Article

A Dark Side of the American Dream: Correlates of Financial Success as a Central Life Aspiration

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  • Australian Catholic University North Sydney
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Abstract

Aspiring for financial success is an important aspect of capitalist cultures. Three studies examine the hypothesis that values and expectancies for wealth and money are negatively associated with adjustment and well-being when they are more central to an individual than other self-relevant values and expectancies. Studies 1 and 2 use 2 methods to show that the relative centrality of money-related values and expectancies is negatively related to college students' well-being and mental health. Study 3, using a heterogeneous noncollege sample, extends these findings by showing that a high centrality of aspirations for financial success is associated with interview ratings of lower global adjustment and social productivity and more behavioral disorders. Discussion is focused on the deleterious consequences of materialistic world views and the need to examine differential effects of content regarding goals and values.

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... Customarily, that makes the slave of material enjoyment to accomplish all in way of sine quo non. The same kind of findings was also reported by even the western scholars (Belk 1984;Kasser and Ryan 1993;1996;Kasser;2002, Csikszentmihalyi;1999) that happiness is not an outcome of materialistic achievements in life. Thus, in stretch to contemplate the other alternative ways of growing the societies, eternal happiness can be elongated in long pathways of life. ...
... Customarily, that makes the slave of material enjoyment to accomplish all in way of sine quo non. The same kind of findings was also reported by even the western scholars (Belk 1984;Kasser and Ryan 1993;1996;Kasser;2002, Csikszentmihalyi;1999) that happiness is not an outcome of materialistic achievements in life. Thus, in stretch to contemplate the other alternative ways of growing the societies, eternal happiness can be elongated in long pathways of life. ...
... Exploring happiness with monetary development and technological advancement is very uncomplicated to enlighten happiness in life. Numerous studies are revealing that financial achievements are negatively related to the psychological well-being of an individual (Belk 1984;Kasser and Ryan 1993;1996;Kasser;2002, Csikszentmihalyi;1999). Levelheadedness, the eternal happiness with a deep sense of wellbeing is attainable through an effective lifestyle of the spiritual practice of day-to-day life. In this repute, Gross National Happiness (GNH) policy of Bhutan is proposed with the Buddhist concept of 'mindfulness' or 'Happiness' as the developmental framework of day-to-day life is effective to enhance happiness and span of life. ...
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Bhutan has imbibed Buddhist teachings of mindfulness for its people in day-today life as a doctrine of public welfare in government policies. The country has made policy doctrine of Gross National Happiness (GNH) with Buddhist philosophy as a 'core value' to achieve worldly and non-worldly affairs of nationwide development. The study has been published by 'Bhutan Study Centre (2017). The findings of the study reveal that the GNH policy doctrine is quite helpful in establishing happiness among Bhutanese people. Data figure-hugs the life expectancy of Bhutanese with happiness in life. Bhutan as compared to the Western world and other South Asian countries have been able to achieve more happiness in life with its spiritual practice of Buddhism imbibe in Gross National Happiness (GNH). Furthermost, the Western world and other South Asian countries have more focus on a rudimentary measure of materialistic achievements to establish happiness for its people. Spirituality tool is less used as an effective stratagem in giving eternal happiness to its people by the most of these nations and is considered ingenuous as an indicator of happiness. The study has been accomplished with the help of secondary data published by 'Bhutan Study Centre' (2017) and met analysis of the average life expectancy in Bhutan. Findings are revealing that spirituality of GNH is a significant instrument to achieve happiness with increased longevity of life.
... However, materialists can pose problems for prosocial causes in general. Relative to nonmaterialists, materialists are more extrinsically motivated (Kasser & Ryan, 1993), less generous (Belk, 1985;Bennett, 2003), and more interested in accumulating wealth (Kasser & Ryan, 1993). Thus, materialists may be more likely to perceive a luxury brand's core identity of self-enhancement to be in conflict with the concept of self-transcendence embedded in prosocial efforts (Torelli et al., 2012). ...
... However, materialists can pose problems for prosocial causes in general. Relative to nonmaterialists, materialists are more extrinsically motivated (Kasser & Ryan, 1993), less generous (Belk, 1985;Bennett, 2003), and more interested in accumulating wealth (Kasser & Ryan, 1993). Thus, materialists may be more likely to perceive a luxury brand's core identity of self-enhancement to be in conflict with the concept of self-transcendence embedded in prosocial efforts (Torelli et al., 2012). ...
... The literature on goaldirected behavior suggests that goals, once satisfied, decrease in strength Fitzsimons et al., 2008). Given that materialism is conceptualized as reflecting an individual's value or goal (Kasser & Ryan, 1993;Richins & Dawson, 1992), purchasing a luxury brand can be construed as a goal-directed behavior in which materialists strive to achieve certain goals. If materialists' preferences for product-linked campaigns are driven by the need for status, then momentarily boosting materialists' feelings of status should reduce or eliminate this effect. ...
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Across four experiments, we show that materialists' willingness to engage in cause‐related marketing (CRM) depends on the type of campaign: product‐linked (brand linked to a cause through limited‐edition products) or donation‐linked (direct donations to a charitable cause). Materialists are more willing to engage in product‐linked than donation‐linked campaigns, whereas nonmaterialists show the opposite pattern. The effect for materialists is driven by the status‐signaling qualities that luxury products convey and is eliminated for value brands and when materialists' need for status is momentarily satiated. This study shows that materialists can be nudged to behave prosocially by leveraging their status‐seeking motivations in the context of luxury consumption, and luxury brands will maximize participation by utilizing product‐linked CRM campaigns.
... Following Jones, Hillier, and Comfort (2016), perceived value fit (PVF) was explored as a mechanism, mediating the relationship between CSR and JPI. Furthermore, this study extends their work by examining anticipated organizational support (AOS) as another mediator predicted by PVF and by analyzing personal values (Kasser & Ryan, 1993) as a moderator. ...
... Values are pertinent in analyzing attitudes, opinions, and actual behavior (Schwartz, 2003). Kasser and Ryan (1993) developed an aspiration index to analyze the hypothesis that values and expectations are related to adjustment and well-being. Specifically, the authors hypothesized and found that when financial success aspiration values exceeded those in the other dimensions, a worse psychological adjustment was found. ...
... Specifically, the authors hypothesized and found that when financial success aspiration values exceeded those in the other dimensions, a worse psychological adjustment was found. Items from the community feeling and financial success dimensions from the aspiration index (Kasser & Ryan, 1993) share similarities with the self-enhancement and self-transcendence developed by Schwartz (2003). Empirically, the evidence of values in recruitment research has been explored. ...
Article
This study aims to analyze the causal effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) recruitment messages on jobseekers’ pursuit intentions for a hotel position. Specifically, perceived value fit (PVF) and anticipated organizational support (AOS) were tested as sequential mediators between the relationship and personal aspiration values as a moderator between recruiting messages, PVF, and AOS. A between-subjects design online experiment was conducted to test the theoretical model. Besides the theoretical contributions of exploring these mechanisms together in a hospitality context, this research is particularly relevant for hospitality managers and recruiters as they strive to attract applicants that are a better fit for the organization, which in turn might reduce turnover rates and improve performance.
