Article

The Effect of a 12-week Dynamic Resistance Strength Training Program on Gait Velocity and Balance of Older Adults

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Abstract

This study tested whether a 12-week dynamic resistance strength training program can change gait velocity and improve measures of balance among adults age 65 and older. Fifty-five community-dwelling adults (X̅ age = 71.1) were randomized into an exercise (n = 25) or control (n = 30) group. The exercisers were requested to complete three bouts of strength training per week for 12 weeks using elastic tubing. At posttest the exercisers demonstrated slower gait velocity, enhanced balance, and an improved ability to walk backward, although none of these posttest measures was significantly different from the control group.

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... In contrast, Judge et al. (9) found clinically significant improvement in strength and gait velocity in 31 subjects following a 12-week resistance and balance training exercise program. In another study of 55 community-dwelling older people, Topp et al. (10) reported an unexpected finding, in that following a 12-week dynamic resistance training program, exercisers actually demonstrated reduced gait velocity. ...
... Most previous studies that have examined the effects of exercise on gait have reported little or no measurable benefit, although these trials have had a number of limitations including small sample sizes and crude assessments of gait parameters (5)(6)(7)(8)10). In contrast, the current study, which supports the findings of Judge et al. (9), measured gait patterns using sophisticated equipment in a large randomized sample, and may have revealed more of the potential role that exercise can play in improving functional mobility. ...
... Our finding of higher gait velocity on retest in the exercisers is in conflict with those of Topp et al. (10), who ascribed their finding of slower velocity following exercise to a better control of the center of gravity. We feel that this explanation is unlikely, as longer strides and increased cadence -which are more typical of younger persons -are more likely indicators of confident walking patterns and control of the center of gravity. ...
Article
Background. This study was undertaken to determine (a) whether a program of regular exercise can improve gait patterns in older women, and (b) whether any such improvement in gait is mediated by increased lower limb muscle strength.
... Ao compararmos as particularidades envolvidas nos treinamentos aeróbio e resistido abordados nessa pesquisa, conseguimos observar que, em relação às idosas que caminhavam, as idosas do GTR tinham um maior estímulo dos músculos das regiões do quadril, abdominal e lombar, considerados de grande importância para o equilíbrio (Marques et al., 2017;Papa et al., 2017). Reforçando esta relação, Topp et al. (1993) mostraram que um programa de 12 semanas de treinamento resistido, com duração de 60 minutos diários, três vezes por semana, era capaz de melhorar o equilíbrio de pessoas idosas. Em adição, Hess, Woollacott e Shivitz (2006) destacam que esse efeito do treinamento resistido é mais bem percebido em idosas frágeis. ...
... Os treinos avaliados por Woo et al. (2007) duraram 12 meses e eram baseados na prática de 24 formas de Tai-Chi-Chuan (aeróbio) ou em exercícios realizados com o auxílio de faixas elásticas de resistência (theraband) de força média. Tomados em conjunto, podemos notar que a obtenção de resultados significativos para o equilíbrio depende do controle das variáveis do treinamento, tais como intensidade e volume e exercícios a serem realizados (Buchner et al., 1997;Keating et al., 2021;Topp et al., 1993), algo que não foi mencionado nos estudos de Woo et al. (2007) e Ruzene e Navega (2014). Além disso, Marques et al. (2011Marques et al. ( , 2017, Buchner et al. (1997) e Woo et al. (2007 não utilizaram a EEB como instrumento de avaliação do equilíbrio. ...
Article
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A prática regular de exercício físico tem sido considera uma conduta eficiente para melhorar o equilíbrio de idosos. Porém, não está muito claro se os exercícios físicos resistido e aeróbio resultam no mesmo efeito sobre o equilíbrio em mulheres idosas. Pensando nisso, o objetivo deste estudo foi comparar os efeitos dos treinamentos resistido e aeróbio sobre o equilíbrio e a preocupação com quedas em idosas. Para tal, foram avaliadas idosas do grupo treinamento resistido (GTR; n = 15) e do grupo aeróbio (GEA; n = 15). Foram mensurados o nível de atividade física o equilíbrio e a preocupação com a queda. Nenhuma diferença significativa entre grupos foi observada no nível de atividade física (χ²= 0,240; gl= 1; p<0,624). Porém, as idosas do GTR apresentaram melhor desempenho no teste de equilíbrio (49,8±3,85) e baixa preocupação com uma possível queda (18,3±1,44), quando comparadas com as idosas do GEA (equilíbrio: 28,13±4,24; χ² Wald (1) = 176,778; p<0,0001; preocupação com uma possível queda: 33,0±5,93; χ² Wald (1) = 87,5; p<0,001). No presente estudo, podemos concluir que idosas praticantes de treinamento resistido apresentaram melhor equilíbrio e menor preocupação com uma possível queda em relação às idosas praticantes de exercício aeróbio.
... When we compared the results of the present study with previous studies, which used traditional/ aerobic and strength exercises for OA (Beals et al., 1985;Chamberline et al., 1982;Fisher et al., 1991;1993;Minor et al., 1989), the functions and symptoms of the patients in these earlier studies did not improve as markedly as similar measures found in the present study. In the present study, the most marked change was observed in descending and climbing stairs times with values of 21 and 15% respectively. ...
... Several clinical trials have utilized time during leg stance to examine the effects of exercise on balance in healthy older adults. However, previous studies have generally used strength (Brown and Holloszy, 1991;MacRae et al., 1994;Topp et al., 1993) or fitness training (Hopkins et al., 1990;Messier et al., 2000) -which did not include specific exercises that target balance. Although these studies used longer exercise sessions ranging from 12 weeks to 18 months in healthy older people, the effect of training on the balance was negligible. ...
