Long-term hemodynamic effects at rest and during exercise of newer antihypertensive agents and salt restriction in essential hypertension: Review of epanolol, doxazosin, amlodipine, felodipine, diltiazem, lisinopril, dilevalol, carvedilol, and ketanserin
Hypertension is due to disturbance of the complex interplay between numerous known and unknown mechanisms that normally control blood pressure. Antihypertensive agents may, therefore, reduce blood pressure through widely different actions and, at the same time, elicit counterregulatory responses. This is a review of the long-term hemodynamic effects at rest as well as during exercise of nine relatively new antihypertensive compounds: a beta-blocker (epanolol), an alpha-receptor blocker (doxazosin), two double-acting compounds (dilevalol and carvedilol), three calcium antagonists (amlodipine, felodipine, and diltiazem), an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (lisinopril), a serotonin antagonist (ketanserin), and low-salt diet as a nonpharmacological treatment in 171 patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. The results in the treatment groups are compared to the hemodynamic changes seen in 28 hypertensive patients left untreated for 10 years. The patient populations of the different groups were comparable. The invasive hemodynamic technique, including intraarterial blood pressure recording and measurements of cardiac output by Cardigreen, was the same in all studies. While blood pressure remained nearly unchanged in the untreated group, all antihypertensive compounds induced significant and sustained blood pressure reduction both at rest and during exercise. The modest reduction (3-5%) in blood pressure during a low-salt diet was also statistically significant. This review shows the multiplicity of the long-term hemodynamic changes, ranging from a reduction in cardiac output to peripheral vasodilatation, during chronic antihypertensive therapy. In untreated hypertensives, the cardiac output is reduced by 1-2% per year and total peripheral resistance is increased by 2-3% per year. The review also focuses on counterregulatory responses and modify the initial reduction in blood pressure after drug treatment for hypertension. It is concluded that proper understanding of the hemodynamic effects of antihypertensive agents is useful in the selection of the right treatment for specific groups of hypertensive patients.
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