A tightly membrane-associated subpopulation of spectrin is 3H-palmitoylated

Laboratory for Biochemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH-Zentrum, Zurich.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.57). 07/1993; 268(17):12996-3001.
Source: PubMed


A tightly membrane-associated form of spectrin (TMA-spectrin) was labeled when human red blood cells were incubated with [3H]palmitic acid. About 90% of spectrin was not fatty acid-acylated and was extracted from membranes by low salt buffers. The 3H-palmitoylated TMA-spectrin, however, resisted low and even high salt extraction and remained associated with inside-out vesicles that were generated in the process of spectrin-actin extraction from membranes. TMA-spectrin was preferentially extracted from KCl-stripped vesicles by 5 M urea at low ionic strength. TMA-spectrin was purified by gel filtration and by ion exchange chromatography in the presence of urea and a non-ionic detergent. Purified TMA-spectrin was 3H-palmitoylated exclusively in the beta subunit to 0.28 mol/mol after a 12-h incubation of red cells. The labeled palmitate may be bound as an ester or thioester, since hydroxylamine (1 M, pH 7.5) released the label completely. Peptide maps of 3H-palmitoylated TMA-spectrin showed three or two labeled peptides from the beta subunit, when generated by V8 protease and trypsin, respectively. Two types of antibodies to spectrin reacted with purified TMA-spectrin, and TMA-spectrin contained the same antigenic peptides as low salt-extractable spectrin. Rabbit anti-ankyrin antibodies did not bind to TMA-spectrin. The substoichiometric incorporation of [3H]palmitic acid into TMA-spectrin could result from the slow turnover of endogenously bound fatty acids. Generation of the tightly membrane-associated and 3H-palmitoylated subpopulation of spectrin cannot be due to entrapment of an unmodified residual fraction of spectrin in right-side-out vesicles. Instead, the data suggest the existence of a subpopulation of spectrin molecules that undergo a covalent fatty acid modification and thereby alter their binding properties. This may offer a new, metabolically dependent mechanism for dynamic interactions between spectrin and the membrane lipid bilayer.

