Article

Perfectionism traits and perfectionistic self-presentation in eating disorder attitudes, characteristics, and symptoms

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to assess the association between several dimensions of perfectionism and measures of eating disorder symptoms, body image, and appearance self-esteem in college students. A sample of 81 female university students completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale, the Eating Attitudes Test, the Bulimia Test, the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire, and two measures of self-esteem. It was found that whereas self-oriented perfectionism was related only to anorexic symptoms, the social facets of perfectionism, especially socially prescribed perfectionism and the perfectionistic self-presentation dimensions, were related to eating disorder symptoms as well as body image avoidance and self-esteem. The findings support the usefulness of differentiating personal and interpersonal dimensions of perfectionism as well as trait versus self-presentational aspects of perfectionism in investigating personality and attitudes and behaviors related to eating disorders.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... The multidimensional perfectionism construct has received support within the research literature as it has been used within several studies (Flett, Hewitt, Blankstein and Koledin, 1991;Flett, Russo and Hewitt, 1994;Ferrari, 1995;Hewitt, Flett and Ediger, 1995;Pliner and Haddock, 1996;McLaren, Gauvin and White, 2001;Rice et aI., 2003;Sherry, Hewitt, Flett and Harvey, 2003), and it relates to Hollender's (1965) definition as both emphasise the significance of demands placed on the self and others. However, the multidimensional construct appears to have been predominantly advocated by the authors of the measures themselves. ...
... McLaren et aL, 2001; Hewitt et aL, 1995). Higher perfectionism levels have also been linked to AN both theoretically (Shafran and Mansell, 2001) Research has focused on perfectionism as a risk factor for ED, and also on the relationship between ED and aspects of the perfectionism construct such as multidimensional and positive and negative perfectionism. ...
... and socially prescribed perfectionism = .75). The MPS-H is widely used with both psychiatric and non-clinical controls (see review by Shafran and Mansell, 2001) and eating disorders (see Bastiani, Rao, Weltzin, and Kaye, 1995;Hewitt, Flett, and Ediger, 1995;Pliner and Haddock, 1996). ...
Thesis
p>Perfectionism is a personality trait, characterised by goal-orientated behaviour and the pursuit of standards which an individual feels unable to relinquish, and has been linked to eating disorders (ED) such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Recent cognitive theories have suggested that, in some individuals with ED, perfectionism and body weight and shape concerns together represent a dysfunctional system for self-evaluation. Despite the theoretical relationship between perfectionism and eating concerns, the relationship in the empirical literature remains unclear. Greater clarity in the perfectionism construct and further studies of cognitive content and specificity may help clarify the relationship between perfectionism and eating concerns. In view of the proposed relationship between perfectionism and eating concerns, the empirical paper examined the content of cognitions, and the influence of perfectionist beliefs on eating concerns. Weight and shape related thoughts were compared in participants with high ( n = 26) and low eating concerns (n = 26), in a weight and shape task and a control task. Regression analysis then examined the contribution of perfectionism to eating, weight and shape thoughts ( n = 95). High eating concerned participants reported significantly more self referent and negative eating, weight and shape thoughts than the low eating concerned group and indicated a greater overall belief in weight and shape thoughts. However, there were more neutral thoughts reported by low and high eating concerned participants overall. State rather than trait perfectionism correlated significantly with measures of eating concerns. Perfectionism predicted a small proportion of the variance in eating, weight and shape thoughts, in addition to measures of eating concerns. Results are discussed in relation to current cognitive theories, clarity of the perfectionism construct, and methodological considerations within the current theoretical and empirical literature. Limitations of the study, and research and clinical implications are considered.</p
... One particularly important antecedent of disordered eating clearly carries a social component: perfectionism (Hewitt, Flett, & Ediger, 1995). Defined as "overdependence of self-evaluation on the determined pursuit of personally demanding, self-imposed standards" (Shafran, Cooper, & Fairburn, 2002, p. 778), perfectionism has been shown to predict and maintain disordered eating behaviours (Stice, 2002). ...
... Similar to the FMPS, it contained a subscale (Self-Oriented Perfectionism) assessing high self-imposed standards and negative self-evaluations, but also contained scales measuring Socially Prescribed Perfectionism (the belief that others have high standards for them), and Other-Oriented Perfectionism (the unrealistic standards the individual has for others). While research has demonstrated that Self-Oriented and Socially Prescribed forms of Perfectionism (SOP and SPP respectively) directly link with eating disorder symptoms in cross-sectional analyses (Hewitt et al., 1995) and longitudinal analyses (Smith et al., 2017;Soares, Macedo, et al., 2009), the evidence for ...
... Other-Oriented Perfectionism's link to disordered eating is weak Hewitt et al., 1995). Significantly higher levels of SOP have been found in people with Anorexia Nervosa (relative to a normal population), while higher levels of SPP has been found to predict greater disordered eating patterns, concerns about appearance, and lower self-esteem (Hewitt et al., 1995). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
This research addressed how perfectionism relates to disordered eating by using a social identity approach. It found that the norms within valued identities dictated perfectionism content, including disordered eating tendencies, and that changing these norms could reduce perfectionism. Addressing perfectionism in this way may lead to improved disordered eating interventions.
... One particularly important antecedent of disordered eating clearly carries a social component: perfectionism (Hewitt, Flett, & Ediger, 1995). Defined as "overdependence of self-evaluation on the determined pursuit of personally demanding, self-imposed standards" (Shafran, Cooper, & Fairburn, 2002, p. 778), perfectionism has been shown to predict and maintain disordered eating behaviours (Stice, 2002). ...
... Similar to the FMPS, it contained a subscale (Self-Oriented Perfectionism) assessing high self-imposed standards and negative self-evaluations, but also contained scales measuring Socially Prescribed Perfectionism (the belief that others have high standards for them), and Other-Oriented Perfectionism (the unrealistic standards the individual has for others). While research has demonstrated that Self-Oriented and Socially Prescribed forms of Perfectionism (SOP and SPP respectively) directly link with eating disorder symptoms in cross-sectional analyses (Hewitt et al., 1995) and longitudinal analyses (Smith et al., 2017;Soares, Macedo, et al., 2009), the evidence for ...
... Other-Oriented Perfectionism's link to disordered eating is weak Hewitt et al., 1995). Significantly higher levels of SOP have been found in people with Anorexia ...
Preprint
All over Australia, disordered eating rates are increasing. Decades of research have indicated that perfectionism is a key risk factor for disordered eating behaviour. While there remains some debate about the specific facets of perfectionism, there is general agreement that perfectionism can be delineated based on the perceived source: self-oriented perfectionism (i.e., “I must be perfect”) and socially prescribed perfectionism (i.e., “They require me to be perfect”). Conceptually, this overlaps with social psychology. Specifically, this mirrors traditional social identity approaches of how individuals integrate personal identity content with social identity content. However, to date no research has used a social psychological approach to understand how perfectionism comes about, how it may lead to disordered eating behaviour, and thereby imply how social psychology could aid in therapeutic approaches to reduce perfectionism. In this thesis, I argue that self-oriented perfectionism and socially prescribed perfectionism are analogous to personal identity content and social identity content. Across five papers, I present evidence for this social identity approach to perfectionism in disordered eating. Firstly, I present the Consolidated Perfectionism Model to explain how self-oriented perfectionism and socially prescribed perfectionism can be considered from a social identity perspective, integrating cross cultural, clinical, and sociocultural perspectives on perfectionism in disordered eating. Secondly, I present qualitative evidence suggesting that self-oriented perfectionism is absorbed through intrapersonal factors, and socially prescribed perfectionism is in fact a self-control norm transmitted through “fat talk.” Third, through two correlational studies, we find that perfectionism pressure does appear to relate to thin ideal beliefs, but in another study, low self-control was related to disordered eating above body dissatisfaction. Fourthly, I present data that suggests socially prescribed perfectionism relates to disordered eating through negative urgency (a facet of self-control), indicating that disordered eating behaviour is driven by a negative reaction to socially prescribed perfectionism norms present within the immediate social environment. Fifth and finally, I present evidence that we can reduce socially prescribed perfectionism by manipulating the context of health messages to counter perfectionism. We conclude by discussing how this new perspective can add to therapies designed to reduce perfectionism. This thesis adds to social psychological theory by further presenting evidence that the social identity approach has utility in changing toxic group-based beliefs. However, it also has implications for clinical psychology, by presenting evidence that the use of explicit social psychological frameworks may add to traditional clinicalapproaches. Overall, this thesis presents strong evidence for the use of social psychology approaches to clinical disorders, especially in disordered eating.
... El perfeccionismo es un rasgo de la personalidad que, a menudo, afecta de modo negativo en la vida de los sujetos que lo padecen, y es caracterizado por un excesivo sacrificio personal orientado a objetivos de elevado rendimiento, acompañando autoevaluaciones críticas exageradas e inquietudes con respecto a las apreciaciones ajenas (Crãciun y Holdevici, 2012). De ahí que se conceptualice como un constructo multidimensional (Hewitt, Flett, Turnbull-Donovan y Mikail, 1991) integrando elementos intrapersonales, interpersonales y autopresentaciones que derivan de componentes sociales (Hewitt, Flett y Ediger, 1995). En este caso concreto, centraremos nuestro estudio en el tercero de los componentes. ...
... La Autopresentación Perfeccionista (APP) es conocida como el deseo de proyectar una imagen perfecta hacia los demás (Chen, Hewitt, Flett, Cassels y Birch, 2012;Hewitt et al., 1995;Hewitt, Flett, Sherry y Caelian, 2006) con características protectoras de su exhibición social y con la necesidad reiterativa de divulgarse excelente (Flett y Hewitt, 2013). ...
... Los resultados sugieren un patrón de asociación significativa y positiva en todas sus dimensiones. Contemplando la relevancia de este rasgo de la personalidad y la comorbilidad de psicopatologías observadas en el estudio tales como el sentimiento angustiado (Besser, Flett y Hewitt, 2010;Flett y Hewitt, 2013;Sherry et al., 2007), ansiedad (Flett et al., 1996;Hewitt et al., 2003Hewitt et al., , 2011Mackinnon et al., 2014;Stoeber y Roche, 2014), fobia social y bienestar subjetivo (Casale, Fioravanti, Flett y Hewitt, 2015;Jain y Sudhir, 2010;Mackinnon y Sherry, 2012), baja autoestima y depresión (Beser et al., 2010;Crãciun y Holdevici, 2012;Stoeber y Roche, 2014), TCA (Geller, Cockell, Hewitt, Goldner y Flett, 2000;Hewitt et al., 1995) y tendencias suicidas (Chang, 2002;Flett y Hewitt, 2013;Hassan, Flett, Ganguli y Hewitt, 2014;Roxborough et al., 2012), AUTOPRESENTACIÓN PERFECCIONISTA DURANTE LA INFANCIA Y SU ASOCIACIÓN CON ANSIEDAD ESCOLAR y dada la escasez de estudios elaborados hasta el momento sobre APP infantil, se considera imprescindible el aumento de investigaciones en esta línea, en los años posteriores. ...
Article
Full-text available
La Autopresentación Perfeccionista (APP), conocida como el deseo de proyectar una imagen perfecta hacia los demás con características protectoras de su exhibición social y con la necesidad reiterativa de divulgarse excelente, es uno de los factores más influyentes en cuanto a psicopatologías derivadas y menos estudiado en el contexto educativo. El objetivo de este estudio consistió en examinar la relación entre la APP y la Ansiedad Escolar en una muestra compuesta por 860 participantes con edades comprendidas entre 8 y 12 años (M = 9.86; DE = 1.26), matriculados en centros públicos y privados de la provincia de Alicante. Se empleó la Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale Junior Form (PSPS-Jr) y el Inventario de Ansiedad escolar para Educación Primaria (IAEP). Los análisis estadísticos revelaron una positiva y significativa asociación entre la APP y la Ansiedad Escolar en todos sus factores y el total de sus escalas, con una elevada correlación entre la No-Divulgación de la Imperfección y la Ansiedad ante el Castigo Escolar. Atendiendo a estas consideraciones, este estudio evidencia características específicas que determinan el diseño de un posible tratamiento para disminuir rasgos desadaptativos de la personalidad en población infanto-juvenil.