Article
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We investigated the effects of a multi-station proprioceptive exercise program on functional capacity, perceived knee pain, and sensoriomotor function. Twenty-two patients (aged 41-75 years) with grade 2-3 bilateral knee osteoarthrosis were randomly assigned to two groups: treatment (TR; n = 12) and non-treatment (NONTR; n = 10). TR performed 11 different balance/coordination and proprioception exercises, twice a week for 6 weeks. Functional capacity and perceived knee pain during rest and physical activity was measured. Also knee position sense, kinaesthesia, postural control, isometric and isokinetic knee strength (at 60, 120 and 180°·s-1) measures were taken at baseline and after 6 weeks of training. There was no significant difference in any of the tested variables between TR and NONTR before the intervention period. In TR perceived knee pain during daily activities and functional tests was lessened following the exercise program (p < 0.05). Perceived knee pain was also lower in TR vs. NONTR after training (p < 0.05). The time for rising from a chair, stair climbing and descending improved in TR (p < 0.05) and these values were faster compared with NONTR after training (p < 0.05). Joint position sense (degrees) for active and passive tests and for weight bearing tests improved in TR (p < 0.05) and the values were lower compared with NONTR after training (p < 0.05). Postural control ('eyes closed') also improved for single leg and tandem tests in TR (p<0.01) and these values were higher compared with NONTR after training. The isometric quadriceps strength of TR improved (p < 0.05) but the values were not significantly different compared with NONTR after training. There was no change in isokinetic strength for TR and NONTR after the training period. The results suggest that using a multi-station proprioceptive exercise program it is possible to improve postural control, functional capacity and decrease perceived knee pain in patients with bilateral knee osteoarthrosis.
... knees. These changes are generally attributed to gradual For example, one study of men and women reported mean tissues which result in a loss of elasticity and inability to thoracic kyphosis angles of 26° in persons in their 20 s,53°demonstrated no improvement in postural sway over in those 60 to74 years of age and 66° in those older than75 controls [17]. Katzman and colleagues reported that, years of age [9]. ...
... were randomly divided into two therapeutic between poor balance, abnormalities of gait and falling (n=12) and control (n=11) groups. Participants were among elderlyadults [17]. Decline in postural stability required to have a thoracic kyphosis of 40° or greater. ...
Article
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This study aimed to investigate the effect of seatedexercise therapy on the posture and the balance inhyperkyphotic elder women.In this study 23 hyperkyphotic females, aged 60 years and older, were randomly divided, into experimental group(n=12) and control group (n=11). The experimental group exercised 3 sessions per week for12 weeks, 60-90 minutes per session. Before and after exercise program their kyphosis angle was measured by using of flexible ruler. Their balance was measured by using of Berg balance scale. The results showed no significant difference between two groups (experimental and control) in the balance, kyphosis angle, height and forward head at pretest (p 0.05). There was a significant difference between kyphosis angles from pre (49.33±4.61) to post test (41.33±4.24) in experimental group (p 0.05). Moreover, the results showed that the seated exercise therapy causes significant changes on the height, the forward headand the balance of the elder people (p 0.05). However, there was no differencebetween thepretest and the post test in thecontrol group in any variables.The results of this study confirm the role of seated exercise therapy in reducing the angle of kyphosis and improving balance in older adults.
... O tipo de exercício físico recomendado para idosos no passado era mais o aeróbio pelos seus efeitos no sistema cardiovascular e controle destas doenças, além dos benefícios psicológicos (15) . Atualmente, estudos mostram a importância dos exercícios envolvendo força e flexibilidade, pela melhora e manutenção da capacidade funcional e autonomia do idoso (13,14,(16)(17)(18) . ...
... Há uma diminuição no nível de atividade física com o envelhecimento e estudos (8) mostram que a atividade física mais prevalente é a caminhada e o alongamento e exercícios de força entram em declínio com o avanço da idade. Estudos (17,18) mostram a importância dos exercícios de força para a manutenção do equilíbrio, agilidade e da capacidade funcional dos idosos. Para manter a força muscular e o equilíbrio, importante realizar exercícios com pesos, de 2 a 4 vezes por semana, que estimulem a musculatura e auxiliem na manutenção da postura e do equilíbrio (19) . ...
Article
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A população idosa vem aumentando consideravelmente, o que se atribui a uma maior expectativa de vida, provavelmente relacionada a um melhor controle de doenças infectocontagiosas e crônico-degenerativas, gerando a necessidade de mudanças na estrutura social, para que estas pessoas tenham uma boa qualidade de vida. A atividade física é um importante meio de prevenção e promoção da saúde dos idosos através de seus inúmeros benefícios. O presente artigo teve por objetivo abordar aspectos do processo de envelhecimento: sua epidemiologia, os benefícios e a importância da atividade física para alcançar qualidade de vida na terceira idade e as políticas públicas brasileiras voltadas para essa fase da vida, salientando-se a necessidade atual de estruturação efetiva de programas que enfatizem a prática de atividades físicas, bem como o engajamento dos profissionais de saúde frente a estas ações.
... However, this work is specifically relevant to our continuing efforts to expand the application of multiscale biomechanical metrics for improved evaluation of volumetric muscle loss (VML) injury and repair. Here improved maximum isometric torque has been the primary evaluative metric, even though increases in this measure alone do not necessarily result in improved functional outcomes [34][35][36][37][38] .With the large volume of preclinical studies being performed on the rat hindlimb to assess muscle, nerve, tendon, and joint injuries, kinetic insight into the extent of injury and the road to recovery would be instrumental in fine-tuning rehabilitative and regenerative therapies. ...
Article
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The rat hindlimb is a frequently utilized pre-clinical model system to evaluate injuries and pathologies impacting the hindlimbs. These studies have demonstrated the translational potential of this model but have typically focused on the force generating capacity of target muscles as the primary evaluative outcome. Historically, human studies investigating extremity injuries and pathologies have utilized biomechanical analysis to better understand the impact of injury and extent of recovery. In this study, we expand that full biomechanical workup to a rat model in order to characterize the spatiotemporal parameters, ground reaction forces, 3-D joint kinematics, 3-D joint kinetics, and energetics of gait in healthy rats. We report data on each of these metrics that meets or exceeds the standards set by the current literature and are the first to report on all these metrics in a single set of animals. The methodology and findings presented in this study have significant implications for the development and clinical application of the improved regenerative therapeutics and rehabilitative therapies required for durable and complete functional recovery from extremity traumas, as well as other musculoskeletal pathologies.
