findings revealed that the higher the global mindset of consumers, environmentally friendly materialism is enhanced by internal motives in countries with high environmental consciousness and by external motives in countries with low environmental consciousness. Our results have implications for mechanisms on how the conditions for the emergence of environmentally friendly materialism differ from country to country and marketing measures that respond to these differences.
... Materialistic aspiration is also known as an orientation towards extrinsic life goals (Bauer et al., 2012;Sheldon & McGregor, 2000). In addition to financial success, popularity and image are the most common materialistic aspirations (Grouzet et al., 2005;Kasser & Ryan, 1993, 1996, 2001. Financial success means to be prosperous and materially successful, popularity is to be famous and very much admired, while image is to be physically attractive and appealing. ...
... and image (5 items, e.g., "To have an image that others find appealing."). These items were translated from three domains of extrinsic goals in the Aspiration Index (Kasser & Ryan, 1993, 1996, 2001Grouzet et al. (2005). Additionally, we included two other domains of materialistic aspiration i.e., power (4 items, e.g., "People will obey me.") and social adherence (4 items, e.g., "To be included in social circles.") ...
Conference Paper
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The practice of showing off (“flexing”) gradually becomes a daily rite across social media platforms. The current state in Indonesia has even escalated to nationwide issues. We tested the impact of materialistic display on Instagram from the perspective of the audiences using within-subject experimental design. Participants (n= 30 undergraduates; 50% females; M age= 20.967, SD= 1.067) were presented with (i) 3 photos of conspicuous consumption, (ii) 3 photos of conspicuous leisure, and (iii) 3 neutral photos. They then rated the extent to which each photo evoked materialistic aspirations in the domains of wealth, popularity, image, power, and social adherence. A 2 (participant’s sex) by 3 (type of situational materialism stimulus) mixed analysis ANOVA revealed that participants’ materialistic aspirations after receiving flexing photos were higher than after exposure to neutral photos (F(2,27)= 17.431, p<.001). These impacts were consistent for female participants with regards to both consumptive and leisure photos (ps<.01), however male participants did not rate leisure vs. neutral photos differently (p>.072). Although our finding should be considered as preliminary, it highlights that brief exposure to materialistic photos on Instagram can be more contagious among females.
... In more recent research by Gross-Manos & Ben-Arieh (2017), it was found that lack of financial resources and resultant material deprivation were negatively associated with subjective well-being. However, there exist very few researches that focus on studying the relationship of concepts related to positive psychology with materialism (Belk, 1985;Richins &Dawson, 1992 andRyan, 1993). Out of the few research investigating the relationship of materialism with life satisfaction, happiness or self-esteem, all are conducted in the western countries where the culture is predominantly individualistic. ...
... This research provides empirical evidence for lack of relationship between materialism and happiness. These findings are contrary to the findings of various other researchers like Belk (1985), Richins & Dawson (1992) and Kasser & Ryan (1993). However, these studies were conducted in a highly individualistic culture like the U.S. and the difference in findings could be attributed to the cultural differences that exist between India and U.S., as also on the age group. ...
Article
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One of the ill effects of modernization is that it is responsible for spreading materialistic values, especially among the youth. Materialism is defined as the value that emphasizes the importance of possessions and material goods in a person's life in achieving life goals or desired states (Richins & Dawson, 1992). This indicates that materialistic individuals strive to achieve desired goals, including happiness, through possession of goods. Further, positive psychology focuses on concepts like happiness, optimism and life-satisfaction which are cornerstones for living a good life. There is hardly any research study to indicate the relationship between materialism and positive psychological states like happiness in the Indian context. Therefore, the current study aims to assess the relationship of materialism with life satisfaction, subjective happiness and self-esteem among college students in Delhi-NCR. Data was collected from 114 college students in the age group of 18-24 years. They were administered. Results were analysed using SPSS 23.0. Pearson's product moment r was used to assess the correlation of materialism with life satisfaction, subjective happiness and self-esteem. Findings indicate that materialism has statistically significant negative correlation with life satisfaction and self-esteem, whereas it was not found to have any significant relationship with subjective happiness.
... The satisfaction of these three needs is a key element in achieving wellbeing. Kasser and Ryan (1993) divide its content into external goals and internal goals based on SDT. External goals are primarily closely linked to materialistic values. ...
... Positive life goals tend to be more focused on intrinsically valuable goals. Studies have shown that individuals who focus on internal value goals (e.g., self-growth, emotional closeness) have higher life satisfaction, and exhibit fewer health problems such as depression and anxiety than external goals (e.g., possessions, social prestige) (Kasser and Ryan, 1993). The internal goals, as a reflection of values originating from spirituality, facilitate the integration of goal systems that result in an optimal mental health, including greater subjective wellbeing, and adaptability (Sheldon and Kasser, 1995). ...
Article
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Spiritual values can be a source of meaning for people, and can also determine their feelings, behavior, and mental health. In China’s Buddhist mountains, we collected a total of 400 valid questionnaires from Mount Putuo and Mount Jiuhua, and identified spiritual values as transcendence, general connectedness, inner balance, positive life direction, and special religious feelings. We also explored the impact of these spiritual values on tourists’ psychological wellbeing according to the PERMA model (positive emotion, engagement, relationships, meaning, and achievement). The results revealed that the more easily attained spiritual values (general connectedness, positive life direction, and special religious feelings) had a greater influence on psychological wellbeing than the less easily-attained spiritual values (transcendence and inner balance). Positive emotion and meaning, as components of psychological wellbeing, were strongly influenced by the four spiritual values, whereas engagement, accomplishment, and relationships were influenced by fewer spiritual values. The research contributes to the existing knowledge on spiritual values by analyzing their dimensions and relationships with tourists’ wellbeing from different levels, and also provides empirical suggestions for the sustainable development of religious tourism destinations.