... The higher the tendency to reduce weight, the higher the concentration on one's own mistakes and doubts about actions. According to the literature on the subject, the stronger the effort to use restrictive diets, which reduce body mass, and the more physical exercise, the deeper the concern about mistakes [12,19,27]. Hewitt et al. suggest that the desire for excellence is a highly-emphasized element in the patients with anorexia nervosa. ...
... Hewitt et al. suggest that the desire for excellence is a highly-emphasized element in the patients with anorexia nervosa. They want to find acceptance from others by completing the task according to expectations, which leads to them having to keep raising their personal standards, which, consequently, may lead to doubts as to the implementation of the task and the delay in its completion [27]. Hewitt at al. have found that the individuals who were remarkably focused on their own perfectionism used diets especially frequently and were concerned about their physical attractiveness. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The aim of the study was an attempt to determine the structure and intensity of perfectionism among junior secondary school students, which can significantly trigger the incidence of Anorexia Readiness Syndrome (ARS). Methods: The empirical study was conducted by means of the Food Attitude Questionnaire (FAQ) by Beata Ziółkowska (2001) and the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS) by Frost et al. (1990). The study was conducted on a group of 345 junior secondary school students. Conclusions: (1) A high level of anorexia readiness coexists with the parents' high level of criticism and their high expectations. (2) A high level of anorexia readiness coexists with excessive concern about one's own mistakes and doubts about actions. (3) The perception of one's own attractiveness coexists with excessive concern about one's own mistakes and excessive criticism on the part of the parents. (4) The higher the tendency to reduce weight, the deeper the concern about one's own mistakes and doubts about actions. (5) The individuals with a high level of anorexia readiness in comparison with the individuals with low anorexia readiness have a deeper concern about mistakes and higher personal standards. (6) The individuals with a high level of anorexia readiness, as compared to the people with low anorexia readiness, perceive their parents as more critical and demanding.
... 1.1 | Using theory to understand socially prescribed perfection and disordered eating While there is debate over the specifics of perfectionism (Stairs et al., 2012), generally it is accepted that perfectionism can be separated into at least two dimensions: an internal drive to be perfect (self-oriented perfectionism, e.g., "I need to be perfect") and the belief that one's immediate social groups expect perfection (socially prescribed perfectionism, e.g., "My group needs me to be perfect"; Hewitt, Flett, & Ediger, 1995;Sherry, Hewitt, Besser, McGee, & Flett, 2004). Self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism are elevated across all forms of EDs . ...
... Self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism are elevated across all forms of EDs . Furthermore, self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism independently link to different types of ED behaviours (Bardone-Cone, 2007;Hewitt et al., 1995). ...
Article
Objective Socially prescribed perfectionism is considered an important contributor to eating disorder (ED) development and maintenance. Despite this fact, it is unclear how social groups apply this pressure to be perfect, and how this pressure originates and manifests. Our research sought to clarify how group membership relates to perfectionism in EDs. Method Using a Social Identity Approach to understand how social identities (i.e., identities arising from group membership) relate to perfectionism in EDs, we performed semi‐structured interviews with 10 Australian women (ages: 19–34) in recovery from EDs. Results Using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis, we found participants suggested personal perfectionism (manifested as self‐control) developed from family standards. Conversely, social perfectionism was a role born from social norms embedded in relevant social groups, and provided definition for perfection. Greater flexibility in defining perfection broadly was reported as important to recovery. Conclusion The results support taking a Social Identity Approach to perfectionism and recovery in EDs. Our research suggests that clinicians should focus on redefining social norms as a potential method to reducing the negative consequences of perfectionism, potentially through the use of group cognitive behavioural therapy to change perfectionism definitions.
... Relative to controls groups, people with bulimic symptoms have elevated perfectionistic concerns (Boisseau, Thompson-Brenner, Pratt, Farchione, & Barlow, 2013;Farstad, McGeown, & von Ranson, 2016). Hewitt, Flett, and Ediger (1995) reported socially prescribed perfectionism correlated positively with bulimic symptoms. Likewise, Lilenfeld et al. (2000) found patients suffering from bulimia reported higher concern over mistakes and doubts about actions relative to healthy controls. ...
... Furthermore, our results include a non-significant relationship between personal standards and bulimic symptoms. The lack of a significant relationship between personal standards and bulimic symptoms in the current meta-analysis may be explained by past findings that suggest personal standards are more strongly associated with anorexic than bulimic symptoms Hewitt et al., 1995). Perhaps personal standards confer a specific risk to anorexic symptoms as opposed to other forms of disordered eating. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Case histories, theoretical accounts, and empirical studies suggest an important relationship between perfectionism and bulimic symptoms. However, whether perfectionism confers vulnerability for bulimic symptoms is unclear. Objective: To address this, we conducted a meta-analysis testing if socially prescribed perfectionism, concern over mistakes, doubts about actions, personal standards, self-oriented perfectionism and EDI-perfectionism predict increases in bulimic symptoms over time. Method: Our literature search yielded 12 longitudinal studies for inclusion. Samples were composed of adolescents , undergraduates, and community adults. Results: Meta-analysis using random effects models showed perfectionistic concerns and EDI-perfectionism, but not perfectionistic strivings, had positive relationships with follow-up bulimic symptoms, after controlling for baseline bulimic symptoms. Conclusion: Results lend credence to theoretical accounts implicating perfectionism in the development of bulimic symptoms. Our review of this literature also underscored the need for additional longitudinal studies that use multisource designs and that assess perfectionism as a multidimensional construct.
... For example, as stated previously, Bruch (1973) indicated that girls who are vulnerable to eating disorders may have interpersonal styles that reflect perfectionistic self-presentation. Although this issue has been researched in adults, with findings suggesting that nondisplay and nondisclosure of imperfection appear to be important predictors of eating disorder symptoms (e.g., Cash et al., 2004;Hewitt, Flett, & Ediger, 1995;McGee et al., 2005), the only research that has addressed this question in adolescents was done with an adult measure of perfectionistic self-presentation and did not assess the subscale facets of perfectionistic self-presentation (Castro et al., 2004). This is a very important issue to address, as there are several models suggesting the genesis of eating disorders may be in childhood or adolescence (e.g., Keel, Leon, & Fulkerson, 2001). ...
... In addition to research on eating disorders, there has been much concern over understanding the development and maintenance of self-esteem among children (see Crocker & Wolfe, 2001). Given that perfectionistic self-presentation has been shown to be closely linked with appearance, achievement, and social self-esteem (Hewitt et al., 1995;2003), it is important to determine whether perfectionistic self-presentation is relevant in the regulation of self-esteem concerns of children and to identify the etiological factors and processes that contribute to low self-esteem among children engaging in this extreme form of self-presentation. ...
Article
Research on adults indicates that perfectionistic self-presentation, the interpersonal expression of one's perfection, is associated with a variety of psychopathological outcomes independent of trait perfectionism and Big Five traits. The current article reports on the development and evidence for the validity of the subtest score interpretations of an 18-item self-report measure of perfectionistic self-presentation for children and adolescents. Analyses conducted on data from two clinical samples and one nonclinical sample of children and adolescents found that the Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale-Junior Form (PSPS-Jr) reflected a multidimensional model of perfectionistic self-presentation with three subscales: Perfectionistic Self Promotion, Nondisplay of Imperfection, and Nondisclosure of Imperfection. The subscale scores were found to demonstrate internal consistency, and there was good evidence supporting the validity of the interpretation of subscale scores based on this new measure. The subscales were associated with maladaptive outcomes, but were not influenced unduly by biases that included social desirability and differential item functioning by gender. Overall, the PSPS-Jr appears to be a useful measure of the expression of perfection among youths and an important tool in attempting to understand the nature and the consequences of perfectionistic self-presentation in children and adolescents.
... First, solid support for the usefulness of differentiating between self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism is provided by research using the Hewitt and Flett multidimensional model of trait perfectionism. In one focus of this research, self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism have been implicated consistently in, but differentially related to, eating disorder symptoms (Hewitt, Flett, & Ediger, 1995). Second, direct support for the significance of distinguishing between self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism in the EDI-P is furnished by the investigation into perfectionism as a risk factor by Joiner & Schmidt (1995). ...
... Such evidence suggests that, although commonly viewed as a unidimensional scale that captures exclusively self-directed features (Ackard & Peterson, 2001), the EDI-P is best regarded as a multidimensional scale that encompasses both self-directed and socially based dimensions of perfectionism. Furthermore, consistent with theory (Bruch, 1981) and research (Hewitt et al., 1995) emphasizing that both the intrapersonal and interpersonal aspects of perfectionism are implicated in the emergence and continuance of eating disorder symptoms, SEM indicated that EDI-SOP and EDI-SPP are independently related to eating disorder symptoms. ...
Article
Objective: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the existence and the importance of the distinction between self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism in the Eating Disorder Inventory Perfectionism subscale (EDI-P). Method: Trait perfectionism, measured by the EDI-P, and eating disorder symptoms, measured by the 26-item Eating Attitudes Test, were examined in 220 university students (110 women and 110 men) belonging to a campus-based fitness facility. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that, for both genders, the EDI-P is best represented by a multidimensional factor structure with three self-oriented perfectionism items (EDI-SOP) and three socially prescribed perfectionism items (EDI-SPP). Structural equation modeling demonstrated that, for both genders, EDI-SOP and EDI-SPP are related independently to eating disorder symptoms. Moderational analysis indicated that, for women, the impact of EDI-SOP on eating disorder symptoms is dependent on the level of EDI-SPP. Discussion: It is suggested that future research should acknowledge the empirical and theoretical implications of having EDI-SOP and EDI-SPP in the EDI-P. It is cautioned that EDI-SOP and EDI-SPP are a partial representation of an already published multidimensional model of trait perfectionism.
... Indeed, such cognitive dysfunction is viewed as central to concern over mistakes (e.g., Brown & Beck, 2002;Frost et al., 1990). Evidence also suggests interpersonal problems and cognitive dysfunction with perfectionistic themes are both key contributors to eating problems Hewitt, Flett, & Ediger, 1995;Shafran, Cooper, & Fairburn, 2002). In focusing on concern over mistakes, the reformulated PMOBE asserts both interpersonal and cognitive features of perfectionism are centrally involved in binge eating. ...
... Concern over mistakes at Wave 1 also indirectly affected dietary restraint at Wave 2 through interpersonal discrepancies at Wave 2 and interpersonal esteem at Wave 2. Sherry and Hall found a similar mediational chain in their test of the original PMOBE. As the body is a public, visible aspect of the self, people high in concern over mistakes may be especially focused on presenting an image of bodily perfection to others (Hewitt et al., 1995). Thus, women may attempt to restrain their eating and to achieve socially prized, but hard-to-obtain, ideals of thinness in an effort to win acceptance or to avoid criticism from others (Sherry & Hall, 2009). ...
Article
The perfectionism model of binge eating (PMOBE) is an integrative model explaining why perfectionism is related to binge eating. This study reformulates and tests the PMOBE, with a focus on addressing limitations observed in the perfectionism and binge-eating literature. In the reformulated PMOBE, concern over mistakes is seen as a destructive aspect of perfectionism contributing to a cycle of binge eating via 4 binge-eating maintenance variables: interpersonal discrepancies, low interpersonal esteem, depressive affect, and dietary restraint. This test of the reformulated PMOBE involved 200 undergraduate women studied using a 3-wave longitudinal design. As hypothesized, concern over mistakes appears to represent a vulnerability factor for binge eating. Bootstrapped tests of mediation suggested concern over mistakes contributes to binge eating through binge-eating maintenance variables, and results supported the incremental validity of the reformulated PMOBE beyond perfectionistic strivings and neuroticism. The reformulated PMOBE also predicted binge eating, but not binge drinking, supporting the specificity of this model. The reformulated PMOBE offers a framework for understanding how key contributors to binge eating work together to generate and to maintain binge eating.