... The positive effects of strength exercises on muscle strength are used as therapeutic tools for balance losses caused by lack of strength, especially in older age groups. Studies show that strength training, which does not include balance exercises, has positive effects on balance (Buchner et al., 1997;Krebs et al., 1998;Krebs et al., 1998;Lord et al., 1991;Topp et al., 1993). The results of these studies indicate that even moderate strength gains can improve gait and balance skills, thus providing a solid foundation for promoting low-intensity strength training for limited individuals. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of physical traits and lower–upper limb strength parameters affecting balance performance. The study was conducted with the voluntary participation of 25 elite combat athletes. The height, body composition, balance and strength performance of the athletes was measured. SPSS 25.0 was used for statistical analysis of the data. Relationships between physical traits, balance skills, and strength levels of the athletes were identified. As a result of the study, it was found that body weight, BMI, fat percentage and fat mass had a significant relationship with balance (p < 0.05). Balance requires perfect harmony between physical and physiological body systems. However, when it comes to balance development or ensuring optimal balance performance, it can be said that the parameters that make up the body composition are more effective factors compared to strength development.
... The ERT groups performed 5 to 20 repetitions, with between 1 to 5 sets per exercise. The study by Topp et al. (1993) was the only one to report a different approach, in which between 1 and 2 sets were prescribed for the upper limbs and between 1 and 3 sets for the lower limbs. ...
Article
Purpose: This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effects of Elastic Resistance Training (ERT) on functional capacity (FC) in older adults. Methods: The databases used were Embase, Virtual Health Library, PubMed, SciElo, Scopus, SPORTS Discus, and Web of Science. Eligibility criteria: aged ≥ 60 years; both sexes; intervention of at least 8 weeks; structured ERT; comparator group that performed other types of training or without any intervention; at least one functional test measurement. Functional tests were grouped according to their specificity for the sub-group meta-analyses. Results: Twenty-six studies were considered eligible for qualitative synthesis, of which 16 were used for quantitative analysis. Favorable effects (p < .001) of ERT compared to the control group without intervention were observed in the 30-second sit to stand test, Timed Up and Go test, arm curl test, handgrip strength test, 6-minute walk test, lower and upper limb flexibility, and Short Physical Performance Battery (p = .007). Comparisons between ERT and other types of training were not performed because of the high heterogeneity of the studies. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that ERT is able to improve the FC of older adults when compared to older adults not involved in any type of training.
... To date, improved force generation ability has been considered the most important and physiologically relevant index of muscle repair/regeneration following implantation of regenerative therapeutics. However, complete restoration of contractile function following treatment of VML injury has yet to be achieved, and human studies have demonstrated that increased strength (force generation capacity) does not necessarily result in increased movement function (Topp et al., 1993;Buchner et al., 1997;Damiano and Abel, 1998;Damiano et al., 2010Damiano et al., , 2013. Moreover, the relationship between VML-related force deficits and gait biomechanics is not established in any biologically-relevant preclinical animal model that we are aware of. ...
Article
Full-text available
There is currently a substantial volume of research underway to develop more effective approaches for the regeneration of functional muscle tissue as treatment for volumetric muscle loss (VML) injury, but few studies have evaluated the relationship between injury and the biomechanics required for normal function. To address this knowledge gap, the goal of this study was to develop a novel method to quantify the changes in gait of rats with tibialis anterior (TA) VML injuries. This method should be sensitive enough to identify biomechanical and kinematic changes in response to injury as well as during recovery. Control rats and rats with surgically-created VML injuries were affixed with motion capture markers on the bony landmarks of the back and hindlimb and were recorded walking on a treadmill both prior to and post-surgery. Data collected from the motion capture system was exported for post-hoc analysis in OpenSim and Matlab. In vivo force testing indicated that the VML injury was associated with a significant deficit in force generation ability. Analysis of joint kinematics showed significant differences at all three post-surgical timepoints and gait cycle phase shifting, indicating augmented gait biomechanics in response to VML injury. In conclusion, this method identifies and quantifies key differences in the gait biomechanics and joint kinematics of rats with VML injuries and allows for analysis of the response to injury and recovery. The comprehensive nature of this method opens the door for future studies into dynamics and musculoskeletal control of injured gait that can inform the development of regenerative technologies focused on the functional metrics that are most relevant to recovery from VML injury.
... Research using exercise to enhance balance has taken many forms, applying various low to moderate intensity interventions. Th ese interventions resulted in low to modest outcomes (Buchner et al., 1997;Means, Rodell, O'Sullivan, & Cranford, 1996;Topp, Mikesky, Wigglesworth, Holt, & Edwards, 1993). In contrast, balance-specifi c interventions particularly those including strength training have produced positive results (Islam et al., 2004). ...
Article
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Adults over the age of 65 have a 1 in 3 chance of falling; in 2012, more than $30 billion was spent on medical costs due to these falls. Th e division of resistance training and neuromotor training balance improvement interventions has shown to yield low to moderate results. Athletes combine both resistance training and skill development (function) training to improve skilled performance. Older adults may not be performing high-level sports activities, but still require strength, power, and functional fi tness levels to perform relatively high-level skills. Th e purpose of this study was to determine the eff ects of combining resistance and functional training into functional-strength training on dynamic balance control in moderately active older adults. Eighteen healthy older adults were divided into three groups; functional resistance, standard resistance, and control. All groups met for their intervention twice a week for six weeks. Dynamic balance was assessed using the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale (0-40). Results of individual paired T-tests showed a signifi cant improvement in balance control in the functional resistance group (t(5) =-3.492, p=.017) and a very large eff ect size (d=1.33) whereas neither the standard resistance nor control group had a signifi cant reduction in the risk of falls. Manipulating multidimensional, neuromotor function during resistance training exercises is an eff ective method of applying the overload principle in order to reduce falls risk in moderately active seniors.