... Within the KYPS questionnaires, several questions focused on educational goal orientation, with very similar phrasing as in the Aspiration Index ("how important is this goal to you?"; Kasser and Ryan 1993). We examined three different dimensions of the value of education through four questions, including personal growth ("It is essential to get higher education for self-development"), affiliation ("Getting higher education provides better opportunities for making good friends" and "It is essential to get higher education in order to get an ideal spouse"), and wealth ("It is essential to get higher education in order to get a good job"). ...
... We examined three different dimensions of the value of education through four questions, including personal growth ("It is essential to get higher education for self-development"), affiliation ("Getting higher education provides better opportunities for making good friends" and "It is essential to get higher education in order to get an ideal spouse"), and wealth ("It is essential to get higher education in order to get a good job"). Factor analysis was conducted and revealed these four items belonged to the same factor, which we named the value of education, based on its similarity to the Aspiration Index (Kasser and Ryan 1993). A series of confirmatory factor analyses were performed to investigate whether the value of education variables reflected the same constructs across time, resulting in satisfactory findings (see Supplementary Materials Section S1). ...
Article
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Many theories of motivation suggest that motivation and academic achievement reinforce each other over time, yet few longitudinal studies have examined behavioral pathways that may mediate interplay from motivation to achievement. Moreover, empirical studies so far have mostly focused on Western countries. In this study, we first examined whether students’ value of education, as a measure of motivation, is reciprocally related to achievement (class rank and self-rated performance) in a sample of junior high schoolers in an East-Asian country (N = 3445, Korean Youth Panel Study). We tested this reciprocity using different statistical models. Second, we investigated whether the relation between motivation and achievement was mediated by time invested in learning. Reciprocal effects between value of education and academic achievement were found in classic cross-lagged panel models, but only unilateral effects (from achievement to value of education) were found when we used random-intercept and random-curve cross-lagged panel models. Adding the time investment variable, the reciprocal effect between value of education, time investment, and academic achievement was found with the random intercept model. In conclusion, the reciprocity between of motivation and achievement are more elusive than previous research suggested; further studies should be dedicated to scrutinizing its existence with various statistical models.
... Extrinsic goal was assessed using the aspiration index developed by Kasser and Ryan [40,67]. Specifically, participants rated the importance of different aspirations on 7-point scales (1 = strongly disagree, 7 = strongly agree). ...
... First, our results show that friends in SNSs not only offer informational and social support, but also influence our materialistic tendency. Such negative outcome might exert impacts not only on subjective well-being [40,67], but also the value orientation of the entire society. Therefore, SNSs marketers are encouraged to foster good environment for information sharing, improve the design of their marketing appeals to correctly guide consumers' preference for online relationship size. ...
Article
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On social networking sites, users are continuously exposed to a variety of posts from the networked individuals. Such information may often influence recipients' perceptions of what is important and goal pursuits such as materialism. Even though several studies have examined the negative consequences of using social networking sites, less attention has been paid to the role of friends' number and its impact on people's life goal pursuits. This study aimed to investigate the dark side of online friends and explored why and when more friends in social networking sites would promote materialism. Based on a sample of 264 WeChat users, study 1 discovered that friends' number positively impacted materialism through extrinsic goal (i.e., wealth and status). Additionally, such association was moderated by social comparison orientation and self-esteem. Importantly, self-esteem buffers the detrimental effect of friends' number on materialism while social comparison orientation increases it. Study 2 further tested the causal relationship and showed that friends' number on SNS might become a signal to indicate materialism via an experiment. In conclusion, our findings add to the understanding of psychological processes regarding the dark side of online friends' number and render suggestions for developing positive personal value.
... Similarly, the notion of doing good through helping others is seen by many researchers as a key ingredient of a happy life. This is because helping others feels good, not just through the pursuit of altruistic goals as such (Kasser & Ryan, 1993) but also through non-goal related acts of kindness (Dunn et al., 2008;Lyubomirsky et al., 2005aLyubomirsky et al., , 2005b. ...
... This, however, is a less fruitful approach to increasing well-being as research has consistently shown that any increases in material wealth beyond the point of basic need-satisfaction only contributes marginally to well-being (Diener & Biswas-Diener, 2002;Kasser, 2016). More importantly, research has also shown that an overly strong focus on material wealth (i.e., strong materialistic values) tends to be negatively associated with well-being (Kasser, 2016;Kasser & Ryan, 1993;Van Boven, 2005) which is why the goal-striving reason of necessity is negatively correlated with SWB even for welloff individuals. ...