... For example, as stated previously, Bruch (1973) indicated that girls who are vulnerable to eating disorders may have interpersonal styles that reflect perfectionistic self-presentation. Although this issue has been researched in adults, with findings suggesting that nondisplay and nondisclosure of imperfection appear to be important predictors of eating disorder symptoms (e.g., Cash et al., 2004;Hewitt, Flett, & Ediger, 1995;McGee et al., 2005), the only research that has addressed this question in adolescents was done with an adult measure of perfectionistic self-presentation and did not assess the subscale facets of perfectionistic self-presentation (Castro et al., 2004). This is a very important issue to address, as there are several models suggesting the genesis of eating disorders may be in childhood or adolescence (e.g., Keel, Leon, & Fulkerson, 2001). ...
... In addition to research on eating disorders, there has been much concern over understanding the development and maintenance of self-esteem among children (see Crocker & Wolfe, 2001). Given that perfectionistic self-presentation has been shown to be closely linked with appearance, achievement, and social self-esteem (Hewitt et al., 1995;2003), it is important to determine whether perfectionistic self-presentation is relevant in the regulation of self-esteem concerns of children and to identify the etiological factors and processes that contribute to low self-esteem among children engaging in this extreme form of self-presentation. ...
Article
Research on adults indicates that perfectionistic self-presentation, the interpersonal expression of one's perfection, is associated with a variety of psychopathological outcomes independent of trait perfectionism and Big Five traits. The current article reports on the development and evidence for the validity of the subtest score interpretations of an 18-item self-report measure of perfectionistic self-presentation for children and adolescents. Analyses conducted on data from two clinical samples and one nonclinical sample of children and adolescents found that the Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale-Junior Form (PSPS-Jr) reflected a multidimensional model of perfectionistic self-presentation with three subscales: Perfectionistic Self Promotion, Nondisplay of Imperfection, and Nondisclosure of Imperfection. The subscale scores were found to demonstrate internal consistency, and there was good evidence supporting the validity of the interpretation of subscale scores based on this new measure. The subscales were associated with maladaptive outcomes, but were not influenced unduly by biases that included social desirability and differential item functioning by gender. Overall, the PSPS-Jr appears to be a useful measure of the expression of perfection among youths and an important tool in attempting to understand the nature and the consequences of perfectionistic self-presentation in children and adolescents.
... First, solid support for the usefulness of differentiating between self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism is provided by research using the Hewitt and Flett multidimensional model of trait perfectionism. In one focus of this research, self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism have been implicated consistently in, but differentially related to, eating disorder symptoms (Hewitt, Flett, & Ediger, 1995). Second, direct support for the significance of distinguishing between self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism in the EDI-P is furnished by the investigation into perfectionism as a risk factor by Joiner & Schmidt (1995). ...
... Such evidence suggests that, although commonly viewed as a unidimensional scale that captures exclusively self-directed features (Ackard & Peterson, 2001), the EDI-P is best regarded as a multidimensional scale that encompasses both self-directed and socially based dimensions of perfectionism. Furthermore, consistent with theory (Bruch, 1981) and research (Hewitt et al., 1995) emphasizing that both the intrapersonal and interpersonal aspects of perfectionism are implicated in the emergence and continuance of eating disorder symptoms, SEM indicated that EDI-SOP and EDI-SPP are independently related to eating disorder symptoms. ...
Article
Objective: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the existence and the importance of the distinction between self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism in the Eating Disorder Inventory Perfectionism subscale (EDI-P). Method: Trait perfectionism, measured by the EDI-P, and eating disorder symptoms, measured by the 26-item Eating Attitudes Test, were examined in 220 university students (110 women and 110 men) belonging to a campus-based fitness facility. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that, for both genders, the EDI-P is best represented by a multidimensional factor structure with three self-oriented perfectionism items (EDI-SOP) and three socially prescribed perfectionism items (EDI-SPP). Structural equation modeling demonstrated that, for both genders, EDI-SOP and EDI-SPP are related independently to eating disorder symptoms. Moderational analysis indicated that, for women, the impact of EDI-SOP on eating disorder symptoms is dependent on the level of EDI-SPP. Discussion: It is suggested that future research should acknowledge the empirical and theoretical implications of having EDI-SOP and EDI-SPP in the EDI-P. It is cautioned that EDI-SOP and EDI-SPP are a partial representation of an already published multidimensional model of trait perfectionism.
... Furthermore, a substantial body of information suggests that a large portion of college women have body image issues that provoke extremes in dieting behavior (3). Women who diet more tended to rebound to gain more weight (19,22,47). Since women might be more sensitive to body image issues (22,47), misinformation concerning their body composition could trigger more disordered eating habits (1). ...
... Women who diet more tended to rebound to gain more weight (19,22,47). Since women might be more sensitive to body image issues (22,47), misinformation concerning their body composition could trigger more disordered eating habits (1). ...
Article
Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) devices are commonly used to estimate percent body fat (%fat), although validation of their accuracy varies widely. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of four commonly used BIA devices compared to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). College-aged men (n = 29, age = 19.7 ± 1.2 y, weight = 76.9 ± 12.5 kg) and women (n = 31, age = 20.5 ± 0.8 y, weight = 61.5 ± 9.2 kg) were evaluated for %fat using four single-frequency (50 mHz) BIA devices and DXA. A gender × device repeated measures ANOVA indicated some less expensive BIA devices produced %fat values that were not significantly different from DXA. A thumb-to-thumb BIA device produced the closest values in men (21.9 ± 6.6%) and women (32.1 ± 5.3%) compared to DXA (20.6 ± 6.1% and 30.3 ± 5.4%, respectively). The two more expensive BIA devices significantly underestimated in men (14.7 ± 5.8% and 17.0 ± 5.6%) and women (23.3 ± 4.2% and 23.3 ± 4.2%) compared to DXA. Interclass correlation coefficients with DXA were higher for the more expensive devices in men (ICC = 0.899 and 0.958) than the less expensive devices (ICC = 0.681 and 0.730). In women, all BIA devices showed moderate correlations with DXA (ICC = 0.537 to 0.658). Despite the convenience of simple BIA devices, their use in estimating body composition in young men and women might be questionable due to large variations in the differences between DXA and each device in this study.
... Our findings oppose the results of a Portuguese study where perfectionism was associated with disordered eating attitudes [59]. In 1995, Hewitt, Flett, & Ediger suggested in their study two models, for the effect of perfectionism on eating attitudes: perfectionist individuals in the first model fear the idea of their bodies not meeting the strict evaluative criteria they put on themselves and the environmental standards and hence will go towards disordered eating as a trial to satisfy their impulsive thoughts; while individuals of the second model are more affected by the fear of doing mistakes which will not allow them to have imperfect diets [60]. We suggest that our findings follow the second model where the fear of imperfection and the avoidance of mistakes contributed to better eating attitudes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The literature highly concentrates on disorders related to body image among women but only minimally when it comes to the male population; hence, in order to provide general practitioners, and primary care physicians in general, and psychiatrists in particular, with additional information concerning muscle dysmorphia among male university students in Lebanon, this study seemed essential, and was therefore conducted to (1) identify the prevalence of MDD, and (2) evaluate the indirect effect of eating attitudes in general and orthorexia nervosa in particular, in the association between perfectionism and muscle dysmorphic disorder (MDD) among a sample of male university students. Methods: In this cross-sectional study conducted between September 2021 and May 2022, 396 male university students from multiple universities in Lebanon filled the online Arabic questionnaire. Results: The results showed that 26 (6.6%) of the participants had MDD. Orthorexia nervosa and eating attitudes mediated the association between perfectionism and MDD; higher perfectionism was significantly associated with higher ON and more inappropriate eating; higher ON and more inappropriate eating were significantly associated with higher MDD, whereas perfectionism had a significant total direct effect on MDD. The high prevalence of MDD among male university students in Lebanon implies further investigation on the national level in the country. Conclusion: Awareness campaigns among the university students could be adopted at the national level to increase the level of knowledge on the concepts of obsessive self-destructive perfectionism, orthorexia nervosa and muscle dysmorphia.
... PSP was initially delineated based on constructs implicated in the cognitive-behavioral model of social anxiety (e.g., Clark & Wells, 1995;Rapee & Heimberg, 1997), and has demonstrated consistent relations to social anxiety (Hewitt et al., 2008;Mackinnon et al., 2014). Additionally, heightened levels of PSP have been linked to depression (Nepon et al., 2011), eating disorders (Hewitt et al., 1995;McGee et al., 2005), and suicidality (Flett et al., 2014;Roxborough et al., 2012). Further, studies have shown PSP to prospectively predict psychopathology (Mackinnon et al., 2014;Mackinnon & Sherry, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Perfectionistic self-presentation (PSP) is a transdiagnostic risk factor typically assessed using the Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale (PSPS). The PSPS consists of three subscales, Self-Promotion, Nondisplay of Imperfection, and Nondisclosure of Imperfection. Overlap among these factors and inconsistent evidence for discriminant validity suggests a need to psychometrically evaluate the PSPS to determine the dimensionality of this measure. The current study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in a sample of community adults (N = 419; M age = 39.9 years; 67.1% female) to examine the factor structure of the PSPS. Model fit was compared for one-factor, three-factor, and bifactor models. The bifactor model, comprising a general PSP factor and orthogonal Self-Promotion, Nondisplay, and Nondisclosure factors had the best overall model fit. The general PSP factor was reliable and well-represented by its indicators. Additionally, the general PSP factor was related to several forms of psychopathology and related constructs (i.e., social anxiety, depression, negative affect, body dissatisfaction), whereas specific PSP factors were not related to outcome variables. Finally, the general PSP factor explained a large amount of the variance in PSPS scores, suggesting the measure is unidimensional. Findings support treating the PSPS total score as a unidimensional measure of PSP in research and intervention efforts.
... In 3 support of this idea, research on perfectionism and social comparison suggests that 4 people higher in components of rigid and self-critical perfectionism are overly sensitive 5 to feelings of inferiority (e.g., Wyatt & Gilbert, 1988). Moreover, the degree of 6 deviation from appearance-focused ideals is related to the degree of distress experienced 7 by those higher in perfectionism (e.g., Hewitt et al., 1995). 8 ...
Article
Full-text available
This study tests whether perfectionism is a vulnerability factor for distress among female adolescents in the context of appearance-focused social comparison and use of social media. We hypothesized that perfectionism predicts greater depressive symptoms and lower body appreciation following appearance-focused upward social comparisons. One-hundred and thirty-five female adolescents (Mage = 14.70 years, SD = 0.46) completed measures of rigid and self-critical perfectionism once, and depressive symptoms, body appreciation, and appearance-focused upward social comparison once a week for four weeks. Self-critical perfectionism positively predicted depressive symptoms and negatively predicted body appreciation. Self-critical perfectionism also interacted with appearance-focused upward social comparisons to predict greater depressive symptoms and lower body appreciation. No effects emerged for rigid perfectionism. Findings suggest self-critical perfectionism may be an important vulnerability factor for female adolescents following appearance-focused social comparison when using social media.
... Self-esteem, perfectionism, and body image are inherent psychological characteristics, but may be influenced by the environmental factors such as social influences or health interventions. 28 Body image and self-esteem are prominent motivational factors for seeking cosmetic treatment. 29,30 Although preoccupation with an imagined defect in appearance dominates in esthetically motivated medical and dental treatments, it is also a source of postoperative dissatisfaction despite a technically good result. ...
Article
Purpose: To develop an instrument for the assessment of perception of orofacial appearance and psychologic issues that can affect peoples' judgments. Materials and methods: A panel composed of five members (one psychologist, two prosthodontists, one orthodontist, and one final-year dental student) generated 31 items that could draw specific hypothetical dimensions. The questionnaire was self-administered by individuals attending local high schools and university (N = 261; 26.4% men) in the 14- to 28-year age range. Internal consistency, construct validity, responsiveness, and temporal stability were assessed. Results: Factorial analysis and Cronbach's alpha identified four dimensions (self-esteem, perfectionism, body image, and smile appearance concern) that could be best fitted by 17 items. Internal consistency was good (α in the 0.70 to 0.80 range). The dimensions were correlated with existing instruments that measure similar constructs. In responsiveness testing, tooth whitening did not induce changes in perfectionism or body image; however, it did increase self-esteem and decreased esthetic concern (P < .05). Conclusion: The newly created questionnaire is a consistent and reliable short instrument that measures psychologic issues related to the perception of orofacial appearance.
