Article

Bonnet MH, Arand DL. 24-Hour metabolic rate in insomniacs and matched normal sleepers. Sleep 18: 581-8

Dayton VA Hospital, Wright State University, Ohio, USA.
Sleep (Impact Factor: 4.59). 10/1995; 18(7):581-8.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Groups of 10 objectively defined insomniacs and age-, sex- and weight-matched normal sleepers were evaluated on sleep, performance, mood, personality and metabolic measures over a 36-hour sleep laboratory stay. Insomniacs were defined to have increased wake time during the night but also had decreased stage 2 and rapid eye movement sleep. As expected insomniacs reported increased confusion, tension and depression and decreased vigor on the profile of mood states mood scale throughout the evaluation period as compared to the normals. Insomniacs also had decreased memory ability on the short-term memory test and the MAST. These performance and mood differences were not secondary to sleepiness because the insomniacs also had significantly increased multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) values throughout the evaluation period. In conjunction with the consistent mood, performance and MSLT differences during the day and the sleep differences at night, whole body VO2, measured at intervals across the day and throughout one night of sleep, was consistently elevated at all measurement points in the insomniacs as compared to the normals. The nocturnal increase in metabolic rate remained even after metabolic values from periods during the night containing wake time or arousals were eliminated from the data set. It was concluded that patients who report chronic insomnia may suffer from a more general disorder of hyperarousal (as measured here by a 24-hour increase in metabolic rate) that may be responsible for both the daytime symptoms and the nocturnal poor sleep. Future studies need to explore 24-hour insomnia treatment strategies that decrease hyperarousal.

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    • "Recent epidemiological and laboratory controlled studies in different populations have established a correlation between short sleep time and increased weight gain, indicating that sleep curtailment is a predisposing factor for obesity (Bonnet &amp; Arand, 1995;Chaput et al. 2008;Knutson &amp; Van Cauter, 2008;Bo et al. 2011;Kobayashi et al. 2012;Di Milia et al. 2013;Moraes et al. 2013;Nagai et al. 2013Cappuccio et al. 2008), and reduced sleep duration has been associated with increased risk of future obesity in a 13 year prospective study (Hasler et al. 2004). Individuals who report habitual sleep periods of <6 h per day exhibit increased risk of obesity and higher body mass index than those who sleep >9 h per day (Vioque et al. 2000). "
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    ABSTRACT: Sleep curtailment is associated with obesity and metabolic changes in adults and children. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immediate and long-term metabolic alterations produced by sleep restriction in pubertal male rats. Twenty-eight-day old male Wistar rats were distributed in two groups: control (CTL) and sleep restricted (SR), which was accomplished by the single platform technique for 18 h/day for 21 days, These groups were further distributed in four periods of assessment: sleep restriction, 1 month, 2 months and 4 months of recovery. Body weight and food intake were monitored during all experimental periods. At the end of each period, blood was collected for metabolic profiling, and the carcasses were processed for measurement of body composition and energy balance. During the sleep restriction period, SR animals consumed less food in the home-cages. This group also displayed lower body weight, body fat, triglycerides and glucose levels than CTL rats. At the 1(st) month of recovery, despite eating as much as CTL rats, SR animals showed greater energy and body weight gain, increased gross food efficiency and decreased energy expenditure. At the 2(nd) and 4(th) months of recovery, the groups were no longer different, except for energy gain and gross food efficiency, which remained higher in SR animals. In conclusion, sleep restriction affected weight gain of young animals, due to reduction of fat stores. Two months were sufficient to recover this deficit, and to reveal that SR rats tended to save more energy and to store more fat. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Experimental physiology
    • "Insomnia is estimated to affect approximately 10% of the adult population (Morin et al., 2006), and is associated with chronic symptoms of fatigue (Orff et al., 2007), impairment of sustained attention (Altena et al., 2008), poorer working memory (Bonnet and Arand, 1995) and degraded quality of life (Bolge et al., 2009). Given this, insomnia is also regarded as a significant public health issue (Altevogt and Colten, 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: While high levels of activity and exercise training have been associated with improvements in sleep quality, minimum levels of activity likely to improve sleep outcomes have not been explored. A two-armed parallel randomized controlled trial (N=41; 30 females) was designed to assess whether increasing physical activity to the level recommended in public health guidelines can improve sleep quality among inactive adults meeting research diagnostic criteria for insomnia. The intervention consisted of a monitored program of ≥150 min of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity per week, for 6 months. The principal end-point was the Insomnia Severity Index at 6 months post-baseline. Secondary outcomes included measures of mood, fatigue and daytime sleepiness. Activity and light exposure were monitored throughout the trial using accelerometry and actigraphy. At 6 months post-baseline, the physical activity group showed significantly reduced insomnia symptom severity (F8,26 = 5.16, P = 0.03), with an average reduction of four points on the Insomnia Severity Index; and significantly reduced depression and anxiety scores (F6,28 = 5.61, P = 0.02; and F6,28 = 4.41, P = 0.05, respectively). All of the changes were independent of daily light exposure. Daytime fatigue showed no significant effect of the intervention (F8,26 = 1.84, P = 0.18). Adherence and retention were high. Internationally recommended minimum levels of physical activity improve daytime and night-time symptoms of chronic insomnia independent of daily light exposure levels. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.
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    • "Notwithstanding, brain mechanisms of insomnia have remained elusive, hampering the development of effective treatments. The symptoms of insomnia are not limited to sleep and may best be summarized as a round-the-clock state of hyper-arousal (Bonnet and Arand, 1995). Indeed, subjective hyper-arousal indices like tension, irritability, hypersensitivity and behavioural hyper-responsivity are complemented by physiological indices of hyper-arousal. "
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    ABSTRACT: Insomnia is prevalent, severe and partially heritable. Unfortunately, its neuronal correlates remain enigmatic, hampering the development of mechanistic models and rational treatments. Consistently reported impairments concern fragmented sleep, hyper-arousal and executive dysfunction. Because fronto-striatal networks could well play a role in sleep, arousal regulation and executive functioning, the present series of studies used an executive task to evaluate fronto-striatal functioning in disturbed sleep. Patients with insomnia showed reduced recruitment of the head of the left caudate nucleus during executive functioning, which was not secondary to altered performance or baseline perfusion. Individual differences in caudate recruitment were associated with hyper-arousal severity. Seed-based functional connectivity analysis suggested that attenuated input from a projecting orbitofrontal area with reduced grey matter density contributes to altered caudate recruitment in patients with insomnia. Attenuated caudate recruitment persisted after successful treatment of insomnia, warranting evaluation as a potential vulnerability trait. A similar selective reduction in caudate recruitment could be elicited in participants without sleep complaints by slow-wave sleep fragmentation, providing a model to facilitate investigation of the causes and consequences of insomnia.
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