Article
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People’s reasons for goal pursuit strongly relate to well-being. An important concept that captures differences in the reasons for goal pursuit is the goal-striving reasons framework. Until today, it remains unclear whether the goal-striving reasons framework relates differently to the well-being of particular groups of people. Using the positive-activity model as a guiding framework, the paper at hand analyses a number of person-related characteristics which are relevant in a goal-setting context and are assumed to change the relationship between goal-striving reasons and well-being. Employing a large cumulative data set the person-related characteristics comprise of demographic variables (age, gender, managerial status) and selected well-being related variables (assertiveness, burnout, engagement, goal progress). Using correlation analyses in conjunction with Fisher’s z-test the results show that contrary to older employees (aged 24 or older) the goal-striving reasons of younger people are not related to their well-being. Women’s self-esteem reasons are more strongly related to well-being than they are for men. People’s goal-striving reasons are more strongly associated with well-being for people with high levels of assertiveness, low levels of burnout, or high levels of engagement. The findings have implications for the delivery of the Happiness through Goal Setting Training, a Positive Psychology Intervention based on the goal-striving reasons framework, as it identifies various alterations of the training to cater for the needs of these subgroups.
... Other studies demonstrate the benefits afforded by selforiented purposes. Across three studies, adults rated selforiented purposes (such as accepting one's authentic self) as more important than self-transcendence (trying to make the world a better place; Hill, Burrow, Brandenberger, et al., 2010;Kasser & Ryan, 1993). A stronger belief that selforiented purposes are achievable correlated with greater wellbeing (e.g., increased vitality, fewer psychopathological symptoms), whereas belief in the achievability of selftranscendent purposes was weakly or unrelated to well-being. ...
Article
Theoretically, purpose serves as a basic dimension of healthy psychological functioning and an important protective factor from psychopathology. Theory alone, however, is insufficient to answer critical questions about human behavior and functioning; we require empirical evidence that explores the parameters of purpose with respect to measurement, prediction, and modification. Here, we provide empirically supported insights about how purpose can operate as a beneficial outcome (e.g., marker of well-being), a predictor or mechanism that accounts for benefits that a person derives (such as from an intervention), or a moderator that offers insight into when benefits arise. Advancing the study of purpose requires careful consideration of how purpose is conceptualized, manipulated, and measured across the lifespan. Our aim is to help scientists understand, specify, and conduct high-quality studies of purpose in life.
... Authors like Kasser & Ryan [15] propose that materialism (i.e., financial success aspiration, [3]) is an extrinsic goal that is less effective than intrinsic goals like affiliation and community feeling and promoting individual well-being. Also, individuals who aspire to financial success have lower levels of self-actualization, vitality, and global function and higher levels of anxiety, depression, and behavioral disorders than individuals who aspire to more intrinsic goals. ...
Article
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Currently we live in a society of consumption and consuming is inevitable, but over consuming is a world problem and we argue it can be prevented. The present consumer society contributes to the development of buying behaviors aimed at the possession of material goods, to give, apparently, social status, success, and well-being [1]. This article aims to address overconsumption from a psychological view and the repercussions of excessive buying behavior on mental health and personal well-being. "I believe that the very purpose of life is to be happy. From the very core of our being, we desire contentment. Since we are not solely material creatures, it is a mistake to place all our hopes for happiness on external development alone. The key is to develop inner peace." Dalai Lama XIV [2].
... Theoretically, the dehumanizing perspective of materialism claims that materialists value material possessions over human connections and relationships, leading to a tendency to view other people as objects rather than individuals with their own thoughts, feelings, and experiences [20]. This dehumanization can lead to a situation where materialists become disconnected from the needs and concerns of others and, hence, lack empathy for others [21]. ...
Article
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Materialism plays a critical role in adolescent behavioral development, yet whether it affects prosocial and aggressive behaviors and the internal mechanism remains unknown. Therefore, this longitudinal research examined the relationships between adolescent materialism and prosocial and aggressive behaviors, and tested the mediating effect of empathy. In 2015, we recruited 543 adolescents from four junior high schools in Beijing, China (284 girls, 259 boys; M = 11.27 years, SD = 0.51). The participants completed the measures of materialism and demographic information at the initial time point, completed the measure of empathy about one year later, and completed the measures of prosocial and aggressive behaviors after about another year. The hypotheses were tested using a structural model using maximum likelihood estimation. The mediating effects were estimated by taking 1000 bias-corrected bootstraps. The results revealed that materialism was associated with aggressive behavior directly and positively, but had no significant correlation with prosocial behavior. Materialism had an indirect and negative correlation with prosocial behavior via empathy, while no indirect effect of materialism on aggressive behavior was found. The findings add to our knowledge of the dehumanizing nature of materialism by revealing its effect on adolescent behavioral development, as well as the underlying mechanism.
... Intrinsic and Extrinsic Aspirations. The Aspirations Index (AI; Kasser & Ryan, 1993) contains 105 items that ask participants to rate seven qualities of life (wealth, fame, image, personal growth, relationships, community, and health) along three prompts: (a) how important, (b) how likely to happen, and (c) how much already attained each quality is. Each quality of life contains five items. ...
Article
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The quiet ego interprets the self and others by balancing concerns for their welfare and cultivating their growth (Bauer and Wayment, in: Wayment, Bauer (eds) Transcending self-interest: psychological explorations of the quiet ego, American Psychological Association Books, Washington, DC, 2008). A growing body of research shows that the Quiet Ego Scale (QES; Wayment et al. in J Happiness Stud 16:999–1033, 2015a, Front Psychol 6:1–11, 2015b) relates to numerous measures of human flourishing. The present three studies of college students and adults situate the quiet ego within a framework of value orientation and actualization that organizes constructs of human flourishing in terms of motives (including moral motives), well-being (as hedonic satisfaction and eudaimonic meaningfulness, including moral fulfillment), and wisdom (Bauer in The transformative self: personal growth, narrative identity, and the good life, Oxford University Press, New York, 2021). Results from samples of college students and adults suggest that the QES corresponds to: (1) mainly humanistic and eudaimonic (including moral) motives; (2) hedonic and especially eudaimonic well-being (including moral fulfillment); and (3) motives, well-being, and wisdom independently. The discussion considers the quiet ego in terms of Epicurean ataraxia and Buddhist upekkha, a model of a good life that, like the quiet ego, emphasizes equanimity.