... İyilikseverlik değerleri diğerlerinin refahını gözetmeyi vurgular (ait olma hissi, hayatın anlamı, tinsel yaşam gibi) (Schwartz 2012). Toplumsal hisler olarak adlandırılan istekler kişinin kendi faaliyetleriyle dünyayı daha iyi bir yer haline getirmesiyle ilgilidir (Kasser ve Ryan 1993) ve anlam olarak iyilikseverlik değerleriyle benzerdirler. Öz yönlendirme kontrol ve hâkimiyet ihtiyacı ile otonomi ve bağımsızlığın gereklerinden türemektedir (Schwartz 2012). ...
... Öz yönlendirme kontrol ve hâkimiyet ihtiyacı ile otonomi ve bağımsızlığın gereklerinden türemektedir (Schwartz 2012). Öz kabul bireysel psikolojik büyüme, öz saygı ve otonomi gibi konulardaki istekleri ölçer (Kasser ve Ryan 1993). Bu nedenle, KOZ'un toplumsal hisle ve öz kabulle ilişkili olduğu düşünülmektedir. ...
... Benevolence values emphasize voluntary concern for others' welfare (sense of belonging, meaning in life, a spiritual life) (Schwartz 2012). Community feeling aspirations refer to making the world a better place through one's actions (Kasser and Ryan 1993) and are similar in meaning to benevolence values. Self-direction derives from organismic needs for control and mastery and interactional requirements of autonomy and independence (Schwartz 2012). ...
... Die eerste worden ook wel omschreven als intrinsieke waarden, de tweede als extrinsiek (Van den Broeck et al., 2011). De reden dat intrinsieke waarden makkelijker eigen gemaakt worden, is omdat ze niet afhankelijk zijn van de goedkeuring of ondersteuning van anderen (Kasser & Ryan, 1993). Ze komen, als het ware, van binnenuit. ...
... Extrinsieke waarden zijn daarentegen wel afhankelijk van anderen (Kasser & Ryan, 1993). ...
Article
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Motivation lies at the core of human behavior. It explains why we do what we do. In this article, we seek an explanation for the influence of leadership, purpose, and values on employee engagement through motivation. Engaged employees derive energy from their work, are dedicated, show higher psychological well-being, and perform better. We suspected that motivation, as defined in self-determination theory, is an underlying mechanism that could explain the relationship between leadership and positive outcomes. To this end, we conducted five empirical studies in which the fulfillment of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and connectedness played a central role. We found that engaging leadership, a higher corporate purpose, and intrinsic values stimulated motivation and engagement. The fulfilment of psychological needs (notably autonomy) played an important role in these relationships. A sixth study tested leadership and inspiration in an intervention study. The intervention led to higher motivation among participants, lower absenteeism among employees, and better business performance. Navigating motivation at work supports employees to flourish, develop, and find significance. Keywords: engaging leadership, purpose, values, motivation, engagement
... The central tenet of various conceptual models within traditional humanistic psychology and its modern extension, positive psychology, focuses on the actualization of human potential (Ryff & Keyes, 1995). Such self-actualization is well captured by personal growth, which refers to (goals to) learn new things, see oneself growing and expanding, gain autonomy, and live a productive and meaningful life (Kasser & Ryan, 1993, 1996Ryan & Deci, 2017). Personal growth is closely linked to one's well-being, adaptive functioning, and accomplishment, as demonstrated in numerous studies across different cultures (e.g., Ryan & Deci, 2017). ...
... Next, the Personal Growth subdimension of the Aspiration Index (Kasser & Ryan, 1993, 1996 was used to measure the extent to which participants desired and were capable of living productive, fulfilling, and meaningful lives. Example items were "To grow and learn new things" and "At the end of my life, to be able to look back on my life as meaningful Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. ...
Article
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Competitions are ubiquitous, and their psychological consequences for women have not received sufficient attention. For this research, we tested whether competition, in either work settings or a broader form of competition for resources, would interact with the sex is power belief to result in self-objectification among women. This prediction was confirmed by a series of studies (N = 1,416), including correlational studies, a quasi-experiment, and fully controlled experiments, with samples including company employees, MBA students with work experience, college students currently competing in a job market, and Mechanical Turkers. Competition (or a sense of competition) as a feature of the working environment (Study 1), a real state in life (Study 2), or a temporarily activated state (Studies 3–5) resulted in self-objectification among women who believe sex is power (Study 1) or who enter such a mindset (Studies 2–5). This effect further impaired the pursuit of personal growth (Studies 4 and 5). We discuss the implications of these findings.
... Individuals' goals can serve as guiding principles in their lives (Vansteenkiste et al., 2008) and help them perform well in their jobs (Bradshaw et al., 2021;Zhang et al., 2018), thus researchers and managers have tried to develop multidimensional models and theories to explore the influence of employees' goal pursuit (Vansteenkiste et al., 2008). Goal content theory (GCT), one of the mini-theories of Self-Determination Theory (Deci et al., 2017;Deci & Ryan, 2000), was developed to understand how the content of individual goals can predict different outcomes (Kasser & Ryan, 1993. According to GCT, two types of goals can be distinguished: intrinsic and extrinsic goals. ...
... Accordingly, we propose that extrinsically oriented leaders engage in lower-level relationship exchanges when female subordinates are involved. Based on goal content theory, previous studies suggested that extrinsically oriented individuals would place less emphasis on affiliation and benevolence (Kasser & Ryan, 1993), more likely to use friends to get ahead in life (Khanna & Kasser, 2004). Thus, leaders with relatively extrinsic goals are also task oriented and more likely to use their subordinates as efficiently as possible to attain their own extrinsic goal ambitions (Kasser, 2002); and they do not care about building relationships with subordinates. ...
Article
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The aim of the present study is to examine whether a leader’s extrinsic relative to intrinsic goal orientation influences subordinates’ subjective career success through leader-member exchanges and to describe the moderating effect of subordinates’ gender. Drawing on goal content theory and leader-member exchange theory, we propose that a leader’s relatively extrinsic goal orientation is negatively related to subordinates’ subjective career success through leader-member exchanges. We conducted a field survey study (N = 216; employees and their immediate supervisors from China) to test our model, and the results suggest that (1) leaders with relatively extrinsic goal orientations are negatively related to subordinates’ subjective career success; (2) leader-member exchanges mediate the negative relationship between a leader’s relatively extrinsic goal orientation and employees’ subjective career success; and (3) subordinates’ gender moderates the indirect effect, whereby a leader’s relatively extrinsic goal orientation leads to lower levels of leader-member exchange for females than for males, leading to a lower level of subordinates’ subjective career success. This study contributes to the goal content and leader-member exchange literature.
... In line with Richins and Dawson (1992), we perceive materialism as reflecting consumers' values and attitudes rather than personality traits in this study. Researchers have typically associated materialism with negative things, such as lower well-being (Dittmar et al., 2014), lower life-satisfaction (Lipovčan et al., 2015), as well as depression and anxiety (Kasser & Ryan, 1993). Materialism is typically high among young people as it reaches its highest peak during the adolescence and young adulthood (Jaspers & Pieters, 2016) . ...
... Our findings expand previous approaches that have connected both online and offline impression management with negative characteristics (Hart et al., 2017;Michikyan et al., 2014). These results also differ from the earlier studies which emphasized negative implications of materialism (Dittmar et al., 2014;Kasser & Ryan, 1993;Lipovčan et al., 2015). Our results, in turn, present the brighter side of materialism among young people by showing the indirect positive connection between materialism and bonding and bridging social capital via impression management on social media. ...