... Conventional strength training takes the form of generic lower limb exercises such as hip or knee flexion using weights and complex lower limb exercises [14,16,20,30,35]. Although this type of graded strength training may improve the ability to generate force, it is not always transferred into improvement in gait functionality [13]. ...
Article
Strength training is an aspect of gait rehabilitation, which complements balance control and weight-bearing training. However, conventional strength training does not show positive gait outcomes, due to lack of task specificity. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the effects of a resistance force applied at the center of mass (CoM) and to investigate whether this exercise can be used for effective task-specific gait training. Using a novel robotic walker, a consistent resistive force was applied to the CoM of subjects in the posterior direction. Eleven healthy subjects were instructed to walk under five walking conditions with increasing forces, based on each subject’s body weight (BW), at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10% BW. Joint kinematics and mean amplitude and frequency of electromyography signals from nine major muscles were measured. The application of resistance resulted in significantly increased flexion angles at ankle, knee, and hip joints. A large amount of motor unit activation with lower firing rates was found at knee and hip joints, indicating that this type of resistance training can improve muscular strength and endurance in a task-specific manner. The long-term effects of the resistance training on neurologically challenged patients will be investigated in the future.
... A significant improvement in balance has been found in a number of studies involving short-term exercise (6-16 weeks) 34,35 . In contrast, Crilly et al. 36 found no significant balance improvement after a 12 week exercise program that had been specifically developed to improve balance in a group of elderly women. ...
... A significant improvement in balance has been found in a number of studies involving short-term exercise (6-16 weeks) 34,35 . In contrast, Crilly et al. 36 found no significant balance improvement after a 12 week exercise program that had been specifically developed to improve balance in a group of elderly women. ...
... High intensity resistance training also reduced cortisol level among healthy sedentary women as compared to low intensity resistance training (Marx et al. 2009). It was also reported to improve balance (Topp et al. 1993). Although there were previous studies on the effects of resistance training on psychological stress, cortisol, DHEA and physical functions, however, limited studies on the effects of resistance training particularly using resistant tube done in this area. ...
Article
Stress is a common problem among university students and studies showed that involvement in exercise could help in reducing stress. However, information regarding the effect of high intensity progressive resistance training (PRT) using a resistant tube on stress among inactive and moderate active young male university students is limited. Hence, the aim of this study is to examine the effect of high intensity PRT using a resistant tube on psychological stress level, cortisol, DHEA and physical fitness in this population. A total of 30 male university students were participated in this quasi-experiment study. Intervention group (n = 14, age: 21.50 ± 1.37 yr) was participaned to carry out high intensity PRT by using resistant tube 3 times per week for 10 weeks; control group (n = 16, age: 21.29 ± 1.86 yr) was asked to continue their current lifestyle as usual. Before and after 10 weeks of intervention, psychological stress was measured by using PSS and SLSI questionnaires; cortisol and DHEA level were measured by using ELISA method. Timed up-and-go (TUG) used to examine dynamic balance and handgrip strength test used to measure muscle strength. Findings showed that the increased of DHEA level after 10 weeks of intervention was significantly difference between control and intervention groups (p < 0.05). There was no significant group difference in changes over time in anthropometric and body composition measurements, stress scores, cortisol level and physical fitness. High intensity PRT using resistant tube may be beneficial in increasing DHEA level among young male adults, which can act as a stress biochemical indicator. DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.17576/JSKM-2015-1302-06
... Such therapeutic resources have good clinical evidences of resolving the problems of osteoarthritis (Topp et al., 1993;Lord and Castell, 1994;Crilly et al., 1989). Ⅱ. Methods ...
... High intensity resistance training also reduced cortisol level among healthy sedentary women as compared to low intensity resistance training (Marx et al. 2009). It was also reported to improve balance (Topp et al. 1993). ...
... Using net reduction values (0.8) in combination with the initial variance estimates (standard deviations of 1.2), it was determined that 36 participants would be required in each study group. In light of previous reports of 10-30% dropout rates in studies involving older adults (Cunningham, Rechnitzer, Howard, & Donner, 1987;McMurdo, Millar, & Daly, 2000;Topp, Mikesky, Wigglesworth, Holt, & Edwards, 1993), we decided to include 44 participants (36 × 1.2) in each group, for a total study population of 88. ...
Article
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Objectives: To evaluate the effect of a group-based Pilates training program on balance control and health status in healthy older adults. Design: A single blind, randomized, controlled trial. Setting: General community. Participants: Eighty-eight community dwelling older adults (age 71.15±4.30 years), without evidence of functional balance impairment, were recruited and allocated at random to a Pilates intervention group (n=44) or a control group (n=44). Intervention: The Pilates intervention group received 36 training sessions over three months (3 sessions a week) while the control group did not receive any intervention. Outcome measures: Standing upright postural stability, performance based measures of balance, and self-reported health status was assessed in both groups at baseline and at the end of the intervention period. Results: Compared with the control group, the Pilates intervention did not improve postural stability, baseline functional measures of balance, or health status. Conclusions: The results suggest that because Pilates training is not task specific, it does not improve balance control or balance function in independent older adults.
... Research using exercise to enhance balance has taken many forms, applying various low to moderate intensity interventions. Th ese interventions resulted in low to modest outcomes (Buchner et al., 1997;Means, Rodell, O'Sullivan, & Cranford, 1996;Topp, Mikesky, Wigglesworth, Holt, & Edwards, 1993). In contrast, balance-specifi c interventions particularly those including strength training have produced positive results (Islam et al., 2004). ...