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Available from: Hans Ulrich Lutz
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    • "Alterations in cytoskeletal organization can also be inferred for McLeod erythrocytes since the XK-protein, the gene which is mutated in MLS, is directly linked to protein 4.1 which is an essential component of the junctional complex [33]. Moreover, both spectrin and protein 4.1 have been shown to directly bind to the membrane by fatty acid posttranslational modification [34] and/or association with PS [35,36]. Spectrin is thought to be involved in the formation of large PS-rich lipid domains [35] and protein 4.1-deficient red blood cells show alterations in pathways associated with PS-exposure [37]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroacanthocytosis (NA) refers to a group of heterogenous, rare genetic disorders, namely chorea acanthocytosis (ChAc), McLeod syndrome (MLS), Huntington's disease-like 2 (HDL2) and pantothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), that mainly affect the basal ganglia and are associated with similar neurological symptoms. PKAN is also assigned to a group of rare neurodegenerative diseases, known as NBIA (neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation), associated with iron accumulation in the basal ganglia and progressive movement disorder. Acanthocytosis, the occurrence of misshaped erythrocytes with thorny protrusions, is frequently observed in ChAc and MLS patients but less prevalent in PKAN (about 10%) and HDL2 patients. The pathological factors that lead to the formation of the acanthocytic red blood cell shape are currently unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether NA/NBIA acanthocytes differ in their functionality from normal erythrocytes. Several flow-cytometry-based assays were applied to test the physiological responses of the plasma membrane, namely drug-induced endocytosis, phosphatidylserine exposure and calcium uptake upon treatment with lysophosphatidic acid. ChAc red cell samples clearly showed a reduced response in drug-induced endovesiculation, lysophosphatidic acid-induced phosphatidylserine exposure, and calcium uptake. Impaired responses were also observed in acanthocyte-positive NBIA (PKAN) red cells but not in patient cells without shape abnormalities. These data suggest an "acanthocytic state" of the red cell where alterations in functional and interdependent membrane properties arise together with an acanthocytic cell shape. Further elucidation of the aberrant molecular mechanisms that cause this acanthocytic state may possibly help to evaluate the pathological pathways leading to neurodegeneration.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / b b a m e m 1, MPP1) [11], spectrin [12], ankyrin [13], protein 4.2 [14], and stomatin itself [15], could be responsible for the anchoring of lipid rafts. If this were the case, the mechanism of action of carbonate in releasing the lipid rafts from the membrane skeleton could be related, rather than to the perturbation of electrostatic interactions, to the hydrolysis, in the alkaline environment generated by carbonate itself, of the relatively weak thioester bond that links palmitic acid to the protein. "
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    ABSTRACT: Erythrocyte lipid rafts are anchored to the underlying spectrin membrane skeleton [A. Ciana, C. Achilli, C. Balduini, G. Minetti, On the association of lipid rafts to the spectrin skeleton in human erythrocytes, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1808 (2011) 183-190]. The nature of this linkage and the molecules involved are poorly understood. The interaction is sensitive to the increase in pH and ionic strength induced by carbonate. Given the role of palmitoylation in modulating the partitioning of certain proteins between various sub-cellular compartments and the plasma membrane, we asked whether palmitoylation of p55, a peripheral protein located at the junctional complex between spectrin-actin-protein 4.1 that anchors the membrane skeleton to the lipid bilayer via the transmembrane protein glycophorin C, could contribute to the anchoring of lipid rafts to the membrane skeleton. We adopted a new, non-radioactive method for studying protein palmitoylation, based on bio-orthogonal chemical analogues of fatty acids, containing an omega-alkynyl group, to metabolically label cell proteins, which are then revealed by a "click chemistry" reaction of the alkynyl moiety with an azide-containing reporter tag. We show that the membrane localization and palmitoylation levels of p55 did not change after carbonate treatment. 2-bromopalmitate and cerulenin, two known palmitoylation inhibitors, completely inhibited p55 palmitoylation, and protein palmitoyl thioesterase-1 (PPT1) reduced it, without affecting the association between lipid rafts and membrane-skeleton, indicating, on the one hand, that p55 palmitoylation is enzymatic, and, on the other, that it is not involved in the modulation of the linkage of lipid rafts to the membrane-skeleton.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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    • "Although the fast kinetics of carbonate action (30 min at 4 °C, Fig. 1C) would argue in favour of this view, other mechanisms cannot be ruled out. A study is under way to evaluate the possible contribution of S-acylated (palmitoylated) proteins in the membrane skeleton [41] [42], such as p55, spectrin and ankyrin, for the anchoring of DRMs, through the insertion of their saturated palmitoyl groups into the liquid-ordered phase of these microdomains: the alkalinization brought about by carbonate might be sufficient for hydrolysing these relatively weak thioester bonds. We previously reported that the integral proteins band 3 and GPC were present at low, but significant levels in DRMs, and speculated that they could be responsible for the anchoring of DRMs to the membrane skeleton [15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Lipid rafts are local inhomogeneities in the composition of the plasma membrane of living cells, that are enriched in sphingolipids and cholesterol in a liquid-ordered state, and proteins involved in receptor-mediated signalling. Interactions between lipid rafts and the cytoskeleton have been observed in various cell types. They are isolated as a fraction of the plasma membrane that resists solubilization by nonionic detergents at 4°C (detergent-resistant membranes, DRMs). We have previously described that DRMs are anchored to the spectrin-based membrane skeleton in human erythrocytes and can be released by increasing the pH and ionic strength of the solubilization medium with sodium carbonate. It was unexplained why this carbonate treatment was necessary and why this requirement was not reported by other workers in this area. We show here that when contaminating leukocytes are present in erythrocyte preparations that are subjected to detergent treatment, the isolation of DRMs can occur without the requirement for carbonate treatment. This is due to the uncontrolled breakdown of erythrocyte membrane components by hydrolases that are released from contaminating neutrophils that lead to proteolytic disruption of the supramolecular assembly of the membrane skeleton. Results presented here corroborate the concept that DRMs are anchored to the membrane skeleton through electrostatic interactions that most likely involve the spectrin molecule.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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