Article
Individuals adjust their behavior on social media to varying extent, and commonly in their idealized way. Most studies have focused on the problems associated with materialism and social media use, yet their potential positive contributions remain less clear. In fact, impression management holds potential for both negative and positive: it has been linked with materialistic attitudes, but also increased amounts of self-reported social capital. This study examines how young people's materialistic values connect with status-seeking impression management on social media, and subsequently to social capital, within the same model. Eight hundred Finnish participants aged 15–19 participated in our structured phone survey. We applied structural equation modeling to examine the connections between materialism, impression management, and online social capital. Our findings show that materialism is positively related to impression management, while impression management is positively associated with online social capital. Additionally, we found positive indirect effects between materialism and both bridging and bonding social capital through impression management. In sum, more materialistic young people who engaged in higher impression management had higher amounts of social capital.
... Traditionally, some types of behaviors, such as becoming involved in one's community, were viewed as inherently intrinsically motivated. On the other hand, goals such as seeking social status and money, were considered as being extrinsically motivated and thus detrimental to long term well-being (Kasser & Ryan, 1993). Some authors have contested the notion that the pursuit of money is always detrimental to well-being by showing that the pursuit of money can be intrinsically and/or extrinsically motivated (Carver & Baird, 1998). ...
Article
Research based on Self-determination theory suggests that the reasons that motivate people to spend money have an influence on psychological need satisfaction and well-being (e.g., Zhang, Howell & Caprariello, 2013). This article adds to this literature by identifying how a broader set of reasons for spending influence psychological health and exploring the relative presence of these spending motives across prosocial, experiential and material purchases. Using an online survey asking participants to answer a series of questions about a recent purchase, the results of Study 1 (N = 312) revealed five motives that may underlie spending decisions. When individuals spend money with the intent of helping others, enjoying a leisure activity, and investing in self-development, this encourages well-being through psychological need satisfaction. When money is spent with the intent of overcoming feelings of insecurity, this leads to greater ill-being through need frustration. Using a similar procedure, Study 2 (N = 305) indicated that individuals are motivated to make material, prosocial and experiential purchases for different reasons. These results provide additional insight into what motivates people to make these specific purchases and their consequent effects on psychological health.
... An individual with a strong MVO therefore strives to acquire money and material goods to achieve certain expected psychological benefits, in particular an attractive image, recognition, status, and greater happiness. MVO can be measured by questionnaire scales such as the Material Values Scale [2,3] which assesses people's beliefs that acquiring money and material possessions is highly important, and will lead to higher levels of happiness, success, and status for the individual, or the Aspirations Index [4] which assesses how much importance individuals place on wealth, fame, and image as (extrinsic) life goals in comparison to other (intrinsic) life goals, such as community involvement, personal relationships, and selfdevelopment. It is important to note that MVO reflects an individual's desire to be wealthy and own expensive material goods, rather than whether they actually have money and luxury possessions. ...
Article
Full-text available
People with a strong materialistic value orientation (MVO) believe that the acquisition of more money and expensive material possessions will improve their wellbeing and social standing. Paradoxically, striving for evermore money and material goods as a means of improving wellbeing often undermines quality of life. This paper documents how MVO has been linked to poorer wellbeing across different facets of wellbeing (personal, social, and environmental) and that these negative associations have been recorded across the lifespan. However, it also shows that the link is complex in that it can be moderated by certain personal and cultural factors and is bidirectional in its nature. By demonstrating a predominantly negative effect of MVO on wellbeing, the evidence highlights a need for interventions to reduce MVO and alter how people relate to material possessions.
... In another study, Diener and Diener (1996) noted increases in income to have less of an impact on wellness once their income reaches a certain level. In this respect, an individual's income level can be said to influences their wellness, with this increase diminishing and even stopping at higher income levels (Biswas & Dean, 2007;Dost, 2004;Kasser & Ryan, 1993). These findings are partially different from other studies at the longitudinal level, and the presence of studies supporting these findings is quite striking and important for the concept of wellness (Çallı, 2014;Özen, 2005;Tuzgöl Dost, 2010;Yavuz Güler & İşmen Gazioğlu, 2008). ...
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The aim of this study is to evaluate from a gerontological point of view the effects of health promoting lifestyles and sociodemographic factors on the wellness of older individuals aged 60 or older living in Antalya. The study also aims to determine the extent of the impacts from the factors affecting these individuals’ wellness. A total of 211 female and 189 male participants were interviewed. The study uses the probability sampling technique. The interviews were conducted on a voluntary basis in public places in the districts, such as parks, gardens, marketplaces, bazaars, and households. Data were collected using a sociodemographic information form, the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (Walker & Hill-Polerecky; adapted to Turkish by Bahar et al., 2008), and the Flourishing Scale (Diener et al., 2009). The data were analyzed for descriptive statistics. The independent samples t-test was used for two independent groups, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for multiple comparisons and correlation tests for intergroup relationships. A p < .05 has been accepted as the level of significance. Tukey HSD values were examined in order to identify any meaningful differences between groups. As a result of the study, gender, educational status, perceived income status, and adopting health promoting lifestyle behaviors were found to be related to wellness. A scheme was suggested on how to reach wellness from a gerontological perspective.
... Cluster 2, colored green, comprises nine authors, and the author who stands out is Lusardi and Mitchell (2007), with 34 citations and 15 relational links. In cluster 3, colored blue, also composed by nine authors, the authors Kasser and Ryan (1993) have 29 citations and 19 relational nods. Finally, cluster 4 (yellow) comprises three authors, which Creed and Bartrum (2008) stand out with 11 citations and three relational links. ...
Article
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This paper aims at presenting a systematic review of the literature based on the state of the art of research on financial well-being. We systematized a research protocol based on the works developed by Tranfield, Denyer, and Smart (2003), Kitchenham (2004), and Zupic and Čater (2015), to contribute to scientific knowledge about financial well-being, consistent with the methodological rigor required in RSL, which resulted in the composition of the research corpus. We search on the Scopus and Web of Science databases. The analysis includes all international publications between 1960 and 2018, comprising a total of 78 articles. Our results show that the financial well-being (demographic and socioeconomic variables, such as sex, ethnicity, age, income, education, and marital status), in addition to behavioral factors (attitude towards debt and financial literacy), may be indicative of theoretical gaps. We also evidenced that researchers have expended efforts on research involving the decision-making process in finance as a factor influenced by the satisfaction of people's lives.
... For example, considering the aspirational content of people's goals, the what of people's goal disengagement, may also be relevant for understanding which goals are easy or difficult to relinquish (goal contents theory; Ryan & Deci, 2017). Goal contents theory differentiates between two broad categories of goals: extrinsic aspirations (pursuit of wealth, fame, and image) and intrinsic aspirations (pursuit of personal growth, relationships, and community contribution), finding that a strong focus on extrinsic aspirations is related to lower wellbeing, whereas placing a priority on intrinsic aspirations is related to greater well-being (Kasser & Ryan, 1993, 1996Hope et al., 2019). Future research could investigate whether Goal Contents Theory may contribute to our understanding of motivation for goal disengagement. ...
Article
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When people hit roadblocks with their personal goals, goal disengagement is an adaptive response associated with improved mental and physical health. However, people can have trouble letting go of goals, even when pursuing them is problematic. We introduce a motivational model of goal disengagement by proposing that having autonomous motivation to disengage (a sense of truly identifying with the decision) as opposed to controlled motivation to disengage (feeling forced to let go) allows for people to make greater progress disengaging from specific goals, and prevents people getting stuck in an “inaction crisis” where they feel torn between disengaging further or re-adopting the goal. Using prospective longitudinal designs, we tracked the goal disengagement of personal goals in university students (Study 1, N = 510) and a general adult sample of Americans (Study 2, N= 446), finding that autonomous motivation for goal disengagement facilitated making disengagement progress. This work expands our understanding of the role of autonomous motivation throughout a goal’s lifecycle and helps integrate different theoretical frameworks on goal motivation and self-regulation.