... Buna karşılık, sosyal odaklı mükemmeliyetçilik, başkalarının birey için aşırı yüksek standartlara sahip olduğu ve başkaları tarafından kabul görmenin bu standartları yerine getirme şartına bağlı olduğu inancını içerir (Hewitt ve Flett, 1991. Kendine yönelik mükemmeliyetçiliğin kendini suçlama ve depresyon belirtileri gösterme (Hewitt, Flett, ve Ediger, 1995;Wheeler, Blankstein, Antony, McCabe ve Bieling, 2011) ve anoreksik semptomlar (Cockell, Hewitt, Seal, Sherry, Goldner, Flett, ve Remick, 2002;Davis, Kaptein, Kaplan, Olmsted ve Woodside,1998) benzeri olumsuz etkiler taşımasının yanı sıra, başarıyı hedef alma ve benlik saygısını geliştirme (Hewitt ve Flett, 1991;Oral, 1999;Neumeister,2004;Stoeber ve Otto, 2006), benlik kontrolü (Flett, Hewitt, Blankstein ve O'Brien, 1991), içsel motivasyon (Miquelon, Vallerand, Grouzet ve Cardinal, 2005;Stoeber, Feast ve Hayward, 2009)) uyumlu sosyal beceriler gösterme (Flett, Hewitt ve DeRosa,1996), ve akademik başarı (Blankstein ve Dunkley, 2002;Cox, Enns ve ve Clara, 2002; gibi olumlu sonuçları da bulunmaktadır. ...
... Παράλληλα, τόσο στις χορεύτριες όσο και στις αθλήτριες αισθητικών αθλημάτων, έχει βρεθεί πως κάποια χαρακτηριστικά της προσωπικότητας, όπως η τελειοθηρία -η ανάγκη τους για διάκριση μέσα από υψηλούς και δύσκολους στόχους-και χαρακτηριστικά του αθλήματος, όπως η βαθμολόγηση των ασκήσεων με αυστηρά κριτήρια τεχνικής και αισθητικής εκτέλεσης, συνδέονται, επίσης, με τη δημιουργία διαστρεβλωμένης εικόνας σώματος (Cadroso et al., 2019;Ratnakaran, 2018;Πλεξίδα, Γάσπαρη, Ψυχουντάκη, & Δόντη, 2018). Ακόμη, οι χορεύτριες και οι αθλήτριες φαίνεται να εμφανίζουν χαμηλή ικανοποίηση για το σώμα και χαμηλή αυτοεκτίμηση, παράμετροι οι οποίες οδηγούν σε υψηλά επίπεδα στρες και κοινωνικού σωματικού άγχους, δηλαδή του άγχους που βιώνει το άτομο όταν αντιλαμβάνεται ότι κάποιος από το κοινωνικό περιβάλλον θα μπορούσε να σχολιάζει αρνητικά τη σωματική του εμφάνιση (Ackard et al., 2004;Ioannidou & Venetsanou, 2019;Kosmidou et al., 2016;Ratnakaran, 2018;Anshel, 2004;deBruin et al., 2009;Hewitt et al., 1995;Stark & Newton, 2014). Συνήθως οι δάσκαλοι χορού και οι προπονητές ακολουθούν μία αυστηρή και άκαμπτη τακτική κατά την εκπαίδευση των χορευτών και των αθλητριών-τόσο σε θέματα τεχνικής όσο και σε θέματα αισθητικής εμφάνισης, συνεπώς, συχνά οι χορεύτριες και οι αθλήτριες αυτές υστερούν σε δείκτες ψυχικής ευεξίας (Ioannidou & Venetsanou, 2019;Stark, & Newton, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Η εικόνα που έχουν για το σώμα τους οι χορευτές και οι αθλητές επηρεάζει σημαντικές πλευρές της υγείας και της απόδοσής τους και συνδέεται με κλινικές και ψυχολογικές παραμέτρους. Από την ανασκόπηση της βιβλιογραφίας διαπιστώθηκε ότι η έννοια αυτή εξετάζεται από διαφορετικές επιστήμες και θεωρητικές προσεγγίσεις, δομείται μέσα από διαφορετικά εννοιολογικά μοντέλα και αξιολογείται με διαφορετικές κλίμακες. Σκοπός της παρούσας ανασκόπησης ήταν η εξέταση των κυριότερων θεωρητικών προσεγγίσεων σχετικά με την εικόνα σώματος, η διερεύνηση των κυριότερων διαστάσεων και των επιμέρους συνιστωσών που την αποτελούν, καθώς και η αναζήτηση κλιμάκων με ικανοποιητικά ψυχομετρικά χαρακτηριστικά, βάσει των οποίων αξιολογείται μέχρι σήμερα. Η έννοια της εικόνας σώματος προκύπτει από την κατάτμηση προηγούμενων εννοιολογικών κατασκευών, όπως αυτή της αίσθησης του σώματος και της σωματικής αναπαράστασης. Περιλαμβάνει τις υποκειμενικές αντιλήψεις, τις πεποιθήσεις, τα συναισθήματα, τις στάσεις και τις συμπεριφορές ενός ατόμου ως προς το σώμα του μέσα από την αλληλεπίδρασή του με το περιβάλλον του και τους άλλους ανθρώπους. Διακρίνεται σε τέσσερεις επιμέρους συνιστώσες (αντιληπτική, γνωστική, συναισθηματική και συμπεριφορική), δημιουργώντας μια πολυδιάστατη εννοιολογική κατασκευή η οποία, παράλληλα χαρακτηρίζεται από μία αρνητική ή θετική διάσταση. Από τη βιβλιογραφία ανακτήθηκαν 29 κλίμακες αξιολόγησης, με κατάλληλα ψυχομετρικά χαρακτηριστικά, οι οποίες αξιολογούν επιμέρους συνιστώσες της εικόνας σώματος σε γενικό πληθυσμό. Η απουσία μέχρι σήμερα εξειδικευμένων ψυχομετρικών εργαλείων για χορευτές και αθλητές αναδεικνύει την ανάγκη περαιτέρω έρευνας για την αξιολόγηση της εικόνας σώματος αυτών των πληθυσμών, με στόχο τη διαφύλαξη της υγείας και της απόδοσής τους. Λέξεις κλειδιά: κλασικός χορός, εικόνα σώματος, αισθητικά αθλήματα, ερωτηματολόγια
... Παράλληλα, τόσο στις χορεύτριες όσο και στις αθλήτριες αισθητικών αθλημάτων, έχει βρεθεί πως κάποια χαρακτηριστικά της προσωπικότητας, όπως η τελειοθηρία -η ανάγκη τους για διάκριση μέσα από υψηλούς και δύσκολους στόχους-και χαρακτηριστικά του αθλήματος, όπως η βαθμολόγηση των ασκήσεων με αυστηρά κριτήρια τεχνικής και αισθητικής εκτέλεσης, συνδέονται, επίσης, με τη δημιουργία διαστρεβλωμένης εικόνας σώματος (Cadroso et al., 2019;Ratnakaran, 2018;Πλεξίδα, Γάσπαρη, Ψυχουντάκη, & Δόντη, 2018). Ακόμη, οι χορεύτριες και οι αθλήτριες φαίνεται να εμφανίζουν χαμηλή ικανοποίηση για το σώμα και χαμηλή αυτοεκτίμηση, παράμετροι οι οποίες οδηγούν σε υψηλά επίπεδα στρες και κοινωνικού σωματικού άγχους, δηλαδή του άγχους που βιώνει το άτομο όταν αντιλαμβάνεται ότι κάποιος από το κοινωνικό περιβάλλον θα μπορούσε να σχολιάζει αρνητικά τη σωματική του εμφάνιση (Ackard et al., 2004;Ioannidou & Venetsanou, 2019;Kosmidou et al., 2016;Ratnakaran, 2018;Anshel, 2004;deBruin et al., 2009;Hewitt et al., 1995;Stark & Newton, 2014). Συνήθως οι δάσκαλοι χορού και οι προπονητές ακολουθούν μία αυστηρή και άκαμπτη τακτική κατά την εκπαίδευση των χορευτών και των αθλητριών-τόσο σε θέματα τεχνικής όσο και σε θέματα αισθητικής εμφάνισης, συνεπώς, συχνά οι χορεύτριες και οι αθλήτριες αυτές υστερούν σε δείκτες ψυχικής ευεξίας (Ioannidou & Venetsanou, 2019;Stark, & Newton, 2014). ...
Article
Η εικόνα που έχουν για το σώμα τους οι χορευτές και οι αθλητές επηρεάζει σημαντικές πλευρές της υγείας και της απόδοσής τους και συνδέεται με κλινικές και ψυχολογικές παραμέτρους. Από την ανασκόπηση της βιβλιογραφίας διαπιστώθηκε ότι η έννοια αυτή εξετάζεται από διαφορετικές επιστήμες και θεωρητικές προσεγγίσεις, δομείται μέσα από διαφορετικά εννοιολογικά μοντέλα και αξιολογείται με διαφορετικές κλίμακες. Σκοπός της παρούσας ανασκόπησης ήταν η εξέταση των κυριότερων θεωρητικών προσεγγίσεων σχετικά με την εικόνα σώματος, η διερεύνηση των κυριότερων διαστάσεων και των επιμέρους συνιστωσών που την αποτελούν, καθώς και η αναζήτηση κλιμάκων με ικανοποιητικά ψυχομετρικά χαρακτηριστικά, βάσει των οποίων αξιολογείται μέχρι σήμερα. Η έννοια της εικόνας σώματος προκύπτει από την κατάτμηση προηγούμενων εννοιολογικών κατασκευών, όπως αυτή της αίσθησης του σώματος και της σωματικής αναπαράστασης. Περιλαμβάνει τις υποκειμενικές αντιλήψεις, τις πεποιθήσεις, τα συναισθήματα, τις στάσεις και τις συμπεριφορές ενός ατόμου ως προς το σώμα του μέσα από την αλληλεπίδρασή του με το περιβάλλον του και τους άλλους ανθρώπους. Διακρίνεται σε τέσσερεις επιμέρους συνιστώσες (αντιληπτική, γνωστική, συναισθηματική και συμπεριφορική), δημιουργώντας μια πολυδιάστατη εννοιολογική κατασκευή η οποία, παράλληλα χαρακτηρίζεται από μία αρνητική ή θετική διάσταση. Από τη βιβλιογραφία ανακτήθηκαν 29 κλίμακες αξιολόγησης, με κατάλληλα ψυχομετρικά χαρακτηριστικά, οι οποίες αξιολογούν επιμέρους συνιστώσες της εικόνας σώματος σε γενικό πληθυσμό. Η απουσία μέχρι σήμερα εξειδικευμένων ψυχομετρικών εργαλείων για χορευτές και αθλητές αναδεικνύει την ανάγκη περαιτέρω έρευνας για την αξιολόγηση της εικόνας σώματος αυτών των πληθυσμών, με στόχο τη διαφύλαξη της υγείας και της απόδοσής τους. Λέξεις κλειδιά: κλασικός χορός, εικόνα σώματος, αισθητικά αθλήματα, ερωτηματολόγια
... Παράλληλα, τόσο στις χορεύτριες όσο και στις αθλήτριες αισθητικών αθλημάτων, έχει βρεθεί πως κάποια χαρακτηριστικά της προσωπικότητας, όπως η τελειοθηρία -η ανάγκη τους για διάκριση μέσα από υψηλούς και δύσκολους στόχους-και χαρακτηριστικά του αθλήματος, όπως η βαθμολόγηση των ασκήσεων με αυστηρά κριτήρια τεχνικής και αισθητικής εκτέλεσης, συνδέονται, επίσης, με τη δημιουργία διαστρεβλωμένης εικόνας σώματος (Cadroso et al., 2019;Ratnakaran, 2018;Πλεξίδα, Γάσπαρη, Ψυχουντάκη, & Δόντη, 2018). Ακόμη, οι χορεύτριες και οι αθλήτριες φαίνεται να εμφανίζουν χαμηλή ικανοποίηση για το σώμα και χαμηλή αυτοεκτίμηση, παράμετροι οι οποίες οδηγούν σε υψηλά επίπεδα στρες και κοινωνικού σωματικού άγχους, δηλαδή του άγχους που βιώνει το άτομο όταν αντιλαμβάνεται ότι κάποιος από το κοινωνικό περιβάλλον θα μπορούσε να σχολιάζει αρνητικά τη σωματική του εμφάνιση (Ackard et al., 2004;Ioannidou & Venetsanou, 2019;Kosmidou et al., 2016;Ratnakaran, 2018;Anshel, 2004;deBruin et al., 2009;Hewitt et al., 1995;Stark & Newton, 2014). Συνήθως οι δάσκαλοι χορού και οι προπονητές ακολουθούν μία αυστηρή και άκαμπτη τακτική κατά την εκπαίδευση των χορευτών και των αθλητριών-τόσο σε θέματα τεχνικής όσο και σε θέματα αισθητικής εμφάνισης, συνεπώς, συχνά οι χορεύτριες και οι αθλήτριες αυτές υστερούν σε δείκτες ψυχικής ευεξίας (Ioannidou & Venetsanou, 2019;Stark, & Newton, 2014). ...