Conference Paper
Adults over the age of 65 have a 1 in 3 chance of falling and in 2012, more than $30 billion was spent on medical costs due to these falls. The division of resistance training and neuromotor training in falls risk reduction interventions has shown to only yield low to moderate results. Sports specific training is commonly used with athletes to improve athletic performance. This training combines both resistance training and motoneuron training into a single protocol. Older adults may not be performing high level sports activities, but still require strength, power, and neuromotor fitness to perform relatively high level skills as well as activities of daily living. PURPOSE: To determine the effects of neuromotor-resistance (functional resistance) training on falls risk in moderately active older adults when compared to standard resistance training. METHODS: 18 healthy older adults were divided into three groups; functional resistance (FR; n=6), standard resistance (SR; n=6), and control (C; n=6). All groups met for their intervention twice a week for six weeks. The FR group performed task specific, multi-dimensional resistance training exercises. The SR group performed all exercises on standard pin-selectorized strength equipment. The C group performed a series of stretches. All participants were tested pre and post intervention with the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale (0-40), a multi-dimensional dynamic balance assessment. RESULTS: The FG group showed significant improvement of 3.33 points and a reduction in risk of falling of 26.4% (t(5)=3.492, p=.017). This intervention had a large effect on falls risk (Cohen’s d=1.33). SR and C did not have an effect on risk of falling (p=.549, p=.289 respectively; Cohen’s d=.07). CONCLUSSION: Manipulating multidimensional, neuromotor function during resistance training exercises is an effective method of applying the overload principle in order to reduce fall risk in moderately active seniors.
... Many forms of general exercise have appeared not to be particularly effective in improving postural balance among older adults. A few studies have reported some improvements in balance after strength training periods (Lichtenstein et al. 1989, Topp et al. 1993. Some others have found that general muscle training has lead to gains in muscle strength, whereas there have been only minor (Era 1988, Judge et al. 1993, Skelton et al. 1995, Schlicht et al. 2001 or no improvements in balance (Grilly et al. 1989). ...
... Im vergangenen Jahrzehnt befassten sich zahlreiche Publikationen mit der Suche nach den Risikofaktoren für die Sturzinzidenz [10,33,34] im Hinblick auf den Zusammenhang zwischen Alter und Gleichgewicht [39], die Entwicklung standardisierter Messverfahren für das Gleichgewicht [3,4] sowie die Vorhersagbarkeit von Stürzen bei Senioren [6,28]. Verschiedene Arbeiten untersuchten den Effekt eines Gleichgewichtstrainings bei Senioren aus verschiedenen Blickwinkeln [9,15,16,35,38]. In den USA [24] und in Europa [1, 29] stürzen schätzungsweise 30 -40% der selbstständig lebenden Senioren über 65 wenigstens 1-mal pro Jahr [5,8,19,21,22,37]. ...
Article
Hintergrund: Diese Pilotstudie untersuchte das in der Kindheit erworbene Gleichgewichtsvermögen mithilfe des Plattformschaukel-Trainings für Senioren. Ein Drittel der Menschen über 65 Jahre berichtet über Schwierigkeiten beim Gleichgewicht oder beim Gehen. Jenseits der 65 werden Stürze häufiger und haben schwerere Folgen. Weltweit wächst keine Personengruppe so schnell, wie die der Über-60-Jährigen, was die Prävention besonders in der Physiotherapie zu einer großen Aufgabe macht. Ziel: Das Ziel bestand darin herauszufinden, ob sich das Plattformschaukel-Training für gesunde ältere Menschen eignet und einen positiven Einfluss auf Gleichgewicht und Gang hat. Methode: 18 gesunde Senioren führten Multitasking-Übungen durch, während sie auf der Plattformschaukel standen. Die Teilnehmer absolvierten 9 Trainingseinheiten zu je 30 Minuten über einen Zeitraum von 12 Wochen. Vor und nach dem Training erfolgten Messungen mit der Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) und 6-Minuten-Gehtest. Ergebnisse: Die durchschnittliche Abweichung war sowohl für die BBS (maximal 56 Punkte) als auch für den DGI signifikant (p = 0,001). Die Verbesserung beim BBS betrug für 11 von 15 Teilnehmern zwischen 1 und 4 Punkte, was eine durchschnittliche Steigerung um 3,3 % bedeutete. Die Verbesserung beim DGI lag für 10 von 15 Teilnehmern zwischen 1 und 4 Punkte, was einer durchschnittlichen Steigerung von 5,8 % entsprach. Die Verbesserung im 6-Minuten-Gehtest war nicht signifikant (p = 0,66). Die Trainings-Compliance betrug 83,95 %. Schlussfolgerungen: Das Plattformschaukel-Training scheint für Senioren geeignet zu sein. Es gibt Hinweise, wenn auch keine Evidenz, dass diese einfache Trainingsmethode das Gleichgewicht und den Gang bei Senioren verbessern kann. Im Hinblick auf das Studiendesign und die geringe Teilnehmerzahl scheinen weitere Studien bei Senioren sinnvoll.
... The plan dictated that the business would provide monetary and material support to the project and that the academic team would provide the infrastructure to conduct the research. During the project, regular communication was maintained, particularly during study milestones, including Institutional Review Board approval, receipt of support from the business, termination of data collection, and dissemination of the results (Mikesky, Topp, Wigglesworth, Harsha, & Edwards, 1994;Topp, Mikesky, Dayhoff, & Holt, 1996;Topp, Mikesky, Wigglesworth, Holt, & Edwards, 1993). ...
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Financial assistance is necessary for sustaining research at universities. Business collaborations are a potential means for obtaining these funds. To secure funding, understanding the process for obtaining these business funds is important for nursing faculty members. Although faculty rarely request funding from businesses, they are often in a position to solicit financial support due to existing relationships with clinical agency administrators, staff, and community leaders. The economic support received from businesses provides outcomes in nursing research, research education, academic-service partnerships, and client health care. This article describes the steps and processes involved in successfully obtaining research funding from businesses. In addition, case examples for securing and maintaining funding from health care agencies (evidence-based practice services) and from a health manufacturing company (product evaluation) are used to demonstrate the process. © The Author(s) 2015.