... For example, considering the aspirational content of people's goals, the what of people's goal disengagement, may also be relevant for understanding which goals are easy or difficult to relinquish (goal contents theory; Ryan & Deci, 2017). Goal contents theory differentiates between two broad categories of goals: extrinsic aspirations (pursuit of wealth, fame, and image) and intrinsic aspirations (pursuit of personal growth, relationships, and community contribution), finding that a strong focus on extrinsic aspirations is related to lower wellbeing, whereas placing a priority on intrinsic aspirations is related to greater well-being (Kasser & Ryan, 1993, 1996Hope et al., 2019). Future research could investigate whether Goal Contents Theory may contribute to our understanding of motivation for goal disengagement. ...
Preprint
When people hit roadblocks with their personal goals, goal disengagement is an adaptive response associated with improved mental and physical health. However, people can have trouble letting go of goals, even when pursuing them is problematic. We introduce a motivational model of goal disengagement by proposing that having autonomous motivation to disengage (a sense of truly identifying with the decision) as opposed to controlled motivation to disengage (feeling forced to let go) allows for people to make greater progress disengaging from specific goals, and prevents people getting stuck in an “inaction crisis” where they feel torn between disengaging further or re-adopting the goal. Using prospective longitudinal designs, we tracked the goal disengagement of personal goals in university students (Study 1, N = 510) and a general adult sample of Americans (Study 2, N= 446), finding that autonomous motivation for goal disengagement facilitated making disengagement progress. This work expands our understanding of the role of autonomous motivation throughout a goal’s lifecycle and helps integrate different theoretical frameworks on goal motivation and self-regulation.
... Extrinsic values are associated with a range of different ill-being outcomes, such as lower life satisfaction, psychopathological symptoms, negative affect, risky health, and consumer behaviors, as well as a variety of physical symptoms (Dittmar, Bond, Hurst & Kasser, 2014;Kasser, 2002). On the other hand, intrinsic values, such as self-acceptance (i.e., aspirations for growth, meaning and competence in life), community feeling (i.e., aspirations to help better the world and lives of others), and affiliation (i.e., aspirations for close relationships and friends; Kasser & Ryan, 2001), correlate positively with well-being outcomes (e.g., higher life satisfaction, enhanced happiness; Fetvadjiev & He, 2019;Kasser, 2002) and related constructs such as increased self-actualization, vitality, as well as better interpersonal relationships (Kasser, 2002(Kasser, , 2011Kasser, Ryan, Couchman & Sheldon, 2004;Kasser & Ryan, 1993, 1996. ...
Article
The highly popular video game genre of Battle Royale (BR) games is characterized by survival and exploration elements that feature a last-man-standing gameplay, thus, motivating players to be the final contestant in the game. Drawing on the Self-Determination Theory the present study investigated the role of personal values, psychological needs and well-being in a self-selected sample of 303 BR gamers recruited online. The association between players’ value orientation and well-being was found contingent on players’ BR gaming experience and their need for relatedness. Whereas frequent interaction with this game genre was associated with the basic psychological need satisfaction of autonomy and relatedness, player preference for BR games was related to their need of competence and autonomy. The present study supports the importance of exploring player motives and provides initial insights into the association between BR gaming and basic psychological needs.
... However, numerous studies have revealed a social gradient paradox for wellbeing. For instance, the average well-being levels are not increased with the rising incomes of all members of society (Easterlin, 1995), and people having higher aspirations for material possessions are likely to experience a low level of SWB (Dolan et al., 2008;Kasser & Ryan, 1993); the OSS-SWB relation follows the law of diminishing marginal utility, which means that additional income has less impact on SWB when individuals' income level reaches a certain level (Diener et al., 1993); the correlation coefficient between OSS and SWB is higher for samples from the poor country than from the rich country (Howell & Howell, 2008). These pieces of evidence suggest that the relation between OSS and SWB not only stems from resource-based deprivation. ...
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Either objective or subjective social status is linked with subjective well-being (SWB) in a variety of ways. However, the exact mechanism underlying this relationship remains unknown. The present study investigates whether future time perspective (FTP) mediates the linkage of social status and SWB. A total of 3937 Chinese adults (M = 34.68 years; SD = 9.67) participated in the study. Pearson correlation analysis indicated the positive correlations between social status, FTP, and SWB. Stepwise regression showed that objective social status had a weakly linear effect on SWB, and subjective social status was more closely related to SWB than objective social status. The structural equation model showed that FTP functioned as a mediator in the relations between objective/subjective social status and SWB, which indicated that people with a higher objective and subjective status had high scores on FTP and those concentrated on future reported greater SWB. Overall, our findings do support the mediating effect of FTP in explaining the associations of two forms of social status and well-being. Implications of these results for understanding the connection among study variables were discussed.
... Some within psychology are addressing what lies behind the worship of money and selfish wealth gratification, sometimes orchestrated through fraudulent tactics (Nikelly, 2006). Motivational psychologists have studied "the dark side of the American Dream" (Kasser and Ryan, 1993), showing that those motivated by primarily extrinsic factors (financial success) have lower well-being and adjustment compared to those motivated by less materialistic values. Social psychologists have shown that those with higher social class standing have increased sense entitlement and narcissism compared to those from lower class backgrounds; those in the upper-class are also more likely to behave unethically than those in the lower-class (Piff et al., 2012;Piff, 2013). ...
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Envisioning the future of positive psychology (PP) requires looking at its past. To that end, I first review prior critiques of PP to underscore that certain early problems have persisted over time. I then selectively examine recent research to illustrate progress in certain areas as well as draw attention to recurrent problems. Key among them is promulgation of poorly constructed measures of well-being and reliance on homogeneous, privileged research samples. Another concern is the commercialization of PP, which points to the need for greater oversight and quality control in profit-seeking endeavors. Looking ahead, I advocate for future science tied to contemporary challenges, particularly ever-widening inequality and the pandemic. These constitute intersecting catastrophes that need scientific attention. Such problems bring into focus “neglected negatives” that may be fueling current difficulties, including greed, indifference, and stupidity. Anger, which defies easy characterization as positive or negative, also warrants greater scientific study. Going forward I advocate for greater study of domains that likely nurture good lives and just societies – namely, participation in the arts and encounters with nature, both currently under study. Overall, my entreaty to PP is to reckon with persistent problems from its past, while striving toward a future that is societally relevant and virtuous.
... Many officers and staff that I encounter express intrinsic motives for joining the police service. That is, they sign up for reasons that tend to fall in line with giving to one's community as opposed to gaining wealth, fame, and image (Kasser & Ryan, 1993). Without exception they tell me their motivation for being in policing is to fulfil a drive to "make a difference", but on closer examination "making a difference" is rarely the only life goal at play. ...
Article
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The current article provides a review and auto-ethnographic account of the application of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) in a police setting. After reviewing literature that explores the application of both REBT in policing to date, the focus will then turn to a reflection of the personal experiences of applying the principles of REBT theory in the context of policing. This commentary will highlight the broad applicability of REBT across the many challenging facets of policing. From stress management and resilience enhancement to optimal performance and team cohesion, this article posits that REBT theory provides an accessible foundational framework on which individuals, teams, groups, and systems can perform effectively. The nuanced application of the approach in the face of exposure to traumatic events and cultural challenges within policing will also be discussed.
