Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy. Clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and flow cytometric study
Department of Otolaryngic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, D.C.American Journal of Surgical Pathology (Impact Factor: 5.15). 07/1993; 17(6):566-73.
Twenty cases of melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI) are reported. The patients (13 females, seven males), whose ages ranged from 1 to 9 months (mean, 5 months), typically presented with a rapidly growing mass. Tumor sites included the maxilla (13 cases), mandible (three cases), dura (two cases), brain (one case), and skull/orbit (one case). The mean tumor size was 3.5 cm (range, 1.0-10.0 cm). Follow-up was obtained on 12 cases. Five tumors (45%) recurred within 4 months of diagnosis, but none metastasized. One surgical death occurred. Histologic appearance was distinctive, with tubular or alveolar formations of large melanin-containing cells around nests of smaller neuroblastic cells possessing scant or fibrillar cytoplasm. Twelve tumors were studied immunohistochemically; tumor was positive for cytokeratin in 12 of 12, for HMB 45 in 12 of 12, for vimentin in seven of eight, and for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) in four of nine tumors, mainly in the large cells. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) (seven of 12) and Leu 7 (nine of 12) were positive in small and large cells; some tumors also expressed synaptophysin (four of 12), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, three of 12 tumors), or S-100 protein (two of 12 tumors). No staining was found for chromogranin, desmin, or carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Eight of 10 tumors studied had interpretable results on flow cytometry (FCM) (four DNA diploid, three DNA aneuploid, and one DNA diploid with a prominent shoulder). Tumor recurred locally in two of five cases with follow-up, and we were unable to demonstrate the usefulness of FCM in predicting recurrences. Further studies are necessary to define better the potential usefulness of FCM in predicting aggressive behavior. Distinctive morphology and multiphenotypic (epithelial, neural, melanocytic) expression distinguish MNTI from melanoma and metastatic neuroblastoma.
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- "In 90% of the instances, many authors confirmed the fact that the tumor affects children less than 1 year. Although rare, some cases were reported in adults also. "
ABSTRACT: Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI) is a relatively uncommon osteolytic-pigmented neoplasm that primarily affects the jaws of infants. The early onset and its rapid disfiguring spread necessitate early diagnosis. A 4-month-old male child reported with the complaint of swelling in the right back tooth region of the upper jaw, which rapidly increased in size causing disfigurement of the face. Radiographic examination showed a diffuse osteolytic radiolucent lesion in the right maxilla and displacement and dysmorphic changes in the developing primary tooth buds. Wide surgical excision was performed under general anesthesia. Histopathological report revealed characteristic large pigmented epitheloid cells (melanocyte like cells). The biphasic tumor cell population arranged in a background of fibrous connective tissue stroma is suggestive of MNTI involving the cancellous bone. Early diagnosis and management of such aggressive tumors precludes significant morbidity of the patient.
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- "Two groups of cells are noted with larger pigment-containing melanocyte-like cells arranged in an alveolar pattern between the fibrovascular septae and smaller non-pigmented neuroblast-like cells dispersed in the center of nests. Histopathologic examination is usually unreliable to differentiate benign from malignant changes as cellular atypia and sparse mitosis may be seen even in benign lesions   . Immunohistochemistry is characteristic, being strongly reactive to cytokeratin, "
ABSTRACT: Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI) is an uncommon melanin-containing mesenchymal tumor of neural crest origin. What make this tumor unique and interesting is its characteristic predilection for anterior maxilla (premaxilla) and the presence of pigment melanin which gives the tumor distinct clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural and imaging features. Although first described almost a century ago, to the authors' knowledge, only a few hundred cases of MNTI have been reported worldwide in the English medical literature. The pool of documented radiological findings is even more sparse as not more than a dozen cases could be abstracted from an Internet search of the radiology literature. We document a case of MNTI and describe the imaging findings with intent to contribute to its small but accruing radiological data.
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ABSTRACT: Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI) is a rare but well-documented lesion of neuroectodermal derivation. Maturation of the neural elements has been reported only occasionally. We report a case of MNTI of the maxilla showing maturation of neural elements to ganglionic cells.
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