... 4 If individuals become more materialistic as a result of advertising, there are strong reasons to expect a negative link to life satisfaction, as the negative connection between materialistic orientations and indicators of individual happiness is well documented. Specifically, materialism is related to depression (Kasser and Ryan 1993), social anxiety (Schroeder and Dugal 1995), and negative interpersonal behaviors like envy and nongenerosity (Belk 1985), to name a few. Similarly, materialism also has a documented negative relationship with life satisfaction Dawson 1992, Pieters 2013) because of two main factors. ...
Article
Advertising theory offers competing perspectives on how advertising might affect life satisfaction. For instance, advertising may have some negative effects by increasing materialism, or it may have some positive effects by reducing marketplace uncertainty. Yet research investigating these connections remains limited. We compile a data set of per capita advertising expenditure to investigate advertising’s relationship with life satisfaction within 76 countries from 2006 to 2019. We deal with several sources of endogeneity and account for other determinants of life satisfaction (e.g., gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, social support) in our analysis. Results from a within-country fixed-effect model indicate that per capita advertising expenditure is positively related to national average life satisfaction. Moderation analyses of this aggregate secondary data and two individual-level experiments provide mechanistic evidence that this occurs because of advertising’s ability to reduce marketplace uncertainty. However, supplemental analyses and an additional experiment indicate that this positive relationship is attenuated through a materialism pathway in certain situations (e.g., related to cultural, income, and subjective inequality factors) and can become negative. As such, we provide the first nuanced and multifaceted view of advertising’s complex relationship with life satisfaction in the marketing literature. History: Puneet Manchanda served as the senior editor for this article. Funding: All authors certify that they have no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest or nonfinancial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript. The authors have no funding to report. Supplemental Material: The e-companion and data are available at https://doi.org/10.1287/mksc.2021.0136 .
... Each of the constructs examined had pre-established scales that had been tested for validity and reliability in previous studies. The items measuring both intrinsic aspirations and extrinsic aspirations were adapted from Kasser and Ryan's (1993) Aspiration Index. For materialism, Richins and Dawson (1992) developed the material values scale (MVS). ...
Article
In emerging markets, where a substantial number of individuals live below the poverty datum line, status consumption and the desire to purchase luxury products has been increasing. This paper will examine the interrelationships between intrinsic aspirations, extrinsic aspirations, materialism and repurchase intentions of luxury alcohol brands in South Africa. The study followed a quantitative research design and data was collected from 222 participants in South Africa. Data analysis involved structural equation modelling (SEM) performed through AMOS 27 software. The findings of the study showed that there was a statistically significant relationship between extrinsic aspirations and materialism. On the other hand, it was noted that the relationship between materialism and repurchase intentions of luxury alcohol brands was not statistically significant. Similarly, it was noted that the relationship between intrinsic aspirations and materialism was not statistically significant. This study contributes to the understanding of status consumption and shows that extrinsic aspirations have an impact on materialism. Furthermore, marketers and practitioners in emerging markets can draw from the findings of study and note that materialism displayed by consumers does not directly influence the repurchase behaviour of luxury goods.
... This is in line with assumptions of self-regulatory approaches. These models suggest that people have basic motives or needs that trigger goals; such goals can be achieved by certain means (Förster, 2015;Kasser & Ryan, 1993). On that way, people with poor psychological need satisfaction seem to replace their unsatisfied needs with materialism. ...
... There is a wide range of self-report questionnaires and inventories to assess different mental illnesses and emotional states, such as the Beck Depression Inventory for depression [4], the Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Screening Questionnaire (ADHD-SQ) [5], the Aspiration Index [6] for the measurement of intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Borderline Personality Questionnaire [7], the Common Beliefs Survey III-Short Form [8], depression, anxiety and antisocial items [9] designed from the Diagnostic Statistical Manual-V (DSM-V), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7) [10], the reduced scale of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire [11], the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale [12], the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory [13,14] the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire [15], etc. Nevertheless, these self-reports usually need to collect a lot of information in the form of a large number of items to be addressed [16], which usually lowers the quality of the answers as the user progresses throughout the questionnaire [17]. ...
... The definition of materialism is a value that influences people's belief about the importance of acquiring possessions and material goods more than other life goals (Richins & Dawson, 1992 namely the use of possessions as a success indicator for both themselves and others' success in life (success), the notion of possessions and acquisition as the centre of a person's life (centrality), and the perception that possessions lead to happiness and life satisfaction (happiness). Several studies consistently showed that materialistic individuals had lower life satisfaction and well-being albeit possessions and material goods acquisition as a measure of success and happiness (Belk, 1985;Richins & Dawson, 1992;Kasser & Ryan, 1993, 1996Ahuvia & Wong, 1995;Sirgy, 1998;Kasser & Ahuvia, 2002;Garðarsdóttir et al., 2008). As stated in Sirgy (1998), a materialist set a standard of living based on the perception of financial needs and tended to consume more goods and material services than the money they could make to pay for these goods and services because they believe that the act of consuming would bring them pleasure, comfort, and happiness. ...