... 307). Materialism has been linked to mental health problems, particularly depression and anxiety [23,[36][37][38], and a meta-analysis of several hundred studies by Dittmar et al. [39] showed clear negative relationships between a broad array of types of personal well-being (including depression and anxiety) and people's materialistic values. ...
Article
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During the COVID-19 pandemic, many factors have simultaneously affected people’s psychological distress (PD). The most commonly studied types of factors have been those relating to health risks involving SARS-CoV-2 infection and sociodemographic factors. However, financial changes at both the national and global levels and these changes’ influences on people’s personal finances constitute another group of factors with the potential to cause symptoms of anxiety and depression. A correlation study of 1135 working adults in Poland was conducted to analyze the roles of a wide range of financial variables in explaining the extent of people’s PD during the pandemic. Three groups of financial factors predicted PD over and above sociodemographic variables and COVID-19 health-related factors: a person’s objective financial situation, their subjective financial situation, and their individual financial disposition, the last of these being the most important. The present study adds to the current state of knowledge by showing that financial variables explain a significant portion of variance in PD over and above sociodemographic and COVID-19 health-related factors. Moreover, the study also identified individual financial variables that were capable of predicting people’s psychological distress during the pandemic.
... Hungarian sales consultants are expected to have the following qualities: professional competence, orderly appearance, courtesy, active problem-solving skills, personal neatness, appropriate education, helpful attitudes, and empathy (Durugy-Kollár-Madarász [2016]). 'The aspiration questionnaire of sales consultants showed a statistical deviation in dimensions from such standard values as wealth, flame, image, growth, connections, and health.' (Juhász [2019d] p. 95) Kasser and Ryan ([1993] p. 421) stated 'when goals for financial success exceeded those for affiliation, self-acceptance, and community feeling, a lower level of psychological adjustment was identified'. 'The relative importance and efficacy of extrinsic aspirations for financial success, an appealing appearance, and social recognition were associated with lower vitality and self-actualisation and more physical symptoms.' ...
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The primary aim of this study is to build a personality profile for financial sales personnel based on Super's Work Values Inventory that will help select the best candidates for sales staff in the financial and insurance sectors. This personality profile could be used to decide whether a candidate's psychometric characteristics are suitable for a financial sales position and meet the requirements of the profession as well as the general expectations of the given firm. To attain this aim, a comparative personality test was conducted in Hungary for the first time on a sample of 1,000 people working in the financial and insurance sectors. The following hypothesis is proposed by the author: Regarding sales associates in the financial and insurance sectors, the number of Super's Work Values Inventory principal components and the items connected these principal components show a significant difference from the results of a 2006 Hungarian survey. The findings confirm this hypothesis.
... When taken into consideration the results between selfesteem and gender, it can be seen that there are differences between studies. In his research, Arslan (2014) has stated that gender plays a predictive role in purposes of life and Kasser and Ryan (1993) have expressed that women's life purposes are higher than men's under the spectrum of substantiality. ...
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The purpose of this research is to analyze the relationship between self-sabotage and operationality, and if said relationship varies depending on age, gender and educational background. The associative screening model has been used in this research , in accordance to the goal. Sampling has been done by using the random cluster method, with the result of a total of 361 participants picked from Istanbul and Balıkesir constituting the samples. In order to fulfill the purpose of the collection of independent variables, a Personal Information Form, which the researcher has provided has been used. Furthermore, the Multidirecitonal Personal Operationality Scale has been used while determining operationality levels, and Self-Sabotage Scale has been used while determining self-sabotage levels. The t test, the one-way variance analysis (ANOVA), and the pearson correlation have been used in the analysis of data. When observed from the operationality point of view, it can be understood that there is a negative relationship between operationality and self-sabotage, which ultimately tells us that the higher the op-erationality, the lower the levels of self-sabotage. It has also been detected that there is no meaningful difference between self-sabotage and operationality under the spectrum of gender, although it is understood that self-esteem and purpose of life differs in between genders. It has been observed that self-sabotage and operationality dont have a substantial difference regarding the age variable and that the level of operationality does not offer any meaningful difference regarding educational background. Nevertheless, the purpose of living, the sub-scale of operationality, and the level of self-sabotage have a substantial difference in regard of educational background. Özet Bu araştırmanın amacı, eylemlilik ve kendini sabotaj arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemektir. Araştırmanın diğer amacı ise, bu iki kavram arasındaki ilişkinin cinsiyet, yaş ve eğitim durumu açısından anlamlı farklılık gösterip göstermediklerini incelemek-tir. Araştırmada amaca uygun olarak ilişkisel tarama modeli kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın örneklemi İstanbul ve Balıkesir illerinden tesadüfi küme yöntemi ile seçilmiş ve örneklem toplam 361 katılımcıdan oluşmuştur. Araştırmada bağımsız değişkenlerine ilişkin verilerin toplanması amacıyla, araştırmacı tarafından düzenlenen Kişisel Bilgi Formu kullanılmıştır. Ayrıca eylemlilik düzeyine ilişkin veriler Cote (1997) tarafından geliştirilen ve Atak (2010) tarafından Türkçe uyarlaması yapılan Çok-Yönlü Kişisel Eylemli Ölçeği, kendini sabotaj düzeyi ile ilgili veriler Jones ve Hodewalt (1982) tarafından geliştirilen, Akın ve Abacı (2010) tarafından Türkçe uyarlaması yapılan Ken-dini Sabotaj Ölçeği kullanılarak elde edilmiştir. Verilerin analizinde, t testi, tek yönlü varyans analizi (ANOVA), pearson korelasyon analizi ve tukey testi kullanılmıştır. Araştırma bulgularına eylemlilik açısından bakıldığında, eylemlilik ile kendini sabotaj arasında anlamlı düzeyde ve negatif bir ilişki olduğu yani eylemlilik arttıkça kendini sabotaj düzeyinin azaldığını göstermiştir. Kişilerin eylemlilik ve kendini sabotaj düzeylerinin cinsiyet açısından anlamlı bir fark olmadığı fakat eylemlilik alt boyutları öz-saygı ve yaşam amacının cinsiyet açısından anlamlı fark olduğu görülmüştür. Ken-dini sabotaj ve eylemlilik düzeylerinin yaş ile arasında anlamlı fark olmadığı görülmüş ve eylemlilik düzeyinin eğitim durumu açısından anlamlı fark olmadığı anlaşılmıştır. Fakat eylemlilik alt ölçeği yaşam amacı ve kendini sabotaj düzeyinin eğitim durumu açısından anlamlı fark olduğu görülmüştür.
... Participants' goals were assessed using 18 items (e.g., "It is important to me that I will work to make the world a better place" or "It is important to me that I will be financially successful") taken from the Aspiration Index (AI: Kasser & Ryan, 1993) Higher scores indicated that a higher importance was given to these goals. ...
