Article

Neurological status of Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder

Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Manchester, New Hampshire 03103.
Journal of Neuropsychiatry (Impact Factor: 2.82). 02/1993; 5(2):183-8. DOI: 10.1176/jnp.5.2.183
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

This study investigated neurological status in 27 medication-free outpatient Vietnam veterans meeting DSM-III-R criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 15 non-PTSD combat control subjects, all without alcohol or drug dependence or abuse during the past year. Subjects underwent neurological examination, neuropsychological testing, and sleep-deprived EEG. PTSD subjects showed significantly more neurological soft signs than non-PTSD subjects. Neither substance dependence/abuse nor the more frequent history of developmental problems in PTSD subjects accounted for this difference. There were no significant EEG or neuropsychological testing group differences; however, there were significant correlations between several neuropsychological test scores and total neurological soft signs.

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    • "Attentional deficits were also found in PTSD patients (Vasterling et al. 2002; 1998) as were deficits in executive functioning, especially for working memory (Brandes et al. 2002; Jenkins et al. 2000; Vasterling et al. 1998, 2002), the presence of perseverations (Koenen et al. 2001), reduced phonemic fluency (Bustamante et al. 2001) and semantic fluency (Gil et al. 1990). Other neuropsychological domains, such as visuospatial processing (Gilbertson et al. 2001), (Sullivan et al. 2003), language (Gurvits et al. 1993) and motor functioning (Gurvits et al. 2002; Sullivan et al. 2003) were found spared in PTSD patients. "
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    ABSTRACT: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety condition that can develop after exposure to trauma such as physical or sexual assault, injury, combat-related trauma, natural disaster or death. Although an increasing number of neurobiological studies carried out over the past 20 years have allowed clarifying the neural substrate of PTSD, the neural modifications underpinning PTSD are still unclear. Here we used activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis (ALE) to determine whether PTSD has a consistent neural substrate. We also explored the possibility that different traumatic events produce different alterations in the PTSD neural network. In neuroimaging studies of PTSD, we found evidence of a consistent neural network including the bilateral insula and cingulate cortex as well as the parietal, frontal and limbic areas. We also found that specific networks of brain areas underpin PTSD after different traumatic events and that these networks may be related to specific aspects of the traumatic events. We discuss our results in light of the functional segregation of the brain areas involved in PTSD.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Brain Imaging and Behavior
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    • "DOI: 10.1002/jts.21887 Findings in the literature indicate a robust impairment in memory for episodic, emotionally neutral, nonautobiographical information in PTSD (see a meta-analysis by Brewin, Kleiner, Vasterling, & Field, 2007), with studies reporting learning (initial and single-trial list learning) and memory deficits (immediate and delayed for verbal and visuospatial information, working memory and executive memory; Bremner et al., 1993, 1995; Gurvits et al., 1993, 1996; Jenkins, Langlais, Delis, & Cohen, 1998; Kanagaratnam & Asbjornsen, 2007; Stein, Kennedy, & Twamley, 2002; Vasterling et al., 2002; Yehuda, Golier, Halligan, & Harvey, 2004; Yehuda et al., 1995). Cognitive impairment in memory of stories, executive function (Beckham, Crawford, & Feldman, 1998), attention (sustained attention, focus of attention and attention shifting), language-and information-processing speed, are more controversial (Isaac, Cushway, & Jones, 2006; Scott, Lesselyong, & Yaffe, 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Memory deficits are a common complaint of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Despite vivid trauma-related memory, previous studies report memory impairment for nontrauma-related stimuli when compared to controls, specifically in associative memory (Guez et al., 2011). Healthy individuals show hemispheric memory asymmetry with left-prefrontal lateralization of encoding and right-prefrontal lateralization of episodic retrieval, suggesting a role for interhemispheric communication in memory-related tasks (Gazzaniga, ; Ringo, Doty, Demeter, & Simard, ). Because brain magnetic resonance imaging (bMRI) studies in PTSD patients report volume changes in various regions, including white matter and corpus callosum (CC), we aimed to test the relationship between memory deficits and CC volume in PTSD patients. We probed for specific alterations in associative memory in PTSD and measured the volume of subportions within the CC employing bMRI. Our main finding was a reduction in CC white-matter volume in PTSD patients, as compared to controls, t(35) = -2.7, p = .010, that was correlated with lower associative performance (r = .76, p = .003). We propose that CC volume reduction is a substrate for the associative memory deficits found in PTSD.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Journal of Traumatic Stress
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    • "DOI: 10.1002/jts.21887 Findings in the literature indicate a robust impairment in memory for episodic, emotionally neutral, nonautobiographical information in PTSD (see a meta-analysis by Brewin, Kleiner, Vasterling, & Field, 2007), with studies reporting learning (initial and single-trial list learning) and memory deficits (immediate and delayed for verbal and visuospatial information, working memory and executive memory; Bremner et al., 1993, 1995; Gurvits et al., 1993, 1996; Jenkins, Langlais, Delis, & Cohen, 1998; Kanagaratnam & Asbjornsen, 2007; Stein, Kennedy, & Twamley, 2002; Vasterling et al., 2002; Yehuda, Golier, Halligan, & Harvey, 2004; Yehuda et al., 1995). Cognitive impairment in memory of stories, executive function (Beckham, Crawford, & Feldman, 1998), attention (sustained attention, focus of attention and attention shifting), language-and information-processing speed, are more controversial (Isaac, Cushway, & Jones, 2006; Scott, Lesselyong, & Yaffe, 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Memory deficits are a common complaint reported by posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients. Despite their vivid trauma-related memory, studies in PTSD patients confirmed memory impairment for non-trauma related stimuli when compared to controls; specifically in associative memory. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in PTSD patients have demonstrated specific volume and fractional anisotropy (FA) reductions in various brain regions. The aim of this study was to explore to what extent anatomical changes in PTSD patients are associated with memory deficits. Specifically we focused on brain regions often related to intact inter-hemispheric communication, required for binding items to create associations, e.g., the corpus callosum (CC). We carried out an item-association (words and pictures) memory test in PTSD and matched controls (N=12 per group). In parallel, we performed anatomical and diffusion tensor imaging MRI scans. We report that associative memory deficits are correlated with decreased volume of the posterior, mid-posterior and anterior portions of the CC in PTSD patients. These preliminary results highlight structural and functional changes in connectivity as a potential mechanism underlying associative memory deficits in PTSD.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · May 2012
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