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This study aims to determine the influence of financial literacy, gender, and educational background on the materialism of Generation Z Indonesians in 2022. Data were gathered by surveying 592 respondents and analysed with the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) method, resulting in three main findings. First, the influence of financial literacy is proven to reduce materialism significantly. Second, there is no difference between males and females in the materialism they believe in. Third, there is an influence of educational background on materialism. This study also finds that students with an economic and business education background are more materialistic than non-economic and business students. Furthermore, the findings of this study indicate that knowledge of financial concepts, products, and services is not enough to reduce materialism. Therefore, interventions are needed to encourage the financial attitude or individual perception of long-term finances, which is essential for achieving financial resilience and financial well-being, especially for Generation Z Indonesians.
... Materialism is mostly perceived to be a negative trait because of the supposed connection between happiness and material possessions (Segal and Podoshen 2013). Furthermore, previous studies have found a negative relationship between actual well-being and Materialism (Deckop, Jurkiewicz, and Giacalone 2010;Burroughs and Rindfleisch 2002;Kasser and Ryan 1993). This may be due to individuals who are more materialistic making judgements based on material possessions, which in turn may lead to lower life satisfaction (Tsang et al. 2014;Segal and Podoshen 2013). ...
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South African students face many challenges when completing their tertiary education, finances being one of the most significant. This is not only due to a lack of monetary resources but also to students' inability to manage their available resources. Students often make financial decisions not in their own interest due to both internal and external factors. Consequently, many students do not finish their studies or end up in debt. The research reported on in this article examined the correlation between three factors which influence spending and debt according to previous research, namely Materialism, Social Comparison and Status Consumption. These concepts refer to how much people value material possessions and how they compare their possessions to those of others and spend on status-conferring possessions to improve their image. This study used convenience sampling of 630 Generation Y students registered from four university campuses. Data collection was conducted using a self-reporting questionnaire. Data analysis comprised 597 valid questionnaires. The results reveal that Status Consumption can be predicted using Materialism and Social Comparison tendencies. The net result of this situation is that students first compare themselves to their peers and then spend money to feel better about themselves or present an improved image to their peers instead of investing their limited resources in their education. Very often, this spending is funded using credit. According to existing literature, this is true for students and the population at large and is one of the main drivers of the current debt problems South Africa is experiencing.
... In fact, material consumption beyond the point of need can actually reduce the well-being of people (Burroughs and Rindfleisch, 2002;Costanza et al., 2008), decrease life satisfaction (Belk, 1985), while increasing depression (Kasser and Ryan, 1993). Materialism may therefore have severe negative connotations for both consumers and society (Belk, 1985;Chancellor and Lyubomirsky, 2011;Schiffman and Wisenblit, 2015;Sheldon and Lyubomirsky, 2012), and is a major cause of damage to the natural environment (Pereira Heath and Chatzidakis 2012; WWF South Africa 2021). ...
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Purpose This paper presents a unique conceptual model that promotes behaviour change with the goal of creating a more sustainable conscious society. It aims to provide social marketers with insight on how to influence consumers' buying behaviour, which is often guided by their misperception of what is a good Quality of Life (QoL). Design/methodology/approach By means of a comprehensive, analytical review of relevant literature, this paper took a conceptual approach that included the thematic analysis of data sources such as accredited journal articles, books and other credible published materials. Findings Against the backdrop of South Africa's socio-economic conditions, this model emphasises the crucial role of individual's social and personal environment in shaping behaviour. The role of social marketers is to capitilise on consumers immediate environment to persuade them to consume more sustainably. It further gives way to the long-term, positive consequences of behaviour change on consumer's Quality of Life. The basic premise underlying the conceptual model is eudaimonia, the long-term subjective well-being of consumers, as a result conscientious consumption practices. The authors integrate Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory (1986) and Christie's Nested model of Quality of Life (2018) and presents the Social Cognitive Model of Quality of Life. Research limitations/implications Such an integrative conceptual model can be used to justify policy implications, social marketing strategies and behavioural change for the individual consumer to promote their own subjective QoL while addressing and perhaps mediating the broader social and environmental concerns. However, the application of this concept within an emerging economy, remains to be a challenge, as the awareness around sustainable consumption is still in its infant stage. Originality/value With the rise of globalisation, consumers in emerging economies aspire to portray wealth through the acquisition of materialistic possessions. This is even though the majority live in poverty and cannot sustain a lifestyle that is driven by conspicuous consumption. As a result, social marketers have a significant responsibility to inRuence consumers buying behaviour towards sustainable consumption. This paper presents a model that guides social marketers on how they can encourage pro-environmental behaviour and create a more sustainably conscious society.
... For example Kasser (2002) proposed that materialistic values undermine various aspects of life, reducing people's ability to enjoy things, therefore threatening their satisfaction with life (for a review see Tsang et al. (2014)). Kasser and Ryan (1993) assert that individuals characterised by intrinsic motivations tend to be more satisfied with their lives than those characterised by extrinsic ones. ...
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This paper presents the results of an analysis that compared two types of tourists who hold a different view of and interact differently with their surrounding environment. It evidenced that more consumptive and consumer‐oriented tourists are normally less happy than those practising more appreciative and sharing‐oriented activities. To explain the differential, it offers a theoretical interpretation based on the idea that individual choices are not autonomous and independent, and that aspects like comparisons, observability of possessions and level of competition in the reference group may dampen the effect of various correlates on people's life satisfaction.