... Management of knee OA includes patient education, proper joint protection and conservation [1], physiotherapy to ameliorate pain, quadriceps strengthening [2][3][4][5][6][7], stretching of hamstrings and quadriceps to correct flexibility deficits [8] and weight reduction [9]. All these factors are necessarily interconnected [1,10]. ...
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... For these patients, strengthening the ankle muscles is an absolute priority. It has been widely demonstrated that strength training programs that focus on postural muscles may improve balance (Topp et al., 1993;Amiridis et al., 2005;Orr et al., 2008;Gonzalez et al., 2014). In particular, Amiridis et al. (2005), who focused strength training specifically on an ankle muscle (i.e., tibialis anterior), found that a 4-week conditioning period improved DF MIT and decreased postural sway. ...
... In this study, we observed a remarkable reduction in the differences in the gait characteristics of the left and right legs in TG compared with those in the CG, which suggests that the combination of dynamic lumbar stabilization exercises and upper and lower extremity movements improved subjects' stability and balancing ability. Panjabi 16) emphasized the importance of lumbar stabilization exercise in correcting a disturbed gait, and Topp et al. 17) asserted that a muscle strengthening program effectively improves stable walking speed and balancing capability. In addition, approximately 80% of the time used for walking is occupied by the body being supported on one foot. ...
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[Purpose] This study was conducted to investigate the effects of running in place accompanied by abdominal drawing-in on the gait characteristics of healthy adults. [Subjects] The total number of subjects was 30, and 15 were randomly placed in the training group (TG) and 15 in the control group (CG). [Methods] To determine the gait characteristics of TG and CG, step length difference (SLD), stance phase difference (STPD), swing phase difference (SWPD), single support difference (SSD), and step time difference (STD) were evaluated using OptoGait, a gait analysis system. [Results] When the pre-intervention and post-intervention results of TG and CG were compared, statistically significant differences in SLD, SWPD, SSD, and STD of TG were found. [Conclusion] Running in place accompanied by abdominal drawing-in might help reduce the deviation between left and right gait variables during walking.
... For these patients, strengthening the ankle muscles is an absolute priority. It has been widely demonstrated that strength training programs that focus on postural muscles may improve balance (Topp et al., 1993;Amiridis et al., 2005;Orr et al., 2008;Gonzalez et al., 2014). In particular, Amiridis et al. (2005), who focused strength training specifically on an ankle muscle (i.e., tibialis anterior), found that a 4-week conditioning period improved DF MIT and decreased postural sway. ...
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... Their subjects showed increases in the muscle strength of the latissimus dorsi muscle, the pectoralis major muscle, and the quadriceps femoris muscle of 15%, 13%, and 25%, respectively, but there were no significant changes in their mental and physical health functions. Topp et al. 16) reported that when elderly persons aged 65 years or more performed elastic band exercises, their gait and balance abilities improved. Krebs et al. 17) reported that 132 elderly persons with functional restriction, who performed muscle strengthening exercises using elastic bands, showed increases in the strength of the lower extremity muscles (hip joint abductor muscles, extensor muscles, and knee joint extensor muscles) of 17.6% and 7.3% in the exercise group and the control group, respectively, after the exercises compared to before the exercises. ...
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The benefits of strength training programs with isotonic free weights or machines have been well-documented in all age groups. However, exercise and healthcare professionals sometime question whether it is possible to obtain the same results with devices of variable resistance, such as elastic bands. To answer this question, the purpose of this systematic review was to identify and summarize the positive effects of elastic resistance exercises used across the lifespan on health outcomes including body composition, functional and performance capacity, and biochemical variables. A secondary aim was to identify common dosage parameters of strength training programs using elastic resistance. Key words: elastic bands; functional capacity, body composition; health biomarkers.
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The aim of this study was to determine the effect of weight transfer training on static and dynamic balance of older women. 20 accessible subjects that met our criteria divided randomly into two experimental and control groups. The experimental group trained for 6 weeks, 3 times a week and each session 60 minutes a day. Biodex balance system used for training and testing procedures. Data analysis used by repeated measure ANOVA showed significant main effects and interaction for dynamic balance parameters including overall dynamic balance, anterioposterior dynamic balance and mediolateral dynamic balance) .Intrasubject analysis using t test indicated weight transfer balance training, compared to static balance, improved significantly dynamic balance parameters. The dynamic balance improvement following weight transfer training mat resulted from its effectiveness on sensory and motor systems involved in the dynamic balance of older women.
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The aim of this study was to determine the effect of weight transfer training on static and dynamic balance of older women. 20 accessible subjects that met our criteria divided randomly into two experimental and control groups. The experimental group trained for 6 weeks, 3 times a week and each session 60 minutes a day. Biodex balance system used for training and testing procedures. Data analysis used by repeated measure ANOVA showed significant main effects and interaction for dynamic balance parameters including overall dynamic balance, anterioposterior dynamic balance and mediolateral dynamic balance) .Intrasubject analysis using t test indicated weight transfer balance training, compared to static balance, improved significantly dynamic balance parameters. The dynamic balance improvement following weight transfer training mat resulted from its effectiveness on sensory and motor systems involved in the dynamic balance of older women.
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The objective of this study was to consider which specific exercise type is effective in preventing falls and improving mobility in institutionalized elderly persons. Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane database, followed by citation tracking and hand-searching. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in institutionalized elderly subjects, studying the relation between exercise and strength, balance, gait, mobility and falls, were included. Two reviewers independently assessed the internal validity of 12 RCTs using a criteria list. Data were extracted according to Cochrane methodology. Short-term exercise studies revealed a relation between exercise interventions and strength. Pooling did not show effects of exercise on balance, mobility and gait, although some studies reported an effect on gait. We concluded that there is, as yet, no convincing evidence for effects of exercises on factors associated with mobility and falls in institutionalized elderly persons, except for effects on muscle strength in short-term studies.