... The second, important feature of pedagogical interaction is its non-asymmetric nature closely related to learning as a fundamental function of it Hewitt, P. L., Flett, G. L. and Ediger, E. (1995. Asymmetric nature can be observed in many different ways: in the interaction between an adult and a small one, the interaction between a person with higher development and another with lower development or the development of many skills at once or more simply an interaction between one who has more knowledge about academic disciplines and the other who has the ability to learn quickly or different combinations of these symmetries, where a great and common challenge to school practice is the situation in which students with a low mental or physical development demonstrate more knowledge in specific disciplines. ...
Article
The nature and specificity of this paper will focus on several dimensions of the fields of study. In the first dimension we will be focused on scientific arguments, interlinking with the findings of the research, but also by comparing them with the new findings. In the second dimension of this research we will analyze how to explain and argue how the learning method, the forms of work in groups, the role and impact of the new curriculum affect the academic achievement, at the level of the teachers but also at the level of the degree of understanding students learn and learn. Namely, the transition from classical teaching to the teacher-centered, center-going student. The topic of this paper is focused on providing sufficient theoretical and practical data from the pedagogical science literature of the time regarding the importance of teaching and interactive learning in learning. We will analyze our research work, compare the old methods and use of new contemporary methods, with particular emphasis on the model of differentiated teaching methods in the lower primary cycle. The study also argued the introduction of different terms of the teaching model in the technique and the model of the theory of teaching - learning and interactive learning in the lesson.
... 1.3.3.2. Perfectionism and eating pathology As described above, perfectionism is commonly high in AN and is sometimes high in BN too (Bastiani et al., 1995;Davis, 1997;G oldner et al., 2002;Hewitt, Flett, & Ediger, 1995;Srinivasagam et al., 1995). It has been implicated as a risk factor for AN (Fairbum et al., 1999;Slade, 1982). ...
Thesis
Introduction: This study involves the development of a measure of constructs hypothesised to be of importance in eating disorders, particularly anorexia nervosa. The constructs to be measured are persistence, perseverance and perfectionism. Method: Initial development involved defining the three constructs on the basis of previous literature. Next, possible items were developed for each of the constructs. These items were rated by a random sample of individuals according to how well they fitted each of the constructs. Items were retained if they were highly rated for one construct but for neither of the other two by the majority of respondents. The resulting measure, the Persistence, Perseverance and Perfectionism Questionnaire (PPPQ), was administered to 325 non-clinical participants for the purposes of factor analysis. Alongside the measure, participants completed measures of psychological functioning (the Brief Symptom Inventory) and eating disorder symptoms (the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire form). Test retest reliability was established by administering the PPPQ twice, around 14 days apart. Data analysis: The main analysis consisted of factor analysis of the PPPQ items in order to establish the factor structure of the measure. Varimax rotation was used to determine factor loadings. Regression analyses were carried out to establish the validity of the measure, in particular, its relationship to measures of psychopathology including eating attitudes and behaviours. Results: Factor analysis resulted in a 22-item questionnaire, consisting of three subscales. These corresponded well to the theoretical constructs of persistence, perseverance and perfectionism. Regression analyses showed that each subscale had specific relationships to a range of forms of psychopathology. In particular, persistence appeared to be predict positive mental health, whilst perseverance was related to negative mental health outcomes (restrictive pathology). Perfectionism was also associated with psychopathology, but more weakly than is perseverance. Discussion: The new questionnaire, the PPPQ, appears to be psychometrically valid and theoretically meaningful. However, both the psychometric structure and the relationships between the measure and psychopathology should be explored in further research with clinical populations.
... Es por ello, que un gran número de estudios hablan del perfeccionismo como un conjunto de rasgos negativos (Burns, 1980;Haring, Hewitt y Flett, 2003;Hewitt, Flett y Ediger, 1995;Hollender, 1965;Patch, 1984). De hecho, ya en sus estudios iniciales se vinculó con psicopatologías como la neurosis, miedo y dudas al fracaso, y la necesidad de agradar a las personas del entorno más cercano (Adler, 1956;Hamachek, 1978). ...
Article
Full-text available
Several investigations summarize perfectionism as a set of clearly negative features which is especially worrying in the adolescence stage due to peer and family pressure at social, academic, sports and cultural levels among others, an issue that becomes a feature pathological. On the other hand, there is a group of children and young people who refuse to go to school in order to get the attention of others. That is, it creates anxiety for the separation of the family figure. In the present study, it was intended to observe if there are statistically significant differences in perfectionism with Ecuadorian adolescents with high and small scores in the pursuit of attention from significant others. For this, the Child-Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS) and the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised for Children (SRAS-R-C) were used. The total sample of participants was 1920 adolescents aged between 15 and 18 enrolled in courses between 1st and 3rd Baccalaureate. The differences found are found in both school rejection groups for Socially Prescribed Perfectionism (SPP), Self-Oriented Perfectionism-Strivings (SOP-S) and Self-Oriented Perfectionism-Critical (SOP-C), with the students with the highest level of school rejection those who scored highest in SPP (d = .17), SOPS (d = .15) and SOP-C (d = .35). In this regard, it is necessary to expand research in this field of study taking into account the vulnerability in adolescents’ personality and the association with a multitude of psychopathological disorders with which perfectionism correlates according to previous literature.
... Both BDD and ED are associated with higher perfectionistic concerns compared with healthy controls (Hewitt et al, 1995;Buhlmann et al, 2008). Individuals with these disorders aspire to be perfect in all areas in life, so they perform frequent checking behaviours, including mirror gazing, weighing self and measuring body parts (APA, 2013). ...
Article
The medical aesthetics sector is very often associated with ideas of body image and self-perception. It is important that aesthetic practitioners have a sound knowledge of mental health disorders that may affect their patients or drive individuals to seek aesthetic treatment. In this article, Eda Gorbis and Justine Jamero compare some of these disorders and consider the implications for aesthetic practitoners Body-dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and eating disorders (EDs) are psychiatric disorders concerned with negative body image and similar repetitive behaviours, such as checking and reassurance-seeking, that impair cognitive, social and occupational functioning. Though BDD and EDs share common core characteristics, they are unique disorders that must be differentiated, as they require different treatment plans. BDD, anorexia nervosa, binge-eating disorder and bulimia nervosa will be reviewed in this article to address diagnostic criteria, prevalence rates, onset and common characteristics. Similarities, differences and comorbidities of BDD and EDs will be explored and discussed in terms of treatment implications. Treatment recommendations include medical treatment, psychoeducation, nutritional management, cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and psychopharmacology.
... Sin embargo, hasta el momento no se ha demostrado que el perfeccionismo explica la insatisfacción corporal, la influencia sociocultural del modelo de delgadez y los síntomas de TCA. Las investigaciones en las que se ha evaluado el papel de la conducta perfeccionista en los TCA, se han enfocado en analizar la relación predictiva entre perfeccionismo y restricción alimentaria (Hewitt, Flett & Ediger, 1995;Killen et al., 1994;McLaren, Gauvin & White, 2001), entre perfeccionismo, baja autoestima y percepción de sobrepeso para predecir la sintomatología de BN ( Bardone-Cone et al., 2006;Shaw, Stice & Springer, 2004;Vohs et al., 2001). Además, se han realizado estudios considerando los componentes de la conducta perfeccionista. ...
Article
Full-text available
El propósito de este estudio fue analizar si los componentes de la conducta perfeccionista explican la insatisfacción corporal (IC), la influencia sociocultural del modelo de delgadez (ISMD) y los síntomas de Trastorno del Comportamiento Alimentario (TCA). Participaron 30 mujeres con Bulimia Nerviosa (BN), 35 con Trastorno Alimentario no Especificado (TANE) y 63 sin TCA. El análisis de regresión mostró que la Preocupación por los Errores (PE) y la Indecisión de Acción explicaron la IC y la ISMD en BN; mientras que PE sólo explicó la ISMD en TANE. Se concluye que sólo dos componentes del perfeccionismo explican significativamente la interiorización del ideal de delgadez y la IC, las cuales son consideradas factores de riesgo importantes para los TCA.
... Personality characteristics such as perfectionism and need for high achievement have been found in athletes [57] and in eating disorder patients [58]. Similarly, the athletes in the current study portrayed higher than normal perfectionism scores, as indicated by EDI-2 Perfectionism scale at baseline. ...
... In this particular instance, we have found that the perfectionism construct has an expressive component in the form of perfectionistic self-presentation (i.e., an unwillingness to appear imperfect). Moreover, we have shown in several studies that the interpersonal expression of perfection is associated not only with trait perfectionism but also predicts a variety of psychopathological outcomes including eating disorder symptoms, depression, anxiety, fears of psychotherapy, and help-seeking beyond not only self-oriented perfectionism, but also otheroriented and socially prescribed perfectionism Hewitt, Flett, & Ediger, 1995). This again highlights the relevance of interpersonal facets of the perfectionism construct to clinical phenomena. ...
Article
Shafran et al. (2002) provided a cognitive-behavioural analysis of perfectionism that focused primarily on self-oriented perfectionism. They argued against studying perfectionism from a multidimensional perspective that they regard as inconsistent with prior work on perfectionism as a self-oriented phenomenon. We respond to Shafran et al. (2002) by offering historical, empirical, and theoretical support for the usefulness and the importance of a multidimensional model of perfectionism involving both intrapersonal processes and interpersonal dynamics. It is concluded that a multidimensional approach to the study of perfec-tionism is still warranted.
... It is generally accepted that individuals with eating disorders are highly preoccupied with self-presentational concerns (e.g., Striegel-Moore, Silberstein, and Rodin, 1993) and we would argue that this desire to hide flaws and shortcomings reflects an interpersonal style of perfectionistic self-presentation that is a defensive extension of the social self. One study found in a sample of university women that perfectionistic self-presentation was associated with anorexic and bulimic symptoms and body image avoidance (Hewitt, Flett, and Ediger, 1995). Likewise, Geller, Cockell, Hewitt, Goldner, and Flett (2000) showed in anorexic women that all three perfectionism self-presentation dimensions and self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism were highly correlated with measures of self-silencing and reduced expression of anger, suggesting that perfectionistic self-presentation involves restrictions of affect. ...
Article
Trait and self-presentational dimensions of perfectionism were examined in women with anorexia nervosa (AN), a psychiatric control group of women with mood disorders , and a normal control group of women without mental disorders. With one exception, self-report measures and interview measures indicated that, after controlling for self-esteem, depression, and overall psychiatric severity, compared to women with mood disorders, women with AN were distinguished by substantially higher levels of self-oriented perfectionism (i.e., striving to meet one's own perfectionistic expectations), socially prescribed perfectionism (i.e., striving to meet perceived others' perfectionistic expectations), and nondisclosure of imperfection (i.e., avoiding verbal admissions of one's perceived imperfections). Trait and self-presentational dimensions of perfectionism in women with AN are considered in relation to familial environment and identity disturbance.
... It is generally accepted that individuals with eating disorders are highly preoccupied with self-presentational concerns (e.g., Striegel-Moore, Silberstein, and Rodin, 1993) and we would argue that this desire to hide flaws and shortcomings reflects an interpersonal style of perfectionistic self-presentation that is a defensive extension of the social self. One study found in a sample of university women that perfectionistic self-presentation was associated with anorexic and bulimic symptoms and body image avoidance (Hewitt, Flett, and Ediger, 1995). Likewise, Geller, Cockell, Hewitt, Goldner, and Flett (2000) showed in anorexic women that all three perfectionism self-presentation dimensions and self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism were highly correlated with measures of self-silencing and reduced expression of anger, suggesting that perfectionistic self-presentation involves restrictions of affect. ...
