Low spinal and pelvic bone mineral density among individuals with Down syndrome

ArticleinAmerican journal of mental retardation: AJMR 100(2):109-14 · October 1995with11 Reads
Source: PubMed
Abstract
The bone mineral density of 15 adults with Down syndrome was compared to 25 control subjects without Down syndrome. Bone mineral density was measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry with a Lunar DPX scanner. Arm, leg, pelvic, and spine bone mineral density was tested. Analysis of covariance was conducted for each variable; Down syndrome was the independent variable, and the covariates were height, lean body mass, fat mass, age, and gender. No significant group differences were found for arm or leg bone mineral density. Individuals with Down syndrome had significantly lower pelvic and spinal bone mineral density. Before adjustment for covariates, percentage difference between group means for spine was 14.5% and for pelvis, 11.6%. Adjusted percentage was 11.1% and 13.9%, respectively. Suggestions for further research were made.
    • "Individuals with DS are less active than individuals with MR (Nordstrom, Nordstrom, Thorsen, & Lorentzon, 1996). Generalized hypotonia associated with decrease in lower limb muscle strength has significant impact on and leads to lower peak bone mass, being related to osteoporosis (Sepulveda et al., 1995). Another factor that may corroborate the decrease in BMD in the referred population is the alteration of chromosome 21, responsible for important abnormalities of skeletal muscle in this population (Finch, 1994). "
    Full-text · Dataset · Jul 2015 · Osteoporosis International
    • "This fact might provide reasoning and application to the current findings of this study. Lower BMD values in the whole body of individuals with DS with their counterparts have been reported in several stud- ies [6][7][8]. However, other studies did not note differences in the lumbar spine, hip, or femoral neck of children and adolescents with DS compared with those without DS [5, 7]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adolescents with Down syndrome (DS) have poorer bone health than their peers without DS. Twenty-five adolescents with DS were randomly assigned to whole-body vibration training (WBV) or control groups. The results indicate that a 20-week WBV might be useful to improve subtotal bone mineral content and density in adolescents with DS. This study aims to determine the effects of 20 weeks of whole body vibration training (WBV) on bone mineral content (BMC), density (BMD), and structure variables in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). This randomized controlled trial of 25 adolescents (12-18 years) with DS (8 females) generated 2 non-equal groups, WBV group (n = 11) and CON group (n = 14). Using an efficacy analysis, the primary outcomes were BMC and BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and the secondary were bone structure variables by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. A synchronous vibration platform (PowerPlate®) was used (3/week, 10 repetitions (30-60 s) 1-min rest, frequency of 25-30 Hz, and peak-to-peak displacement of 2 mm (peak acceleration 2.5-3.6 g)). WBV group improved whole body BMC 2.8 %, 95 % CI [3.5, 2.1], subtotal area, BMC, and BMD by 2.8, 4.8, and 2 %, respectively, 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) [3.4, 2.1], [6.5, 3.1], and [2.8, 1.1], respectively (all, p < 0.05), showing group by time interactions in BMC and BMD (both p < 0.05). Lumbar spine BMC and BMD also increased in the WBV group by 6.6 and 3.3 % both p < 0.05, 95 % CIs [8.6, 4.7], and [4.9, 1.7], respectively. Regarding bone structure, WBV group showed improvements in tibial BMC at 4 % (2.9 %, 95 % CI [3.0, 2.8]) and in volumetric BMD (vBMD), cortical vBMD, and cortical thickness at 66 % of the radius (by 7.0, 2.4, and 10.9 %; 95 % CIs [7.4, 6.7], [2.6, 2.3], and [12.4, 9.3], respectively) (all, p < 0.05). A 20-week WBV, with this protocol, might be useful to improve subtotal BMC and BMD in adolescents with DS.
    Article · May 2015
    • "This equipment is widely used in both children and adults because of its short scan time, low radiation dose, and high precision and accuracy [3, 4]. Studies using a DXA to assess BMC and BMD have consistently shown that young adults with DS have significantly lower BMD in whole body, lumbar spine and femoral neck than their healthy peers56789101112. Since BMD is a ratio between the measured bone mass and the two-dimensional projected area, a DXA scan reports a higher BMD for a taller person and a lower BMD for a shorter person [13, 14]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preadolescent boys with Down syndrome at 7–10 years of age have lower bone mass and density in the pelvis than age-matched children without Down syndrome. However, bone mass and density of total body less head and lumbar spine are not different between these two groups. Introduction This study aimed to assess bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) in preadolescent boys with and without Down syndrome (DS) at 7–10 years of age. Methods Eleven preadolescent boys with DS and eleven age-matched children without DS participated in this study. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure BMC and BMD in whole body and lumbar spine. Both BMC and BMD of total body less head (TBLH) and lumbar spine (vertebrae L2–L4) were compared between the two groups, with and without adjusting for physical characteristics such as bone area, body height, and total lean mass. Two bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) variables were calculated to estimate volumetric BMD in the lumbar spine. Results Both BMC and BMD in the pelvis were lower in the DS group, after adjusting for physical characteristics. However, with and without adjusting for physical characteristics, the two groups were not different in BMC and BMD of the arms, legs, and TBLH from the whole body scan and in BMC, BMD, and BMAD of the lumbar spine from the lumbar spine scan. Conclusions These findings indicate that the pelvis may be the first site to show the significant difference in BMC and BMD between preadolescent boys with and without DS. It also suggests that significantly lower BMC and BMD in whole body and lumbar spine, which is usually observed in young adults with DS, may not occur before adolescence.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013
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