Article
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The COVID‐19 pandemic has led to an increase in the factors that typically facilitate the endorsement of materialistic values (e.g., higher media consumption, stress and anxiety, loneliness, death anxiety, and lower moods). In this paper, we examine how contextual changes affecting the antecedents of materialism influence its advocacy with a mixed‐method approach. First, a correlational study (Study 1) suggests that increases in media consumption and stress and anxiety during the pandemic predicted current levels of materialism, however, these effects were limited. Second, contrary to our expectations, a longitudinal study (Study 2) shows that people's focus on money decreased during the pandemic. Last, a social media content analysis (Study 3) reveals a downward trend in users’ online discourses about consumption‐related behaviors, but an upward trend in brands promoting spending as a way to attain well‐being. The observed effects could fuel deeper societal change in the labor market and in consumer behavior, and have further implications for individual and societal well‐being in a post‐pandemic world. We recommend future interventions aimed at diminishing materialistic attitudes to examine the effects of decreasing media consumption and to explore how other factors introduced by the pandemic (e.g., a health or well‐being focus) might moderate its advocacy.
... Intrinsic goals are mainly relevant to the significant relationship, individual growth, and social support, while, extrinsic goals are relevant to financial security, positive reputation, and physical attraction. As with autonomous motivation, the intrinsic goals enhance psychological relaxation and efficiency in working (Kasser and Ryan, 1993;Ryan and Deci, 2000). ...
Article
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China has witnessed a remarkable surge in the enrollment of international students in recent years and the state government has made a massive investment to build key universities of international repute. These trends made it imperative to investigate the underlying motivational aspirations of foreign students arriving from diverse regions to get enrolled in public sector Chinese universities. The present study designed an in-depth survey questionnaire and collected data from 618 foreign students enrolled in postgraduate programs at seven key state universities in the Hubei province of China. The item-based, dimension-based, and variable-level analysis approach is used to systematically uncover the facets of the internationalization of Chinese higher education in the current setting. In so doing, we employ descriptive statistics, principal component analysis, ANOVA, correlation and regression estimations, and path models to ensure the robustness of empirical outcomes. In light of the push and pull factor model regarding motivational factors for foreign students to study in China, the findings of this study assert that academic pursuits mainly dictate the international student’s decision to attain higher education in China. While obtaining a foreign degree, international image prestige, and better employment prospects after the completion of the degree were the key intentions that mainly shape the students’ decision to get enrolled in Chinese universities. Furthermore, the discriminant analysis posits that international students significantly differ in their motivational dimensions to obtain a higher degree from China. As foreign students from Asia and Africa mainly have academic goals while Europeans and Americans predominantly have pleasure and enjoyment motives to study in China. The outcomes of this research can assist Chinese administrators to understand the key motivational factors for foreign students to study in China and devise a policy accordingly to attract high quality foreign talent.
... 36 As a matter of fact, individuals who put emphasis on financial success and fame are more likely to end up less satisfied with their lives than individuals who do not crave wealth and fame. 37 This is because they may be distracted from other more effective routes to subjective well-being, such as nurturing social relationships, enjoying the present, and contributing to their communities. ...
Article
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Objective A large number of residents in US advanced specialty education programmes are foreign-trained dentists. When faced with the career dilemma of applying for US residency training, foreign-trained dentists may wonder whether it is worth proceeding along that path. In addiditon, studies capturing benefits from receiving US residency training are rare. Therefore, this study compared the life satisfaction amongst 3 dentist groups in Taiwan (ie, US-trained specialists, Taiwan-trained specialists, and general dentists). Methods Cross-sectional surveys were distributed to dentists currently residing in Taiwan. Participants were surveyed about demographic information, career-related information, and life satisfaction. Life satisfaction was measured with a structured Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Nonparametric bivariate analyses and multivariable adjusted generalised linear model (GLM) were used to examine the differences between mean SWLS scores and examined variables. We included 134 US-trained specialists, 134 Taiwan-trained specialists, and 134 general dentists matched for age, sex, and marital status. Results With the mean age of 51.4 ± 10.8 years old, specialists had significantly higher mean life satisfaction scores than general dentists. US-trained specialists had significantly higher mean life satisfaction scores than Taiwan-trained specialists when health and family relationships were not considered. Career-rated factors (eg, spending more clinical hours with patients, having more expenses related to continuing education, publishing more peer-reviewed articles, and being a frequent speaker) were not associated with better life satisfaction. Conclusions US-trained specialists were more likely to be satisfied with their lives than Taiwan-trained specialists and general dentists. However, health and social relationships contribute more to dentists’ life satisfaction than do career-rated factors.
... Ryff, C. D. -Singer, B., 1998). Vzťah cieľových obsahov (ašpirácií) k životnej pohode bol v rámci SDT skúmaný v sérií viacerých štúdií, ktoré realizovali Kasser a Ryan (1993. Títo autori vymedzili dve skupiny ašpirácií. ...
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The scientific monograph presents a theoretical-empirical view on the topic of motivation to learn in the school environment. We have chosen as the main approach an autonomy supporting teache from the Theory of self-determination. We present our several research findings from the field of assessing the style of motivation to learn in lower secondary education and students in university programs pre-primary and primary pedagogy. Due to the lack of direct data from the area of measuring motivation in pupils at the pre-primary and primary level, we have extended our analysis with data from the International Measurement of Reading (PIRLS), Mathematical and Science Literacy (TIMSS). We assumed that the nature of motivation to learn is directly linked to the results of the learning process. The concept of literacy is comprehensive for linking with the concept of motivation. In the monograph, we brings a concept of change based on the principles of personalized learning, enriched by an approach aimed at building a culture of environment focused on innovation as a starting point for negative research conclusions. The monograph focuses mainly on the role of the future teacher, whom he perceives as crucial person in the process of introducing any new positive changes.
... Materialism is getting more in uential especially in rich societies, for example, in the capitalist USA, the 'totemic' American Dream strongly ties with one's nancial success (21,22); people become more materialistic in the rapidly developing China as well. According to a survey conducted by The Ipsos (23), China has been ranked as the most materialistic country among twenties and 71% of Chinese respondents agreed that success should be measured by the number of materialistic possessions, compared with 34% from other countries (24). ...
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Background: People are holding stronger materialistic belief than before, especially in some developed regions in the world. Materialism refers to beliefs that equate materialistic possessions with happiness, success, and make it central to life. Extant research has widely shown that materialism threatens people’s well-being. Nevertheless, the evidence on how materialism influences meaning in life is less well-established. Within the realm of this area, we examined the relationship between materialism and meaning in life, as well as its potential mechanisms, under the framework of Self-Determination Theory.Methods: Two cross-sectional online survey studies have been conducted to test the hypothesized serial double mediation model. In this model, we measured four constructs including people’s materialistic values, basic psychological needs satisfaction, subjective well-being, and meaning in life. In Study 1, we collected data from a Chinese sample (N=190). In Study 2, we tried to replicate the findings from Study 1 by collecting a non-Chinese different-age Prolific sample (N=767).Results: The results from Study 1 and Study 2 are consistent. We found that the relationship between materialistic happiness and meaning in life is serially mediated by basic psychological needs satisfaction and subjective well-being. The results confirm that materialistic happiness frustrates basic psychological needs, which threatens people’s subjective well-being then meaning in life. Nonetheless, same serial multiple mediation model is not observed from other two materialistic dimensions including materialistic centrality and materialistic success.Conclusions: Materialistic happiness threatens people’s sense of meaning in life. This relationship can be explained under the framework of Self-Determination Theory. Issues such as how different types of happiness facilitate the constitution of meaning in life, and new investigation directions on materialism and meaning in life research have been discussed.
