Limited sampling models for reliable estimation of etoposide area under the curve
Klinische Nuklearmedizin, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Germany. European Journal of Cancer
(Impact Factor: 5.42).
11/1995; 31A(11):1794-8. DOI: 10.1016/0959-8049(95)00383-T
Limited sampling models are able to estimate the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) from plasma concentrations measured at only a few time points. The purpose of this study was to establish a model estimating etoposide AUC independently of specific chemotherapy protocols, underlying malignancies, concomitant diseases and age. Pharmacokinetic parameters were measured in 30 patients treated with polychemotherapy including etoposide (80-150 mg/m2). Etoposide analysis was performed by thin layer chromatography and consecutive quantitative sample detection by 252Cf-plasma desorption mass spectrometry. Data from the first 15 patients formed the training set. Based on the training data, five different models were generated, with the multiple regression coefficient r ranging from 0.91 to 0.96. The following model was selected as "most accurate": AUC = 343 (min)C4h(micrograms/ml) + 650(min)C8h(micrograms/ml) + 1252 (min micrograms/mol), where C4h is the plasma concentration of etoposide at 4 h after the end of infusion and C8h at 8 h. This model was validated on the test set, comprising the data of the remaining 15 patients. The mean predictive error (MPE) was -0.2% and the root mean square predictive error (RMSE) was 4.7%. When used for a large number of patients, this practicable and simple model is an instrument for use in prospective studies, to measure a correlation between drug dosage and efficacy or toxicity of the drug.
Available from: Lea Knez
- "AUC is the best pharmacokinetic parameter for predicting anticancer pharmacodynamic effects. Precise estimation of AUC based on plasma concentration requires the handling of many blood samples, usually 8–12, which is expensive, time-consuming and inconvenient.12,106 Several limited sampling models (LSM) that are based only on a few sparse determinations of plasma concentrations and can obtain a good estimate of the AUC for oral etoposide, were developed and validated.107–109 "
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Etoposide is a chemotherapeutic agent, widely used for the treatment of various malignancies, including small cell lung cancer (SCLC), an aggressive disease with poor prognosis. Oral etoposide administration exhibits advantages for the quality of life of the patient as well as economic benefits. However, widespread use of oral etoposide is limited by incomplete and variable bioavailability. Variability in bioavailability was observed both within and between patients. This suggests that some patients may experience suboptimal tumor cytotoxicity, whereas other patients may be at risk for excess toxicity.
The article highlights dilemmas as well as solutions regarding oral treatment with etoposide by presenting and analyzing relevant literature data. Numerous studies have shown that bioavailability of etoposide is influenced by genetic, physiological and environmental factors. Several strategies were explored to improve bioavailability and to reduce pharmacokinetic variability of oral etoposide, including desired and undesired drug interactions (e.g. with ketoconazole), development of suitable drug delivery systems, use of more water-soluble prodrug of etoposide, and influence on gastric emptying. In addition to genotype-based dose administration, etoposide is suitable for pharmacokinetically guided dosing, which enables dose adjustments in individual patient.
Further, it is established that oral and intravenous schedules of etoposide in SCLC patients do not result in significant differences in treatment outcome, while results of toxicity are inconclusive. To conclude, the main message of the article is that better prediction of the pharmacokinetics of oral etoposide may encourage its wider use in routine clinical practice.
Available from: Nobuyuki Yamamoto
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ABSTRACT: We previously established a limited sampling model (LSM) for the area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC) of irinotecan (CPT-11). Using this LSM, we performed a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis of CPT-11 in a multicentric Phase II study for non-small cell lung cancer. Ten institutes participated in this study, 36 patients were registered, and 30 patients were evaluable for the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis. CPT-11 and etoposide were administered daily for three consecutive days, both at a dose of 60 mg/m2. Blood samples were obtained 4 and 8 h after infusion on days 1 and 3. When using the LSM, there is a significant possible source of error in the timing of these selected points. In this study, however, the sample timing error was small. Mean timing errors were 1.0-4.0 min at each point. The estimated CPT-11 AUCs were: Day 1 Day 2 Day 1 + 3 Mean +/- SD (mg.h/liter) 3.76+/-0.68 4.10+/-0.86 7.86+/-1.43 Range 2.01-5.03 2. 29-5.72 4.30-10.68 Max/min 2.50 2.45 2.48 High interpatient variability was observed in the AUC. The CPT-11 AUC correlated positively with the grade of emesis (P = 0.003) and the percent decreases in WBC count (P = 0.001) and absolute neutrophil count (P =0.0006), but it did not correlate with the grade of diarrhea or response. We concluded that the LSM was useful in estimating individual pharmacokinetic parameters in multicentric trials.
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ABSTRACT: Etoposide (VP16), a widely used anticancer drug, is a topoisomerase II inhibitor. A number of studies have highlighted a correlation between hematologic toxicity and pharmacokinetic or physiological parameters. Other studies have also suggested that the anti-tumor response could be related to the plasma etoposide concentration. Therefore, it would seem of interest to individualize VP16 dose regimens on the basis of pharmacokinetic parameters. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a limited-sampling strategy allowing VP16 pharmacokinetic evaluation with minimal disturbance to the patient. A total of 34 patients (54 kinetics) received VP16 at various dose regimens, with doses ranging between 30 and 200 mg and infusion times varying between 0.5 and 2 h. The statistical characteristics of the pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed from the first courses of treatment performed in 23/34 patients; then the following three-sample protocol was designed: the end of the infusion and 5 and 24 h after the start of the infusion. For validation of the model the main pharmacokinetic parameters (clearance, half-lives, volume of distribution) were estimated in the 11 remaining patients by maximum-likelihood estimation (ML) and by Bayesian estimation (BE) using the three sampling times designed. Statistical comparison showed a good concordance between ML and BE estimates (the bias for clearance was -1.72%). The limited-sampling strategy presented herein can thus be used for accurate estimation of VP16 pharmacokinetic parameters.
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