Article
Full-text available
Trait and self-presentational dimensions of perfectionism were examined in women with anorexia nervosa (AN), a psychiatric control group of women with mood disorders , and a normal control group of women without mental disorders. With one exception, self-report measures and interview measures indicated that, after controlling for self-esteem, depression, and overall psychiatric severity, compared to women with mood disorders, women with AN were distinguished by substantially higher levels of self-oriented perfectionism (i.e., striving to meet one's own perfectionistic expectations), socially prescribed perfectionism (i.e., striving to meet perceived others' perfectionistic expectations), and nondisclosure of imperfection (i.e., avoiding verbal admissions of one's perceived imperfections). Trait and self-presentational dimensions of perfectionism in women with AN are considered in relation to familial environment and identity disturbance.
... In this particular instance, we have found that the perfectionism construct has an expressive component in the form of perfectionistic self-presentation (i.e., an unwillingness to appear imperfect). Moreover, we have shown in several studies that the interpersonal expression of perfection is associated not only with trait perfectionism but also predicts a variety of psychopathological outcomes including eating disorder symptoms, depression, anxiety, fears of psychotherapy, and help-seeking beyond not only self-oriented perfectionism, but also otheroriented and socially prescribed perfectionism Hewitt, Flett, & Ediger, 1995). This again highlights the relevance of interpersonal facets of the perfectionism construct to clinical phenomena. ...
Article
Shafran et al. (2002) provided a cognitive-behavioural analysis of perfectionism that focused primarily on self-oriented perfectionism. They argued against studying perfectionism from a multidimensional perspective that they regard as inconsistent with prior work on perfectionism as a self-oriented phenomenon. We respond to Shafran et al. (2002) by offering historical, empirical, and theoretical support for the usefulness and the importance of a multidimensional model of perfectionism involving both intrapersonal processes and interpersonal dynamics. It is concluded that a multidimensional approach to the study of perfectionism is still warranted.
... Además, se asocia a algunos factores de vulnerabilidad psicológica tales como la baja autoestima, los síntomas de ansiedad y depresión, la preocupación por las evaluaciones sociales sobre la apariencia y la preocupación por las evaluaciones negativas (Hewitt, Flett, y Ediger, 1995;Hewitt et al., 2003). Por último, se ha encontrado que la autopresentación perfeccionista está en la base de algunos trastornos mentales tales como los de la conducta alimentaria (Hewitt et al., 1995) y los de la personalidad (Sherry, Hewitt, Flett, Lee-Baggley, y Hall, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
Impact of perfectionistic self-presentation on children and adolescents’ health: A systematic review. Perfectionistic self-presentation is an interpersonal style in which the person attempts to actively show perfection and avoids displaying and disclosing any imperfections. The aim of this study was to review the scientific literature in order to determine the impact of perfectionistic self-presentation on children and adolescents’ health. Scientific evidence was found on the presence of perfectionistic self-presentation from childhood as a related yet differential construct from perfectionism, that negatively impacts on children and adolescents’ mental health through increased interpersonal conflicts, psychological vulnerability and risk of developing anxiety, eating disorders and depression.Resumen: La autopresentación perfeccionista es un estilo interpersonal caracterizado por los intentos de mostrar activamente perfección, de ocultar los errores y no hablar de ellos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue revisar la literatura científica para determinar el impacto de la autopresentación perfeccionista en la salud de niños y adolescentes. Los artículos científicos revisados evidencian la presencia de la autopresentación perfeccionista desde la infancia como un constructo diferenciado del perfeccionismo que incide negativamente en la salud mental de niños y adolescentes aumentando los conflictos interpersonales, la vulnerabilidad psicológica y el riesgo para desarrollar ansiedad, trastornos de la conducta alimentaria y depresión.
... Namely, self-and otheroriented perfectionism inconsistently correlate with measures of maladjustment (see Smyth, 2001) but positively relate to several aspects of adjustment, including social skills (Flett, Hewitt, & De Rosa, 1996), conscientiousness (Hill, McIntire, & Bacharach, 1997), positive affect (Frost, Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1991), and self-esteem (Flett, Hewitt, Blankstein, & O'Brien, 1991). In contrast, socially prescribed perfectionism is consistently and strongly linked to (a) diminished adjustment, such as lower self-actualization and selfesteem (Flett, Hewitt, Blankstein, & Mosher, 1991;Flett, Hewitt, Blankstein, & O'Brien, 1991), and (b) greater maladjustment, including neuroticism (Hill et al., 1997), procrastination (Flett, Blankstein, Hewitt, & Koledin, 1992), eating disorders (Hewitt, Flett, & Ediger, 1995), depression Hewitt, Flett, & Ediger, 1996), anxiety , personality disorders Hewitt, Flett, & Turnbull, 1992, and suicidal ideation (Dean & Range, 1996;Hewitt, Flett, & Weber, 1994). ...
Article
Full-text available
Extending prior research on perfectionism and religiosity, the current study investigated their relation among Latter-day Saints (LDS)—also known as Mormons—through a sequential mixed-methods design. An online community sample of 194 LDS members completed the Religiousness Measure–Revised and the Hewitt Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale. Subsequently, six of these participants were interviewed in a qualitative pilot study to further explore how perfectionism manifests among Mormons. Quantitative results indicated significantly greater self-oriented perfectionism compared to other-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism. Quantitative results also demonstrated significant positive correlations between religiosity and perfectionism but only for self- and other-oriented perfectionism. Qualitative content analysis indicated further how dimensions of perfectionism manifest in an LDS context. Implications for culturally competent practice and future research are discussed.
... Perfectionism and Self-esteem in ED. Many studies have described perfectionism as a personality style associated with ED (8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17) and with behaviors related to ED, such as dieting, weight and shape concern, and Drive for Thinness (18)(19)(20)(21)(22). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Many studies have described perfectionism and low self-esteem as traits associated with eating disorders (ED). More recently, research has shown the role played by worry, rumination, control and metacognitive beliefs. This paper investigates the role played by cognitive and metacognitive variables in the psychopathological mechanism of eating disorders, assuming that not only perfectionism and low selfesteem but also metacognitive beliefs and processes can discriminate between controls and EDs. Method: The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM, the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Anxiety Control Questionnaire, the Penn State Worry and the Metacognition Questionnaire were administered to the samples. Results: Results suggested that metacognitive factors like negative beliefs about worry, uncontrollability and danger, need for control, and worry should be added to the body of cognitive factors underlying ED composed by the classical couple of cognitive factors including perfectionism and low self-esteem. Conclusions: It is possible that an individual with ED assumes that metacognitive processes like worry and rumination are a further proof of his or her lack of value, capacity to control, and self-control. Such appraisals may reinforce the painful sense of low self-esteem so typical in ED and, in turn, the perfectionistic striving for excellence.
... Davis et al. (2005) e Grammas e Schwartz (2009) observaram que homens com tendências perfeccionistas eram muito centrados em sua aparência e aptidão física e demonstravam maior propensão a buscar um corpo musculoso, fomentavam pensamentos preocupantes sobre a forma do corpo ideal e comportamentos pouco saudáveis em busca do elusivo padrão de perfeição de corpo masculino. Em mulheres, o perfeccionismo social ---que se relaciona ao perfeccionismo da aparência por estabelecer crenças ou a percepção de que o mundo a avalia de acordo com os padrões sociais ideais --foi associado a níveis mais elevados de insatisfação da imagem corporal e evitação de situações sociais na qual o peso e a aparência pudessem estar em foco (Hewitt, Flett e Ediger, 1995). ...
Article
Full-text available
Resumo O presente artigo objetivou fazer a adaptação cultural da Physical Appearance Perfectionism Scale (PAPS) para o Brasil. Seguiu guideline que preconiza traduções, síntese das traduções, retrotraduções, reunião de comitê de peritos e pré-teste. Todo o material das traduções, síntese e retrotraduções foi discutido pelo comitê de juízes que estabeleceu uma versão em português brasileiro com equivalências conceitual, cultural, idiomática e semântica, que foi aprovada pelos 50 participantes do pré-teste. A análise da frequência das respostas dos itens indicou ser necessária atenção ao item 3 em futuro estudo psicométrico. O processo de adaptação cultural da PAPS foi um rigoroso processo. Todavia, para seu uso em pesquisas, ainda é necessário estudo psicométrico.
... T here are many factors that can affect self-esteem and the way people view their own physical appearance. For example, men and women are often bombarded with images of individuals exemplifying a perfect physique (Hewitt, Flett, & Ediger, 1995), especially by the media. This focus may increase self-imposed pressure to maintain youth and meet the unrealistic beauty standards fostered by the media and imposed by society. ...
Article
Full-text available
Amaç: Mükemmeliyetçiliğin psikolojik problemlerle ilişkisini gösteren araştırmaların sayısı her gecen gün artmaktadır. Mükemmeliyetçiliğe ilişkin çok çeşitli sınıflamalar mevcuttur. Bu çalışmada kişilerarası mükemmeliyetçilik modeliyle ilişkili olarak geliştirilen Kendini Mükemmeliyetçi Gösterme Ölçeği’nin (Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale) Türkçe formunun psikometrik özellikleri incelenecektir. Yöntem: Araştırmanın örneklemini üniversitede lisans eğitimi almakta olan 271 öğrenci oluşturmuştur. Çalışmaya katılmak isteyen gönüllülere Kendini Mükemmeliyetçi Gösterme Ölçeği (KMGO), Penn State Endişe Ölçeği (PSEO) ve Sınırlılık Şemaları Ölçeği (SŞO) uygulanmıştır. Ölçme aracının ölçüt geçerliği, KMGO alt ölçekleri ve diğer psikolojik değişkenler arasında hesaplanan Pearson korelasyon hesaplamalarıyla değerlendirilmiştir. Orijinal faktör yapısı doğrulayıcı faktör analiziyle test edilmiştir. Bulgular: Orijinal faktör yapısının uyumu çalışmanın verilerinde yeterli bulunmuştur. Ölçeğe ilişkin hesaplanan iç tutarlılık değeri α=0.80 bulunmuştur. Ölçme aracının 15 günlük test tekrar test korelasyonu r=0.82 olarak hesaplanmıştır. KMGO alt ölçekleriyle diğer psikolojik değişkenler arasında hesaplanan korelasyonlar istatistiksel acıdan manidar bulunmuştur. Sonuç: KMGO'nun Türk örnekleminde yürütülen araştırmalarda kullanılabilecek yeterlikte geçerlik ve güvenirliğe sahip olduğu düşünülebilir. Anahtar Sözcükler: Kendini Mükemmeliyetçi Gösterme Ölçeği, geçerlik, güvenirlik Psychometric Properties of the Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale in Turkish Sample ABSTRACT Objective: Researches about associations of perfectionism with poor psychological out-comes have growing up. Miscellaneous classifications about perfectionism are suggested. In this study psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale which was developed in an aspect of interpersonal perfectionism model would be in main interest. Method: The sample was consisted of 271 undergraduate students. Volunteers have been administered the Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale (PSPS), the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), and the LimitednessSchemas Questionnaire (LSQ). Convergent validity of the measure was evaluated by calculating Pearson correlations with psychological variables. Confirmatory factor analysis was utilized in order to assess the construct validity. Results: Original factor structure was fitted adequately to the current data. Inner consistency of the scale was α=0.80. The test retest correlation of the instrument between two points with fifteen days time interval was r=0.82. Pearson correlations between the PSPS scores and psychological variables were significant. Conclusion: The PSPS seems to be a valid and reliable construct among Turkish sample. Key Words: Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale, validity, reliability
Thesis
Full-text available
This is a cross-sectional study comparing adolescents diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN), those in the remission period of the disease and adolescents without any psychiatric disease, in terms of perfectionism, rumination, emotion regulation and mindfulness skills. Additionally, the relationship of these variables with symptoms of eating disorders, symptoms of depression and anxiety was evaluated. Seventy six adolescents between the ages 12-18 were enrolled in the study, 20 in AN group, 16 in remission group and 40 in healthy control group that matched for age, gender and socioeconomic-sociocultural level. Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children- Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) was use to confirm previous and current AN disease in research group and to exclude any psychiatric disease in healthy control group. All adolescents completed Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire –EDE-Q, Five Facets Mindfulness Questionaire-FFMQ, The Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale –DERS, Body Image Satisfaction Questionnaire –BISQ,Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale - FMPS, Ruminative Response Scale Short Version – RRS-SV. Additionally, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Screen for Child Anxiety and Related Disorders (SCARED) were used. As a result, it was shown that adolescents with AN had higher eating disorder severity, had more emotional regulation difficulties, perfectionism, brooding thinking and had less mindfulness skills, thus when scale scores were corrected according to depression and anxiety levels, only the difference in eating disorder symptom severity showed significance. While dissatisfaction from body areas in the AN group was predictive of eating disorder symtoms, difficulties in emotion regulation were predictive of mindfulness. When the whole sample was evaluated, it was determined that dissatisfaction from body areas and depressive symptoms were predictive of eating disorder symptoms, and emotion regulation difficulties and perfectionism were predictive of midfulness skills.