... Ryff, C. D. -Singer, B., 1998). Vzťah cieľových obsahov (ašpirácií) k životnej pohode bol v rámci SDT skúmaný v sérií viacerých štúdií, ktoré realizovali Kasser a Ryan (1993, ale aj v ďalších, ktoré sa týkali predovšetkým ľudských ašpirácií a celkových životných cieľov. Kasser a Ryan vymedzili dve skupiny ašpirácií. ...
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The monograph presents the Theory of Self-Determination, which is currently the most comprehensive theory of human motivation. It brings findings from quantitative research carried out in lower secondary education level at Slovak schools. In 73% of pupils, external types of regulation were found, in which external - control motivation is significantly strengthened. These pupils are decided based on the expected reward and appreciation or an effort to avoid the expected punishment or a sense of shame and guilt. In 20% of pupils, the identified regulation were found, in which the importance of the pupil's internal motives for learning at school is significantly higher. The regulations related with academic growth, which are coming from outside, these pupils perceive as important for theirself – as a meaningful. Intrinsic motivation was found in 7% of pupils. Pupils with this motivational style are more personally involved in finding activities that allow their to develop their own capacity and potential. The monograph brings interpretations that allow to well reflect the shortcomings in the management of the teaching process in the classroom but also at the level of school management to the shortcomings of the country's educational policy.
... In that, intrinsic goals focus on personal growth, health, communal relationships, and emotional intimacy. 12 Meanwhile, extrinsic goals are related to personal status, appearance, image, and economy. 7 In general, intrinsic goals pursuit is more likely to satisfy their basic psychological need and then promote personal well-being. ...
Article
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Goal contents pursuit reflects the motivational personality and can be an excellent indicator to predict individuals' life satisfaction and daily behaviors. However, due to the expense and subjective bias of questionnaires, it is challenging to obtain individual data and explore the effects of goal contents pursuit in conventional studies. Social media provides individuals with a communication context that can be used as a proxy to infer personality based on a massive of media footprints information. This study obtained 456 Weibo active users' self-reports of goal contents pursuit scale and their online behaviors that is established to train a competent machine learning model, which then successfully identifies the classification of intrinsic and extrinsic goals. From the perspective of Weibo users' features (i.e., basic, interactive, linguistic, and emotional features), the systematic comparison shows the significant differences in the pursuit level of intrinsic and extrinsic goals. This study advances the methodology of employing machine learning and online data to objectively delineate individual goal contents pursuit and paves the way to explore a massive number of individuals' personalities and behaviors.
... Values. Intrinsic and extrinsic values of children and mothers were assessed by two different versions of the Aspirations Index (AI; Kasser & Ryan, 1993. Mothers completed the original 30-item AI, while children completed a 24-item AI developed specifically for school-aged children (Nishimura et al., 2017). ...
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The purpose of the study was to examine longitudinally how intrinsic and extrinsic values develop during pread-olescence within a mother-child context by comparing three different developmental pathways-direct value transmission , indirect value transmission, and value origination. Two hundred and thirty-three Korean mother-child dyads of late elementary students (M age ¼ 11.4 years; 55% girls) participated in a year-long online questionnaire survey. A longitudinal structural equation modelling analysis revealed two contrasting developmental pathways for intrinsic and extrinsic values in preadolescents. Intrinsic values developed via value origination, while extrinsic values developed via direct transmission. In other words, intrinsic values originated from the child's own inner psychological experiences and developed in accordance with changes in psychological needs satisfaction, whereas extrinsic values were transmitted from mothers in accordance with the degree to which they endorsed extrinsic values.
Article
Рассматривается феномен субъективной витальности как философская проблема и как предмет научно-психологического исследования. В центре статьи находится проблема роли и статуса субъективной витальности в структуре личности. В зарубежных исследованиях субъективная витальность традиционно рассматривается как производная от личностной автономии и показатель субъективного благополучия личности. Представлены результаты серии эмпирических исследований (испытуемые учащиеся школ и студенты). Результаты существенно расширяют представление о субъективной витальности и доказывают, что она играет важнейшую роль в процессе совладания с трудными обстоятельствами жизни и в развитии личности, являясь не только мерой психологического благополучия, но и полноценным личностным ресурсом.
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Теория самодетерминации – современный подход к изучению человеческой мотивации, личности и психологического благополучия. В данной статье рассмотрены основные темы дискуссий, развернувшихся на прошедшей в Гентском университете конференции по теории самодетерминации (Бельгия, 13–16 мая 2010 года). Анализируются перспективы развития теории, новые направления эмпирических исследований, вопросы кросс-культурной универсальности базовых положений теории. Представлены современные исследования в русле пяти мини-теорий, из которых в настоящее время состоит теория самодетерминации. Это теория организмической интеграции, теория когнитивной оценки, теория каузальных ориентаций, теория базовых психологических потребностей, теория содержания целей. Вторая часть статьи посвящена основным направлениям практического применения теории самодетерминации в области детско-родительских отношений, психологии обучения, психологии труда, клинической психологии и психологии здоровья.
Article
Luxury consumption through private sales travel websites is an intrinsic paradox because of the antagonism between luxury and discounts. Prior literature emphasizes that discounts are risky and may damage the notion of luxury itself and brand image. We provide a broader and deeper understanding of this paradox by means of a twofold qualitative approach on luxury consumers and hotel managers. By considering both luxury motivations (personal or social) and the importance of price as an indicator of prestige, four types of luxury consumers emerge. Our findings counterintuitively show that some luxury consumers accept discounted prices on luxury, even if they show social luxury consumption motivations. This antagonism makes less sense for consumers who do not consider price as signaling prestige to others. From a managerial perspective, our results can also help create private sales websites with a differentiated approach according to the profiles of consumers and of luxury hotels.
Article
Purpose This study aims to explore the potential that acting proenvironmentally protects adolescents from developing materialistic value. Design/methodology/approach Convenience sampling was adopted to collect data from two randomly selected secondary schools in central China. A total of 784 participants were included in the survey. Findings The mediation analysis revealed that adolescent proenvironmental behaviour was negatively associated with materialism. The results of the moderated mediation model showed that psychological entitlement mediates the association between adolescent proenvironmental behaviour and materialism, and that family socioeconomic status acts as a moderator in the association between proenvironmental behaviour and psychological entitlement. Practical implications The current results advise educational practitioners on alleviating adolescent materialism. Policy makers and schools can add more environmental practice to the curriculum and extracurricular activities. Moreover, identifying the personal benefits of proenvironmental behaviour can motivate young people to act proenvironmentally, which not only factually reduces over-consumption but also attracts more attention from young people to the environment. Originality/value Previous studies rarely explored the individual belief or perception accounting for the negative association between proenvironmental behaviour and materialism. Therefore, the authors adopt psychological entitlement, a belief reflecting the dark side of individual perception, to explain why proenvironmental behaviour reduces materialism.
Article
Since the publication of the seminal book Nudge by Thaler and Sunstein, several critics have highlighted preference endogeneity as a serious obstacle to nudging. When individuals hold preferences that are dynamic and endogenous to the nudge frame, it is unclear what the normative benchmark for libertarian paternalistic policies should be. While acknowledging this issue, the pro-nudging camp has not yet sufficiently addressed it. This article aims to fill this void by presenting a conditional defence of nudging when preferences are endogenous. We explain the learning process through which individuals establish ‘agentic’ preferences: preferences that are sufficiently stable, reasonable, autonomous and associated with organismic well-being to ground the ‘welfare’ principle of libertarian paternalism. To describe this process, we draw on theories from psychological science, in particular self-discrepancy theory and self-determination theory. We argue that agentic preferences are not only welfare-relevant and thus appropriate to libertarian paternalism but can also be identified by choice architects.