... However, the positive association between income and subjective well-being tends to be weaker in wealthier societies (Diener & Seligman, 2004;Hagerty & Veenhoven, 2003) and may not exist at higher income levels in the United States (Kahneman & Deaton, 2010; but see Killingsworth, 2021). On the negative side, valuing high income is associated with lower subjective well-being, more compulsive buying, and engaging in riskier health behaviors (e.g., smoking; Dittmar et al., 2014;Kasser & Ryan, 1993). In the current work, we investigate whether the resources ideology may reduce academic and occupational gender disparities by causing women to make choices that align more with the male gender role. ...
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Five preregistered studies (N = 1934) demonstrate that the prevalent U.S. ideology to "follow your passions" perpetuates academic and occupational gender disparities compared to some other cultural ideologies. Study 1 shows that the follow-your-passions ideology is commonly used by U.S. students in making academic choices. Studies 2-5 find that making the follow-your-passions ideology salient causes greater academic and occupational gender disparities compared to the resources ideology (i.e., the idea that one should pursue a field that leads to high income and job security). In Study 4, the follow-your-passions ideology causes greater gender disparities even when compared to a cultural ideology that aligns more with the female gender role (i.e., communal ideology). In Study 5, a moderated mediation analysis supports the hypothesis that gender disparities are explained by women's versus men's greater tendency to draw upon female role-congruent selves when the follow-your-passions ideology is salient compared to when the resources ideology is salient. Drawing upon female role-congruent selves remains a significant mediator even when accounting for alternative mediators (e.g., appropriateness of ideology for one's gender). The follow-your-passions ideology may not seem explicitly gendered, but it causes greater academic and occupational gender disparities compared to some other cultural ideologies. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).
... Materialism denotes the desire for acquisition and ownership of things and defining success in terms of things one possesses (Belk, 1985) and has been shown to impact donation behavior. Materialism is associated with wealth accumulation (Kasser & Ryan, 1993) and is negatively associated with desire for volunteering (Bauer et al., 2012), helping behavior (Kasser, 2005), and willingness to donate to charities (Bennett, 2003). In addition, materialism and thing orientation may be potentially related because there is centrality of things in both the constructs, but these two constructs are not identical. ...
Article
Unlabelled: Extant research remains equivocal with respect to whether scarcity increases or decreases charitable behaviors. This research suggests a reconciliation by considering a donor's resource-specific scarcity, and their person-thing orientation (PTO), a novel personality variable that determines whether individuals are naturally attuned towards people versus things in their environment. Person-orientation predisposes preferences towards donating time, while thing-orientation predisposes preferences towards donating money. Time scarcity leads person-oriented individuals to prefer donating money, but does not affect thing-oriented individuals. Financial scarcity leads thing-oriented individuals to prefer donating time, but does not affect person-oriented individuals. Person-oriented individuals' attention towards other people and thing-oriented individuals' focus on resource evaluation form the basis for the observed relative donation preferences. Finally, PTO can also be situationally induced. Using donation intentions and real click-through behavior for diverse charitable organizations, we show in five studies that the combined effect of consumers' perceived resource-specific scarcity and PTO determines the relative preference for donating time vs. donating money. Our results have important implications for charities soliciting specific kinds of resources, as well as real-world government and social welfare initiatives critically dependent on volunteerism. Theoretically, we examine scarcity from an individual-difference perspective that has not been well understood. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11747-023-00938-2.
... The literature provides several theoretical explanations as to why consumers lean toward materialism and maladaptive consumption. The attachment to material objects may result from personal psychological insecurities (Donnelly, Ksendzova, Howell, Vohs, & Baumeister, 2016) or overreliance on extrinsic at the expense of intrinsic goals (Kasser & Ryan, 1993). Based on the self-discrepancy theory (Higgins, 1987), materialism and impulse buying are suggested to be the behavioral outcomes of negative self-appraisal (Dittmar, Beattie, & Friese, 1995;Richins, 2017). ...
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Purpose This study aims to explore how and why self-discrepancy affects materialism and impulsive buying and the extent to which subjective well-being mediates the relationship between self-discrepancy, materialism and impulsive buying. Design/methodology/approach The authors have tested the hypothesis with a convenience sample (N = 434) from Lithuania. Descriptive analysis, principal components analysis (PCA), serial mediation hypothesis tested with model 81 from regression-based path analysis modeling tool PROCESS Macro for IBM® SPSS ® Statistics 24.7 statistical software. Findings The serial and parallel mediation analysis results indicated that greater self-discrepancy was related to poorer life satisfaction, which was related to greater materialism centrality, which promoted greater impulsive buying. Also, the greater the self-discrepancy, caused more occurrence of negative affect, which relates to increased materialism happiness, which triggers impulsive buying. Self-discrepancy was negatively associated with the frequency of positive affect, which was positively related to materialism, which stimulates impulsive buying. Research limitations/implications The study was dominated by younger respondents. The survey was conducted during the lockdown of the Covid-19 virus pandemic. Originality/value There is little empirical evidence to support the reasoning behind why self-discrepancy predicts a higher degree of materialism, which increases impulsive buying. This study suggests the mechanism of how subjective well-being affects relationships of self-discrepancy on materialism and impulsive buying.