Book
Full-text available
Achieving Peak Performance in Music: Psychological Strategies for Optimal Flow is a unique and comprehensive exploration of flow in music performance. It describes the optimal performance experiences of great musicians and outlines ten psychological steps that can be implemented to facilitate and enhance optimal experience. Achieving Peak Performance in Music reveals strategies used by experts to prepare themselves emotionally, cognitively, and physically for performance. Combining this information with research carried out amongst professional performers and knowledge gained from decades of study and research by psychologists on how to achieve a positive experience, the book guides readers on a pathway towards optimal performance. Using everyday language, it presents invaluable practical guidance and a toolbox of strategies to help with all aspects of performance, including memorisation, visualisation, focus, performance anxiety, thought management, motivation, and pre-performance routines. Based on psychological research, the book shares practical knowledge invaluable to music students, parents, and amateur and professional musicians. The strategies on performance provided are applicable to every type of performance, from a student exam to a gig or a concert, making Achieving Peak Performance in Music a significant resource for anyone looking to achieve peak performance.
Article
Full-text available
There are certainly some psychological factors contributing to the development of attitude towards physical education of the school-going adolescents. Here, Sports Perfectionism (Personal Standards, PS; Concern Over Mistakes, COM; Perceived Parental Pressure, PPP & Perceived Coach Pressure, PCP) were considered to have effect on the development of attitude towards physical education. The study was carried out through descriptive survey method within ex-post-facto research design. A sample of 273 adolescents (98 female & 175 male) was chosen from government aided secondary / higher secondary schools of West Bengal by stratified random sampling technique. To collect data “Attitudes toward Physical Education Scale” and “Sport Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale” were administered on the sample. A multiple regression equation to predict the attitude towards physical education was formulated and the equation is: Attitude = 80.869 + 0.690 × Personal Standards + 0.060 × Concern Over Mistakes - 0.161 × Perceived Parental Pressure - 0.056 × Perceived Coach Pressure Key Words: Attitude, Sports Perfectionism, Multiple Regression
Preprint
Full-text available
The impact of individual differences on performance monitoring and psychopathology is a question of active debate. Personality traits associated with psychopathology may be related to poor internal performance monitoring (as measured by the error-related negativity [ERN]) but intact external performance monitoring (as measured by the reward positivity [RewP]), suggesting that there are underlying neural differences between internal and external performance monitoring processes. We tested the relationships between individual difference measures of perfectionism, locus of control, and ERN, Pe, and RewP component difference amplitude in a healthy undergraduate sample. A total of 128 participants (69 female, M(SD)age= 20.6(2.0) years) completed two tasks: a modified version of the Eriksen Flanker and a doors gambling task along with the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism scale, the Rotter Locus of Control scale, and the Levenson Multidimensional Locus of Control scale to quantify perfectionism and locus of control traits, respectively. Linear regressions adjusting for age and gender showed that neither ΔERN nor ΔRewP amplitude were significantly moderated by perfectionism or locus of control scores. Findings suggest that, in psychiatrically-healthy individuals, there is not a strong link between perfectionism, locus of control, and ERN or RewP amplitude. Future research on individual difference measures in people with psychopathology may provide further insight into how these personality traits affect performance monitoring.
Article
Objective The role of common and symptom‐specific genetic and environmental influences in maintaining eating disorder symptoms across development remains unclear. This study investigates the continuity and change of etiological influences on drive for thinness, bulimia, and body dissatisfaction symptoms and their co‐occurrence, across adolescence and emerging adulthood. Method In total, 2,629 adolescent twins (mean age = 15.20, SD = 1.95) reported eating disorders symptoms across three waves of data collection. Biometric common pathways model was fitted to estimate genetic and environmental contributions to the continuity of each symptom over time, as well as time‐ and symptom‐specific influences. Results Drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction symptoms showed a pattern of high continuity across development and high correlations with each other, whereas bulimia symptoms were moderately stable and less associated with the other two symptoms. Latent factors reflecting continuity of each symptom were largely under genetic influence (Al = 0.60–0.82). New genetic influences contributing to change in the developmental course of symptoms were observed in emerging adulthood. Genetic influences correlated considerably between the three symptoms. Non‐shared environmental influences were largely time‐and symptom‐specific, but some contributed moderately to the continuity across development (El = 0.18–0.40). The etiological overlap was larger between drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction symptoms than with bulimia symptoms. Discussion The results provide preliminary evidence that stable as well as newly emerging genetic influences contribute to the co‐occurrence of drive for thinness, bulimia, and body dissatisfaction symptoms across adolescence and emerging adulthood. Conversely, environmental influences were less stable and contributed to change in symptoms over time.
Article
Full-text available
Рассматриваются основные психологические модели, нацеленные на объяснение механизмов, лежащих в основе нарушений пищевого поведения, обуславливающих рост избыточной массы тела и ожирение. Представленные модели фокусируются на одной или двух из выделенных T. Van Strien дисфункций: ограничительном, эмоциогенном или экстернальном стиле пищевого поведения. Приводятся данные зарубежных и отечественных исследований о влиянии диет, дистресса, личностных и семейных факторов на переедание и ожирение. Отмечается, что дальнейшая конкретизация гипотез, выдвинутых в рамках различных моделей, объясняющих нарушения пищевого поведения, явно требует проведения популяционных исследований.
Article
Full-text available
Bu çalışmanın amacı sosyal görünüş kaygısı ve mükemmeliyetçi kişilik özelliklerinin meslek lisesinde öğrenim görmekte olan öğrencilerin sergiledikleri riskli davranışları yordama gücünü araştırmaktır. Çalışmaya seçkisiz olarak belirlenen 183 kız, 186 erkek olmak üzere toplam 369 meslek lisesi öğrencisi katılmıştır. Veri toplama aracı olarak Riskli Davranışlar Ölçeği, Sosyal Görünüş Kaygısı Ölçeği ile Çocuk ve Ergen Mükemmeliyetçilik Ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Araştırma bulguları sosyal görünüş kaygısı, kendine yönelik mükemmeliyetçilik, sosyal kaynaklı mükemmeliyetçilik değişkenlerinin riskli davranışların %14'ünü açıkladığını göstermiştir. Sosyal görünüş kaygısının riskli davranışları yordama gücünün daha yüksek olduğu görülmüştür. Sınıf düzeyi, cinsiyet ve bölüm değişkenlerine göre riskli davranışların alt boyutları üzerinde anlamlı farklılıklar bulunmuştur. Antisosyal davranışlar, alkol kullanımı sigara kullanımı, intihar eğilimi, okul terki alt boyutlarında 12.sınıf öğrencileri 10.sınıf öğrencilerine göre daha yüksek düzeyde riskli davranış sergilemektedir. Bu araştırma, riskli davranışların ortaya çıkmasında etkili olan cinsiyet, sınıf düzeyi, sosyal görünüş kaygısı gibi değişkenlere işaret etmektedir.
Article
Full-text available
Un modelo matemático representa cualitativa y/o cuantitativa una parte concreta de la realidad, en el cual se muestran las relaciones predominantes entre sus elementos, sobre los cuales se pueden –y es necesario– realizar previsiones. De acuerdo con Bollen (2002), los fenómenos están influenciados por causas tangibles y elementos no observables (variables latentes). Los Modelos de Ecuaciones Estructurales (SEM, Structural Equation Models), han permitido la contrastación empírica de modelos que incluyen efectos causales entre variables latentes y variables observables; dichos modelos permiten entre otras cosas, la contrastación de teorías a través de la evidencia empírica. El Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio (AFC) es un procedimiento de análisis encuadrado en los modelos de Ecuaciones Estructurales (SEM), cuyo propósito se centra en el estudio de los modelos de medida. En consecuencia, es una estrategia sumamente útil en el ámbito de la prueba de hipótesis y la confirmación de teorías. En el presente trabajo se utilizan modelos de ecuaciones estructurales, concretamente, el análisis factorial confirmatorio, en relación a la validez de las escalas de medida cuando se proponen modelos causales
Article
Full-text available
Previous perfectionism measures have not been evaluated for use with clinical samples. This research examined the psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), a 45-item measure of self-oriented, other-oriented, and socially prescribed perfectionism. Study 1 provided normative data for various patient groups and demonstrated the stability of the MPS subscales in psychiatric patients. Study 2 showed that the MPS subscales have adequate concurrent validity, are not influenced by response biases, and that the items require a Grade 6–7 reading level. Overall, the MPS appears to be a useful measure for individuals with various clinical disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
The authors assessed whether social facets of perfectionism were associated with indexes of dyadic and family adjustment. A sample of 83 pain patients and their spouses completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Family Assessment Device, Beck Depression Inventory, and Multiaxial Pain Inventory. After controlling for depression, the authors found that pain patients' relationship adjustments were associated with their spouses' other-oriented perfectionism. Also, pain patients rated their other-oriented perfectionistic spouses as less supportive. Spouses' reports of poor dyadic and family adjustment were associated with their own socially prescribed perfectionism. The findings suggest that social aspects of perfectionism contribute to poor family adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Synopsis Data on the development of a 40-item measure of the symptoms in anorexia nervosa are reported. The scale (EAT) is presented in a 6-point, forced choice, self-report format which is easily administered and scored. The EAT was validated using 2 groups of female anorexia nervosa patients ( N = 32 and 33) and female control subjects ( N = 34 and 59). Total EAT score was significantly correlated with criterion group membership( r = 0·87, P < 0·001), suggesting a high level of concurrent validity. There was very little overlap in the frequency distributions of the 2 groups and only 7% of the normal controls scored as high as the lowest anorexic patient. Female obese and male subjects also scored significantly lower on the EAT than anorexics. Recovered anorexic patients scored in the normal range on the test, suggesting that the EAT is sensitive to clinical remission.
Article
Full-text available
We tested the hypothesis that self-oriented perfectionism, other-oriented perfectionism, and socially prescribed perfectionism are related differentially to unipolar depression. The Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale was administered along with measures of depression and anxiety to 22 depressed patients, 22 matched normal control subjects, and 13 anxiety patients. It was found that the depressed patients had higher levels of self-oriented perfectionism than did either the psychiatric or normal control subjects. In addition, depressed patients and anxious patients reported higher levels of socially prescribed perfectionism than did the normal control subjects. The results suggest that various dimensions of perfectionism may play an important role in clinical depression.
Article
Full-text available
This article attempted to demonstrate that the perfectionism construct is multidimensional, comprising both personal and social components, and that these components contribute to severe levels of psychopathology. We describe three dimensions of perfectionism: self-oriented perfectionism, other-oriented perfectionism, and socially prescribed perfectionism. Four studies confirm the multidimensionality of the construct and show that these dimensions can be assessed in a reliable and valid manner. Finally, a study with 77 psychiatric patients shows that self-oriented, other-oriented, and socially prescribed perfectionism relate differentially to indices of personality disorders and other psychological maladjustment. A multidimensional approach to the study of perfectionism is warranted, particularly in terms of the association between perfectionism and maladjustment.