Article
This research examined the association between materialism and self-interest-triggered moral flexibility, the tendency to change moral judgments based on self-interest. Individuals high on materialism reported a greater discrepancy in the moral judgments of their own and others’ behavior (Study 1), and showed a relatively more negative attitude towards fairness when being fair hindered rather than served their self-interests (Study 2). Studies 3 and 4 (both pre-registered) showed that when faced with moral conflict (equity vs. equality in Study 3, and ingroup favoritism vs. fairness in Study 4), materialism amplified the tendency to judge the moral values that served (vs. interfered with) one’s self-interest as more moral. Implications of these findings for the understanding of how materialists approach morality were discussed.
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Глава посвящена описанию процесса и результатов психометрической разработки оригинальной русскоязычной методики "Опросник диспозиционного материализма", предназначенной для диагностики индивидуального уровня выраженности у испытуемого соответствующей личностной диспозиции.
Article
Construal level theory suggests that individuals with high construal level may experience greater self-control than those with low construal level when pursuing their goals. In the current research, we examined whether this effect would be moderated by goal content (i.e., intrinsic vs. extrinsic goals). Three studies adopting different designs revealed that construal level was positively associated with perceived self-control capacity only when individuals were pursuing relatively intrinsic (vs. extrinsic) goals. Moreover, Study 2 also showed that increased self-control capacity positively predicted goal attainment one week later. The current research extends previous work on construal level and sheds new light on the effective pursuit of goals.
Chapter
How do you measure a construct as complex as subjective wellbeing? The first part of this chapter reviews the many tools available for measuring each dimension of the construct, as well as the well-being profile—a new measure that holds some promise for capturing subjective wellbeing holistically in only fifteen questions. The second part of the chapter then explains why even fifteen questions is likely too long for many applications in policy and social science. Life satisfaction scales hold a great deal of promise as a unidimensional and sufficiently cardinal measure of subjective wellbeing for these applications. However, there are several concerns about these scales, notably inconsistent scale use across respondents or within respondents over time, that need to be investigated more thoroughly. The chapter provides a conceptual analysis of these concerns and uses them to differentiate adaptation, scale-norming, and reference point shifts.
Chapter
While subjective well-being scholarship has its merits, it is not without its weaknesses, and these are the subject of this chapter. While the definition and approach of the field were appropriate in its historical context, they are inappropriate and indeed problematic for applications in public policy. In particular, this chapter demonstrates that the field is naive about the normative implications of “wellbeing” theories and that its measurement instruments lack precision. Both of these faults find their origins in the field’s atheoretic inclinations and operationalist epistemology. It is time to replace this with a more realist epistemology. That requires a thorough theory of subjective wellbeing that engages extensively with normativity, which this book provides.
Book
The study of “subjective wellbeing” has seen explosive growth in recent decades, opening important new discourses in personality and social psychology, happiness economics, and moral philosophy. Now it is moving into the policy domain. In this it has arguably overstepped its limits. The shallow theoretical base of subjective wellbeing research, the limitations of its measurement instruments, and its ethical naivety make policymaking on the basis of its findings a risky venture. The present volume is an attempt to shore up these weaknesses and set subjective wellbeing scholarship on a course for several more decades of growth and maturation. It presents a theory of subjective wellbeing in two parts. The first is the subjective wellbeing production function—a model of wellbeing as outcome. The second is the coalescence of being—a model of the self-actualization process by which wellbeing is achieved. This two-part model integrates ideas from subjective wellbeing studies with complementary ideas in analytical and continental philosophy, clinical, moral, and developmental psychology, and welfare economics. Importantly, this theory is ethically sensitive, bridging the gap between the philosophical and psychological perspectives on wellbeing in a way that illuminates the complexities facing the application of subjective wellbeing in public policy. The book also provides a thorough review of various ways in which subjective wellbeing can be studied empirically, and the hard trade-offs we face between long surveys that capture the richness of the concept and the parsimony required by social surveys and policy analysis.
Book
Libro que aborda el concepto de calidad de vida y bienestar subjetivo desde una perspectiva psicosocial.
Article
Living in a consumerist society can afford material abundance, but these gains can bring psychological costs. A developed literature suggests experiential purchases (such as trips or outdoor recreation) represent a more promising route to enduring consumer happiness than the consumption of material goods. The satisfaction from experiences extends across a rather broad time course, including the anticipation of experiential consumption, in-the-moment consumption, and retrospection. This review discusses the underlying reasons for why these effects occur, additional downstream consequences of consuming experiences, and potential directions for future work. This extensive program of research provides a simple lesson people can apply to improve wellbeing in daily life: shifting spending in the direction of doing rather than having would likely be psychologically wise.
Chapter
This chapter presents theoretical data for the foreclosed identity variant. The aim of the chapter is to illustrate to the reader how this identity variant appears in an ISA, Ipseus report and how it can be analysed. To build on the reader’s understanding of ISA analysis, this chapter includes figures and tables of raw scores taken from the report that Ipseus generated from the theoretical data. These figures and raw scores are provided to better the reader’s understanding of how and why the interpretation of the raw scores might be useful in a professional development setting such as supervision or mentoring.
Thesis
Cette thèse a pour but d’une part de démontrer l’impact d’interventions favorisant une mentalité malléable (« growth mindset intervention ») sur une population d’étudiants à l’université, et d’autre part de développer un modèle synthétique regroupant à la fois des facteurs de bien-être (stress et stratégies de coping) et d’accomplissement (motivation, buts d’accomplissement, réussite académique) permettant d’expliquer le bon ajustement ou non d’étudiants entrant à l’université. Plus spécifiquement, nous avons fait l’hypothèse que les individus possédant une mentalité de croissance (conception malléable d’attributs internes comme l’intelligence – opposé à une mentalité fixiste, Dweck & Legget, 1988) vont favoriser une régulation autonome (accomplir une tâche comme apprendre ses cours car cela a une signification importante, ou apporte une satisfaction intrinsèque – opposé à une régulation contrôlée, Deci & Ryan, 2002). Se faisant, les étudiants adoptent davantage de buts de « maîtrise-approche » (aborder leurs études avec un objectif d’apprentissage – opposé aux buts de « performance-évitement », Bargh et al., 2010) et de stratégies de coping proactives (réinterprétation positive des événements stressants comme des défis à surmonter et efforts continus fournis pour accomplir une tâche, Greenglass, 2002). Nous souhaitions donc développer une intervention visant à inciter cette mentalité de croissance. Nous avons pu modéliser statistiquement l’articulation théorique des facteurs en jeu, ainsi qu’obtenir certains effets de l’intervention growth mindset au sein de 3 études expérimentales. Les résultats obtenus ont été confirmés par différentes méta-analyses et analyses multi-niveaux. Une analyse factorielle confirmatoire a aussi été réalisée afin de valider la mesure de coping proactif utilisée dans ces travaux. Des analyses exploratoires révèlent par ailleurs le rôle central de la mentalité (malléable vs. fixe) présente dans l’environnement académique sur l’articulation des variables en jeu. Les résultats obtenus pour l’intervention, ainsi que la pertinence du modèle théorique établi sont discutés au vu de la littérature actuelle sur le phénomène de growth mindset (c.f. méta-analyse Sisk, 2018).
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