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This meta‐analysis investigated the strengths of the relationship between various types of motivations and accompanying future outcomes that individuals intend to change, based upon 337 effect sizes from 62 studies. Considerable variation exists within and between the effect sizes of the 14 types of motivations, ranging from a small negative effect size, r = −.13, I ² = 93.85% ( k = 13), to a medium positive effect size, r = .38, I ² = 0.0% ( k = 3). The following factors moderated some of the 14 summary effect sizes: (a) the type of assessment data (self‐report vs. physical data); (b) the type of future outcomes (physical behavior, psychological state, and intellectual ability); (c) the use of a motivational intervention; (d) the use of a longitudinal design; and (e) the time period between the point that measured motivation and future outcomes. The moderating effects suggest that the effect size of motivations may fluctuate across various domains, while future outcomes may be almost unaffected or even affected negatively by particular types of motivations, although certain other types of motivations play positive roles.
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This chapter discusses how Subjective Well-Being (SWB) and Subjective Ill-Being (SIB) get conceptualized in the Indian context, it provides the structure of the concept with the help of a qualitative study. The conceptualization or structure is based upon an exploratory study conducted upon 184 respondents across four age groups [children (n) = 46, adolescents and young adults (n) = 46, middle-aged (n) = 48, and older adults (n) = 44] and across different locales [urban, urban slums, and rural]. The respondents were interviewed on a three-item open-ended questionnaire based on (Diener in Psychological Bulletin 95:542–575, 1984) SWB framework—on greater satisfaction with life (cognition), frequent positive affect, and infrequent or lesser negative affect. Their responses were recorded, transcribed, and content analysed for the themes that resulted in the understanding of the “Enhancers” (total of 12 conceptual categories enhancing SWB–Relationships, Health, Resources, Emotions, Education, Achievement, Work, Sense of Satisfaction, Recreation, Values, Societal, and Personality) and “Reducers” (total of 9 conceptual categories reducing the experience of SWB and/or resulting in SIB–Individual Concerns, Values related issues, Emotions related issues, Achievement related issues, Health related issues, Societal related issues, Attitude related issues, Resources related issues, and Environment related issues). The operationalization of the determinants in these two main themes may not necessarily be the opposite of each other.
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This chapter reviews and discusses the literature on the determinants of subjective well-being (SWB). Demographics play an important role in the understanding of SWB, though the effect sizes have usually been found to be low and mostly insignificant. Nevertheless, they are critical in understanding the role context plays in determining SWB. The chapter systematically reviews and discusses some important causes and correlates of SWB, how culture shapes concepts of SWB, and what insights national samples offer to enhance this understanding. This discussion is further enriched by a discussion of research undertaken in the Indian context.
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Classroom language shapes the way teachers communicate/ Interact in the classroom. Based on medium of Instruction the teacher has to be aware of the language phrases and expressions appropriate for the classroom teaching purposes. Previous research has emphasised the importance of classroom English for pre-service and In-service teachers. The NCF National Curriculum Framework (2005, 2009) of India mentioned the need of classroom English for teachers. The importance of classroom communication is highlighted in the B.ED. syllabi prepared by the NCERT (National Council for Educational Research and Training) and SCERTs (State Council of Educational Research and Training). Though there is a mention of these aspects in the syllabi at national and state level, there is no research done taking into consideration the classroom language needs of preservice teachers in India. For this purpose, an online test was conducted with 36 pre-service teachers from different B.Ed. Institutions, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh in India. This test is part of the pre-testing process. The sampling technique used for the study is convenience sampling. The results indicate that preservice teachers should be given training to raise their awareness of communicative English language phrases and expressions used for different classroom situations such as classroom management, content delivery, and feedback. The training should be incorporated in the lesson planning process of teaching practicum meant for pre-service teachers. The study has got implications for verbal and non-verbal classroom communication, and use of L2 (Second language) for classroom transaction.