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Effect of karate training on balance control ability in elderly people Introduction Age and lack of physical activities may both be responsible for poor balance control. Conversely, physical activities may modulate postural control in elderly individuals. Martial arts practice has been proposed as an avenue to counter these deleterious effects. Method The general purpose of this pilot study was to identify the effects of a three months karate training program on balance control in 50-year-old men. Forty tow 50-year-old Egyptian healthy men were enrolled in a three months prospective experiment. Participants practiced karate training for 60 minutes three times a week. Testing sessions, involving static and dynamic balance Tests, were done at baseline, and at the end of 12-weeks karate training program. Our pilot study suggests that regular karate training might have a positive influence on static and dynamic balance which decline with increasing age. Moreover, karate practitioners had higher static and dynamic balance scores than the control participants. Results The results of this study indicate that karate training improve the elderly static and dynamic balance, thus it can contribute to the reduction of the inexorable process of aging. Karate training seems to enhance to facilitate the cognitive dimension related to this process. In terms of the promotion of sports and physical activity and public health, karate training may be an interesting option to keep a healthy sporting activity during the process of aging. Discussion This pilot study has investigated the effectiveness of karate exercise as a balance control improving strategy. This is an important concept, as many older people enjoy the socialization and opportunity to leave the home to practice the karate training program in group. Karate training in group may be individualized and tailored to the needs of the older person or involve all participants undertaking the same exercises and at the same intensity. References Chateau-Degat, Ludivine M., Papouin, G., Saint-Val, P., & Lopez, A. (2010). Effect of adapted karate training on quality of life and body balance in 50-year-old men. J. Sports Med. 1, 143–150. Filingeri D., Bianco A., Zangla D., Antonio Paoli A. & Palma A. (2012). Is karate effective in improving postural control?.archbudo. 8 (4):191- 194. Fong S., Ng S., Liu K., Pang M., Lee H., Chung J., Lam P. & Guo X. (2014). Musculoskeletal Strength, Balance Performance, and Self-Efficacy in Elderly VingTsun Chinese Martial Art Practitioners: Implications for Fall Prevention. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine ID 402314.
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Chapter
A number of studies have described the benefits of regular physical exercise for the treatment and control of degenerative disorders. By recognizing the importance of physical activity for improving the quality of life for the elderly, the aim of this chapter is to provide a pedagogical and educational tool for the professionals who work with the senior population. Therefore, a physical activity programme was designed, which comprehends sticks, balls, hoops, resistance bands, chairs, among other methods. It is concluded that the physical activity programme for the elderly presupposes the inclusion of properly validated tests in order to evaluate this population. This way, it is important to carefully evaluate physical parameters such as cardio-respiratory capacity, muscular endurance, flexibility, agility and body composition. Finally, the prescription of physical activity for the elderly entails knowing/implies knowledge of age-related limitations, existing pathologies and individual changes arising from ageing.
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Habitual exercise provides protection against fatal coronary heart disease, extends longevity, and enhances quality of life. National surveys show less physical activity in older men and women compared with middle-aged and younger persons; older women are particularly sedentary. Although there are still few longitudinal studies on exercise and physical activity in older individuals, the data support a positive relationship between physical activity and health and function in older individuals. The data further show that with regular physical activity, health and physical fitness are maintained or even increased over time in older individuals. Studies on physical activity requirements for beneficial health effects in the elderly are reviewed and presented, and exercise recommendations for older individuals are given.
Chapter
Gait and balance are so intricately inter-related that being able to distinguish the independent contributions of each to the performance of daily tasks is difficult. Even the simple task of walking demonstrates a most fundamental form of dynamic balance movement. Integrating the multiple components that interface balance and gait, ambulation (gait) without falling is dependent on the successful shift of bodyweight between single- and double-limb support phases, while successfully moving the body orward (dynamic balance). Completion of most daily activities often demands a minimum effort at independent ambulation. Because this effort requires balance, both balance and gait can be considered important for most aspects of independent living.
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Habitual walking speed predicts many clinical conditions later in life, but it declines with age. However, which particular exercise intervention can minimize the age-related gait speed loss is unclear. Our objective was to determine the effects of strength, power, coordination, and multimodal exercise training on healthy old adults' habitual and fast gait speed. We performed a computerized systematic literature search in PubMed and Web of Knowledge from January 1984 up to December 2014. Search terms included 'Resistance training', 'power training', 'coordination training', 'multimodal training', and 'gait speed (outcome term). Inclusion criteria were articles available in full text, publication period over past 30 years, human species, journal articles, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, English as publication language, and subject age ≥65 years. The methodological quality of all eligible intervention studies was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. We computed weighted average standardized mean differences of the intervention-induced adaptations in gait speed using a random-effects model and tested for overall and individual intervention effects relative to no-exercise controls. A total of 42 studies (mean PEDro score of 5.0 ± 1.2) were included in the analyses (2495 healthy old adults; age 74.2 years [64.4-82.7]; body mass 69.9 ± 4.9 kg, height 1.64 ± 0.05 m, body mass index 26.4 ± 1.9 kg/m(2), and gait speed 1.22 ± 0.18 m/s). The search identified only one power training study, therefore the subsequent analyses focused only on the effects of resistance, coordination, and multimodal training on gait speed. The three types of intervention improved gait speed in the three experimental groups combined (n = 1297) by 0.10 m/s (±0.12) or 8.4 % (±9.7), with a large effect size (ES) of 0.84. Resistance (24 studies; n = 613; 0.11 m/s; 9.3 %; ES: 0.84), coordination (eight studies, n = 198; 0.09 m/s; 7.6 %; ES: 0.76), and multimodal training (19 studies; n = 486; 0.09 m/s; 8.4 %, ES: 0.86) increased gait speed statistically and similarly. Commonly used exercise interventions can functionally and clinically increase habitual and fast gait speed and help slow the loss of gait speed or delay its onset.
