Sepúlveda, S. et al. Low spinal and pelvic bone mineral density among individuals with Down syndrome. Am. J. Ment. Retard. 100, 109-114

Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, USA.
American journal of mental retardation: AJMR (Impact Factor: 2.51). 10/1995; 100(2):109-14.
Source: PubMed


The bone mineral density of 15 adults with Down syndrome was compared to 25 control subjects without Down syndrome. Bone mineral density was measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry with a Lunar DPX scanner. Arm, leg, pelvic, and spine bone mineral density was tested. Analysis of covariance was conducted for each variable; Down syndrome was the independent variable, and the covariates were height, lean body mass, fat mass, age, and gender. No significant group differences were found for arm or leg bone mineral density. Individuals with Down syndrome had significantly lower pelvic and spinal bone mineral density. Before adjustment for covariates, percentage difference between group means for spine was 14.5% and for pelvis, 11.6%. Adjusted percentage was 11.1% and 13.9%, respectively. Suggestions for further research were made.

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    • "Several investigators, including ourselves have reported that adults (and children) with DS have lower bone mass, expressed as BMD, especially in the lumbar spine, compared with their peers without mental retardation or with mental retardation but without DS [5], [10], [11], [12], [13]. Known secondary causes for low BMD include dietary insufficiency (vitamin D and calcium intake), endocrine (hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, hypogonadism), and autoimmune disorders (celiac disease) which lead to inadequate nutrition. "
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    ABSTRACT: Trisomy 21 affects virtually every organ system and results in the complex clinical presentation of Down syndrome (DS). Patterns of differences are now being recognized as patients' age and these patterns bring about new opportunities for disease prevention and treatment. Low bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported in many studies of males and females with DS yet the specific effects of trisomy 21 on the skeleton remain poorly defined. Therefore we determined the bone phenotype and measured bone turnover markers in the murine DS model Ts65Dn. Male Ts65Dn DS mice are infertile and display a profound low bone mass phenotype that deteriorates with age. The low bone mass was correlated with significantly decreased osteoblast and osteoclast development, decreased bone biochemical markers, a diminished bone formation rate and reduced mechanical strength. The low bone mass observed in 3 month old Ts65Dn mice was significantly increased after 4 weeks of intermittent PTH treatment. These studies provide novel insight into the cause of the profound bone fragility in DS and identify PTH as a potential anabolic agent in the adult low bone mass DS population.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Unlike most femoral neck fractures caused by minor trauma, those resulting from seizures may be significantly more comminuted. This is likely the effect of persistent muscle contracture during the seizure, but also due to increased rates of osteopenia in epileptic patients and decreased bone mineral density in individuals with Down syndrome.8–10 There is also evidence to suggest that certain antiepileptic medications, particularly phenytoin, are associated with decreased bone mineral density.11,12 "
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