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THEORETICAL BACKGROUND – There are several approaches to the concept of materialism, i.e. material values in philosophy, psychology, and theology. In this paper, we examine Richins and Dawson’s notion of materialism, which encompasses the beliefs and attitudes that fundamentally determine an individual’s consumer behavior and the associated Material Values Scale. GOALS – In this paper, we examine the Hungarian adaptation of the Material Values Scale and analyze its construct and convergent validity and reliability using classical and modern test theory. METHODS – Our sample consisted of 1,326 respondents (male: 236 and female: 1,090; mean age: 37.00 years, SD = 12.38), who completed the Material Values Scale, the Sense of Coherence Scale, the Perceived Peer Support Questionnaire, the Work–Family Conflict Questionnaire, and answered a question on religiosity. The survey was an online interface. RESULTS – Both factor analyses and an examination of the item response curves show that the validity of the reverse items of the questionnaire is questionable, as respondents have different attitudes towards these items. They form a separate factor in the factor structure. In addition, the items do not discriminate well between respondents at different scale levels, and there is a high propensity to agree with them (low difficulty parameter). Considering the results, the reverse items can be discarded, and the three subscales of the questionnaire, as well as the total score of the material values, can be interpreted without them ((χ2 (115) = 368.45, p ≤ 0.001; RMSEA [90% CI] = 0.058 [0.052–0.065]; CFI = 0.908; TLI = 0.878; SRMR = 0.051)). The reliability of the scales and the overall questionnaire is good (Global factor ω = 0.861; Possession as success ω = 0.797; Centrality of possession ω = 0.700; Possession as a source of happiness ω = 0.777). Convergent validity with the constructs tested is negligible (Kendall’s τ = -0.272– 0.202, p ≤ 0.01). In addition, taking into account certain demographic factors, Possession as success (F(3, 674) = 11.882; p ≤ 0.001; η2 = 0.051) and Centrality of possession (F(3, 674) = 10.148; p ≤ 0.001; η2 = 0.041) differentiate well across generations. For younger people, the central element that defines success in life is possession. The Possession as a source of happiness dimension (F(3, 586) = 7.881; p ≤ 0.001; η2 = 0.039) differentiates religious people from less religious people. CONCLUSIONS – A content analysis of the items of the Material Values Scale suggests that the reverse items may not fit the structure for several reasons. On the one hand, the wording of these items makes them more difficult to understand for the respondents. On the other hand, their content is more complex, and there is a tendency to compare with the outside world. Lastly, their content reflects post-material values that trigger socially desirable processes in the respondent that encourage consent. An investigation of these findings from the point of view of the conception of materialism is strongly recommended for the future. Keywords: factor structure, reverse items, confirmatory factor analysis, psychometric analysis, Material Values Scale
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“Where Your Treasure Is, There Will Your Heart Be.” An Exploration of the Construct of Materialism and the Hungarian Adaptation of the Material Values Scale. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND – There are several approaches to the concept of materialism, i.e. materia
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The Oxford Handbook of Sport and Performance Psychology includes the latest research and applied perspectives from leaders in the field of performance psychology, presenting sport and performance psychology from myriad perspectives. It looks at individual psychological processes in performance such as attention, imagery, superior performance intelligence, motivation, anxiety, confidence, cognition, and emotion. Articles also consider the social psychological processes in performance including leadership, teamwork, coaching, relationships, moral behavior, and gender and cultural issues. The book further examines human development issues in performance, such as the development of talent and expertise, positive youth development, the role of the family, the end of involvement transitions, and both youth and masters-level sport and physical activity programs. Finally, the text looks at interventions in sport and performance psychology and counseling of performers in distress including such important issues for all performers as: appearance- and performance-enhancing drug use, injuries, managing pain, eating and weight issues, burnout, and the role of physical activity in maintaining health. The articles collected here also cover the history of sport and performance psychology; the scope and nature of the field; ethical issues in sport and performance psychology; performance psychology in the performing arts and other non-sporting fields; perfectionism and performance; the role of the performance coach and of the sport psychologist with a coach and team; supervision; and a look ahead to the future of the field.
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A comprehensive overview of the field and its future trajectories is needed to gain insight into how psychological research on well-being has progressed over time and what needs to be addressed. Previous reviews on well-being tend to have limited scope or contain subjective inferences about the state of research on well-being, resulting in fragmented insights and a lack of a comprehensive view of the research on well-being. To address this limitation, we used bibliometric methods to map the intellectual structure of the entire field of well-being science and provide a more comprehensive view of the research. We used a database of over 30,000 primary documents downloaded from Web of Science and leveraged three bibliometric methods: historiography, document co-citation analysis, and bibliographic coupling. The findings shed light on the (1) evolution of well-being science over time, (2) the underlying structure of the intellectual field and its current state, and (3) the future trajectory of the field and emerging topics. Based on our findings, we provide three future directions for well-being science: (i) embracing diversity and broadening the scope of well-being scholarship, (ii) transcending beyond dichotomous perspectives of well-being, and (iii) harnessing advanced methods and measures for a stronger scientific foundation. By offering objective insights and interpretations derived from multiple analyses of well-being research, this paper serves as a valuable resource for researchers, policymakers, and practitioners. It provides guidance and direction in addressing the challenges related to defining, measuring, and advancing our understanding of well-being, fostering progress in the field.
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People sometimes must choose between prioritizing meaningful work or high compensation. Eight studies (N = 4,177; 7 preregistered) examined the relative importance of meaningful work and salary in evaluations of actual and hypothetical jobs. Although meaningful work and high salaries are both perceived as highly important job attributes when evaluated independently, when presented with tradeoffs between these job attributes, participants consistently preferred high-salary jobs with low meaningfulness over low-salary jobs with high meaningfulness (Studies 1-5). Forecasts of happiness and meaning outside of work helped explain condition differences in job interest (Studies 4 and 5). Extending the investigation toward actual jobs, Studies 6a and 6b showed that people express stronger preferences for higher pay (vs. more meaningful work) in their current jobs. Although meaningful work is a strongly valued job attribute, it may be less influential than salary to evaluations of hypothetical and current jobs.
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Athletes face unique mental health stressors, including internal/external pressure, time displacement, and physical injury. In addition, athletes who experience mental illnesses such as depression and anxiety reference the role of social factors—specifically stigma—as barriers to mental health. The present study draws on 37 testimonials from The Players’ Tribune in which athletes disclosed mental illness. A theoretical thematic analysis pinpointed themes within the testimonials of athletes who elucidated and refuted myths concerning mental health in sport. Through disclosure, the athletes challenged stigma by protesting myths that discourage help-seeking behavior in sport. The analysis identified six themes in the myths concerning (a) professional success, (b) strength, (c) identity, (d) the sports story treatment of mental health, (e) sport as escape, and (f) isolation. Implications are discussed in relation to changing social norms in sport.
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