Acute myeloblastic leukemia associated with mediastinal nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. Report on two cases
The demonstrated association with hematologic neoplasms may partially account for the poor survival of patients with mediastinal nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (MNSGCT) compared to patients with testicular and retroperitoneal counterparts. It has been shown that the median interval from the diagnosis of MNSGCT to the diagnosis of the hematologic disorders is 6 months, which contrasts sharply with the average time of 2 to 3 years for the development of therapy-related leukemias. The 2 cases herein described, 1 male and 1 female, developed acute M2 leukemia 4 and 2 years after the diagnosis of MNSGCT. In the second patient (the first female ever described), we cannot exclude a pathogenetic role of the PEB regimen (platinum, etoposide, bleomicin), even though the total dose of etoposide administered has been demonstrated to have a mild leukemogenic potential. This is not the case of the first patient, who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy after the radical resection of primary MNGSCT and developed the hematologic disorder a few months after local recurrence. In conclusion, the time elapsed from chemotherapy administration does not discriminate the hematologic neoplasms associated to MNGSCT from those related to therapy.
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