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Studies indicate that the incidence of disease, the mortality rate, and medical costs are significantly higher in people aged 65 years and over who do not engage in physical activities than in their peers who do engage in these activities. Therefore, promoting appropriate physical activity among older adults in the community is essential to delaying the health implications of aging. This pilot test was developed to assess the effectiveness of a newly developed Senior Elastic Band (SEB) exercise program on the health of older adults in community care stations. A quasiexperimental design was used. A convenience sample of 20 participants from a community care station was recruited. The SEB intervention included three phases (warm-up, aerobic motion, and static stretching) and was conducted three times per week, 40 minutes per session for 1 month. Twelve health indicators in three categories (functional fitness, self-perceived health status, and sleep quality) were examined before and immediately after 1 month of SEB exercises. Participants showed improved performance at the end of the 1-month study for the following indicators: lung capacity, cardiopulmonary fitness, upper and lower body flexibilities, upper limb muscle power, lower limb muscle endurance, and self-perceived physical health status (all ps < .05). No significant differences were identified for the other indicators. The SEB exercise program shows preliminary and promising effects on improving the health of older adults in a community care station. Healthcare professionals who work with older adults living in the community may consider the SEB exercise program as a health promotion modality to recommend and implement with this population. However, we recommend further testing the long-term effects of this program on a larger population.
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O objetivo desta revisão foi investigar os benefícios da prática de atividade física, e os riscos do sedentarismo em crianças e adolescentes, no adulto, e no idoso. Foi feita uma revisão na literatura nas seguintes bases de dados: Medline/Pubmed, Scielo e Lilacs. Além disso, buscaram-se artigos relevantes nas referencias dos artigos já localizados. Conforme a literatura revisada, em crianças e adolescentes a atividade física serve de base para a vida adulta, pois segundo dados da literatura, hábitos saudáveis da prática regular de atividade física adquiridos na infância e na adolescência parecem persistirem na vida adulta. No adulto serve de prevenção das doenças crônicas não transmissíveis. Em contra partida no idoso a prática de atividade física exerce papel de manutenção das atividades diárias (AVD) e das atividades instrumentais da vida diária (AIVD).
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Falls are a major source of death and injury in elderly people. For example, they cause 90% of hip fractures and the current cost of hip fractures in the US is estimated to be about 10 billion dollars. Age-related changes in the physiological systems (somatosensory, vestibular and visual) which contribute to the maintenance of balance are well documented in older adults. These changes coupled with age-related changes in muscle and bone are likely to contribute to an increased risk of falls in this population. The integrated rehabilitation-based model of fall risk factors reveals multiple sites for interventions that may reverse fall risk factors. Regular exercise may be one way of preventing falls and fall-related fractures. The evidence for this contention comes from a variety of sources. On the basis of 9 randomised controlled studies conducted since 1996, exercise appears to be a useful tool in fall prevention in older adults, significantly reducing the incidence of falls compared with control groups. However, current limitations such as inconsistencies in the measurement of key dependent and independent variables do not, at present, permit a meta-analysis of intervention trials. Further investigation, using trials designed with the current limitations in mind, is necessary to establish the optimum exercise programme to maximise fall prevention in older adults.
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[Purpose] This study examined the effect of a Swiss ball exercise program for elderly females on physical fitness and balance ability in order to offer basic data for the development of an exercise program to improve the quality of life and promote the health of elderly females. [Subjects] Sixty-five elderly women aged over 78 participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects were divided into two groups: an exercise group and a control group. The exercise group (n=38) performed a Swiss ball exercise program which consisted of 12 types of exercises required for balance and performance of functions twice a week for 12 weeks. Physical fitness (Sit-to-Stand, Arm Curl, Sit-and-Reach, Back Scratch) and balance ability (One-Legged Standing time, Timed Up & Go) were evaluated. [Results] There was a significant increase in the physical fitness and balance ability of the exercise group. [Conclusion] The Swiss ball exercise program had a positive effect on physical fitness and balance ability of elderly women. We consider that the ball which is easy, safe and interesting to use will encourage the elderly’s active participation in exercise.
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[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of three isometric knee extension strength measurements (IKE) made with a hand-held dynamometer (HHD) and a belt of healthy elderly living in the community as subjects. [Subjects] The subject cohort consisted of 186 healthy elderly people, aged 65 to 79 years, living in local communities. [Methods] IKE of the leg subjects used to kick a ball was measured. IKE of each subject was measured three times using an HHD-belt at intervals of 30 seconds. The reliability of the larger of the first two measurements (LV2) as well as the third measurement (3V) was investigated. [Results] The intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC (1, 1)] for LV2 and 3V were 0.955. Bland-Altman analysis showed a fixed bias, and the limits of agreement ranged from -5.6 to 4.6. [Conclusion] The ICC results show that the test-retest reproducibility of IKE measurements of healthy elderly subjects using an HHD-belt is high. However, Bland-Altman analysis showed a fixed bias, suggesting the need for three measurements.
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Falls represent a major public health problem for older people in the USA and abroad. Several factors may contribute to a fall and therefore the identification of risk factors is vital for developing both preventive and treatment programs. One of the most commonly identified risk factors for falling is impaired balance. An individual’s ability to balance depends on sensory (visual, vestibular and somatosensory) input and organization, muscle strength and coordination of activity, attentional capacity, disease, and medication. Research has established that impairment in any one of these factors can contribute to negative balance outcomes. Research also supports the positive effect of multidimensional intervention programs designed to target systems that control the older adult’s balance. An understanding of the systems that control balance is essential if current programs are to be implemented and if effective programs are to be designed in the future to improve balance.
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