Article
Full-text available
Describes the development of a bulimia test (BULIT), a 32-item, self-report, multiple-choice scale that assesses symptoms of bulimia for clinical work and research. The BULIT was constructed by comparing responses of clinically identified female bulimic Ss with normal female college students on 75 preliminary test items, which were based on DSM-III criteria for bulimia. Cross-validation was performed on independent samples of bulimic and control Ss. The BULIT was a good predictor of group membership for both initial and replication samples. The scale was then administered to female college students, and a stratified sample of these Ss was retested and interviewed several weeks later. Results of retesting and judgments of diagnostic interviews show that the BULIT is a reliable and valid predictor of bulimia in a nonclinical population. The BULIT correlated highly with another measure of bulimia, indicating a high degree of construct validity. A lower correlation with a measure of anorexia nervosa suggests that bulimia and anorexia nervosa represent overlapping, but not identical, syndromes. The BULIT is appended. (10 ref)
Article
Full-text available
Psychological traits of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) were compared to those of weight-preoccupied (WP) and not-weight-preoccupied ( NWP ) women drawn from samples of college and ballet students. Weight-preoccupied subjects were selected on the basis of extreme scores on the Drive for Thinness subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory ( EDI ). Results indicated that the WP and AN groups were best differentiated by Ineffectiveness, Interpersonal Distrust, and lack of Interoceptive Awareness subscales. Using cluster analysis procedures, weight preoccupied women were divided into two subgroups. Cluster One was characterized by elevated scores on all EDI subscales indicating significant psychopathology. Cluster Two had elevated scores only on Drive for Thinness, Body Dissatisfaction, and Perfectionism and could be described as "normal dieters." These findings were interpreted as indicating that, although there are some highly weight-preoccupied females who display psychopathology quite similar to anorexia nervosa, others only superficially resemble patients suffering from serious eating disorders. These results underscore the importance of a multidimensional evaluation of psychopathology in those suspected of anorexia nervosa.
Article
Full-text available
Synopsis Psychometric and clinical correlates of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) are described for a large sample of female anorexia nervosa ( N = 160) and female comparison ( N = 140) subjects. An abbreviated 26-item version of the EAT (EAT-26) is proposed, based on a factor analysis of the original scale (EAT-40). The EAT-26 is highly correlated with the EAT-40 ( r = 0·98) and three factors form subscales which are meaningfully related to bulimia, weight, body-image variables and psychological symptoms. Whereas there are no differces between bulimic and restricter anorexia nervosa patients on the total EAT-26 and EAT-40 scores, these groups do indicate significant differences on EAT-26 fractors. Norms for the anorexia nervosa and female comparison subjects are presented for the EAT-26, EAT-40 and the EAT-26 factors. It is concluded that the EAT-26 is a reliable, valid and economical instrument which may be useful as an objective measure of the symptoms of anorexia nervosa.
Article
Full-text available
We tested whether perfectionism dimensions interact with specific stressors to predict depression. A depressed patient sample (N = 51) and a general psychiatric sample (N = 94) completed measures of perfectionism, hassles, and depression. Subjects in Sample 2 also completed other personality measures to assess the amount of unique variance in depression. Partial support was obtained in that in both samples self-oriented perfectionism interacted only with achievement stressors to predict depression. Socially prescribed perfectionism interacted with interpersonal stress in Sample 1 and with achievement stress in Sample 2 to predict depression. Several personality variables, including socially prescribed perfectionism, accounted for unique variance in depression. The results suggest that perfectionism dimensions are associated with depression and may constitute specific vulnerability factors.
Article
The authors assessed whether social facets of perfectionism were associated with indexes of dyadic and family adjustment. A sample of 83 pain patients and their spouses completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Family Assessment Device, Beck Depression Inventory, and Multiaxial Pain Inventory. After controlling for depression, the authors found that pain patients' relationship adjustments were associated with their spouses' other-oriented perfectionism. Also, pain patients rated their other-oriented perfectionistic spouses as less supportive. Spouses' reports of poor dyadic and family adjustment were associated with their own socially prescribed perfectionism. The findings suggest that social aspects of perfectionism contribute to poor family adjustment.
Article
The development and preliminary validation of a new Self-report questionnaire for screening individuals at risk of developing an eating disorder (SCANS) is described. This instrument was derived from the functional-analytic model of anorexia nervosa, previously outlined by the first author (Slade, 1982). Forty items were created to measure five hypothesized, antecedent conditions, and this questionnaire was then administered to 722 control subjects and 40 eating disorder patients. Two principal component analyses were carried out on successive samples of control subjects (368 validation and 354 cross-validation), which yielded virtually identical solutions. Using scales empirically derived from the first component analysis, the eating disorder groups, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa patients, differed significantly on all five scales from controls. Moreover, normal individuals identified as being theoretically at high risk of an eating disorder were found to score significantly higher than controls on all measures derived from the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT). Further studies and reports are planned.
Article
Discusses the interpersonal motivations associated with different levels of self-esteem (SE). Although SE refers to an intrapsychic attitude, SE scales often measure self-presentational orientation. High SE scores are associated with a tendency to present one's self in a self-enhancing fashion characterized by willingness to accept risks, focus on outstandingly good qualities, strategic ploys, and calling attention to one's self. Low SE scores are associated with a tendency to present one's self in a self-protective fashion characterized by unwillingness to accept risks, focus on avoiding outstandingly bad qualities, avoidance of strategic ploys, and reluctance to draw attention to one's self. Evidence shows that most people rate themselves as above average on SE scales. Measures emphasizing social SE may be more sensitive to interpersonal and self-presentational issues than nonsocial SE measures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Designed a self-report measure of behavioral tendencies that frequently accompany body-image disturbance. The 19-item questionnaire dealt with avoidance of situations that provoke concern about physical appearance, such as avoidance of tight-fitting clothes, social outings, and physical intimacy. The body image avoidance questionnaire had adequate internal consistency and test–retest reliability. The measure correlated highly with negative attitudes about weight and shape and with perceptual distortion of size. It distinguished women with bulimia nervosa from controls, was sensitive to change following treatment for severe body-image disturbance, and agreed with external raters. Norms for the measure and the factor structure are also provided. Although body-image disturbance is traditionally viewed as perceptual distortion of body size and negative attitudes about weight and shape, it is recommended that a multidimensional assessment also include attention to behavioral tendencies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
150 university students completed 3 measures of depressive symptomatology and several measures of perfectionism including self-oriented perfectionism, perfectionistic motivation, other-oriented perfectionism, and world-oriented perfectionism. Depression was measured by the Self-Rating Depression Scale and by the Depressive Experience Questionnaire. Consistent with predictions, all of the perfectionism measures, except the world-oriented perfectionism measure, were correlated positively with severity of depression and provided independent variance in the prediction of depression scores. Results confirm a relationship between perfectionism and levels of self-critical depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
aims to apply . . . a collaborative framework to the phenomenology of disordered self-functioning in anorexia nervosa / address how several closely related findings in modern developmental psychology, psychobiology, and personality genetics offer new understanding of the process and adaptive mechanisms by which symptom patterns and other important clinical phenomena emerge the findings to which I refer are as follows: (1) the emerging self, rather than a passive recipient of outside influences, actively structures experiences in the sensorimotor, perceptual, and affectivity domains from early in life / (2) the manner in which affectivity organizes self-experiences and self-object functions throughout development is greatly affected by endogenous regulators of arousability and other adaptive behaviors / (3) the limits within which particular behavior styles and coping patterns are expressed dynamically in normal and pathological functioning are set largely by heritable personality traits and the biological structures presumed to underlie them in the interest of clarity of exposition, these ideas are discussed first / the final section illustrates their heuristic relevance by recasting the phenomenology of anorexia nervosa in essentially organismic-developmental terms the substantive advantages of the organismic-developmental paradigm are (1) that it can serve as a general framework in which to amplify and integrate other clinical and theoretical data; and (2) that it takes account of a growing consensus that genetics, biology, and psychology are closely interrelated aspects of the total phenomenology of self-experience (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Presents a characteristic pattern of beliefs shared by individuals with bulimia nervosa. A description of each belief, a discussion of the common causes for its development, and suggestions for therapeutic intervention are included. Beliefs that contribute to the development and perpetuation of bulimia include those concerning being overweight, good/bad foods, control, perfection, egocentric focus, need for approval, and external validation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The Persuasibility Test scores of 96 female high school Ss were significantly higher than those of 86 male high school Ss. No significant relationship found between Otis IQ and Persuasibility Test scores for either sex. No significant correlations between Persuasibility Test scores and any of 9 self-rating personality clusters for the female Ss. Male Ss had low but significant correlations between Persuasibility test scores and self-ratings on feelings of social inadequacy, social inhibitions, richness of fantasy, and argumentativeness. Self-ratings on test anxiety, suspiciousness, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and neurotic anxiety symptoms were not significantly correlated with Persuasibily Test scores for either sex. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Although studies have examined the personality characteristics of bulimic individuals, these studies have been few and characterized by methodological shortcomings. To address these difficulties, this study compared 20 bulimic women and 20 non-eating-disordered normal weight controls on a variety of standardized psychological questionnaires. A comprehensive cognitive behavioral model of bulimia (Mizes, 1985) was evaluated by this comparison. Results showed that bulimic individuals showed significantly more pathological personality characteristics than control subjects. In specific, bulimics showed evidence of significant anxiety, depression, restrictive eating standards, low self-efficacy for dieting, distorted eating-related attitudes (i.e., weight as basis of self-esteem, striving for perfect self-control), self-control deficits, generalized irrational thinking styles (particularly helplessness and demand for approval), and body image distortion. A trend was found suggesting discomfort in social situations. Contrary to expectations, assertion deficits and concerns about sexual functioning were not found.
Article
Perfectionism is a major diagnostic criterion for one DSM-III diagnosis, and it has been hypothesized to play a major role in a wide variety of psychopathologies. Yet there is no precise definition of, and there is a paucity of research on, this construct. Based on what has been theorized about perfectionism, a multidimensional measure was developed and several hypotheses regarding the nature of perfectionism were tested in four separate studies. The major dimension of this measure was excessive concern over making mistakes. Five other dimensions were identified, including high personal standards, the perception of high parental expectations, the perception of high parental criticism, the doubting of the quality of one's actions, and a preference for order and organization. Perfectionism and certain of its subscales were correlated with a wide variety of psychopathological symptoms. There was also an association between perfectionism and procrastination. Several subscales of the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), personal standards and organization, were associated with positive achievement striving and work habits. The MPS was highly correlated with one of the existing measures of perfectionism. Two other existing measures were only moderately correlated with the MPS and with each other. Future studies of perfectionism should take into account the multidimensional nature of the construct.
Article
This article proposes that binge eating is motivated by a desire to escape from self-awareness. Binge eaters suffer from high standards and expectations, especially an acute sensitivity to the difficult (perceived) demands of others. When they fall short of these standards, they develop an aversive pattern of high self-awareness, characterized by unflattering views of self and concern over how they are perceived by others. These aversive self-perceptions are accompanied by emotional distress, which often includes anxiety and depression. To escape from this unpleasant state, binge eaters attempt the cognitive response of narrowing attention to the immediate stimulus environment and avoiding broadly meaningful thought. This narrowing of attention disengages normal inhibitions against eating and fosters an uncritical acceptance of irrational beliefs and thoughts. The escape model is capable of integrating much of the available evidence about binge eating.
Article
This descriptive study contrasted specific coping styles, attitudes, and irrational beliefs among three groups of women: bulimics, drug abusers, and a normative comparison group. The substance abuse groups were found to be more irrational than the comparison group and were moodier and more socially alienated. They also were prone to a negative view of the world and a bleak outlook toward the future. Bulimic subjects put considerable importance on others' approval, tended to denigrate themselves, and were under a lot of self imposed pressure and chronic tension; drug abuse subjects were more introversive, perfectionistic, and subject to recent stress. By contrast, the normative comparison group appeared confident, sociable, and optimistic.
Article
Multiple dimensions of personality and psychopathological symptoms were assessed objectively in young adolescents shortly after the onset of their first episode of anorexia nervosa. Matched control groups were composed of female patients with depressive illness or personality disorder. Several characteristics emerged as more or less distinctive of anorexic patients, including obsessional character structure, interpersonal insecurity, minimization of affect, excessive conformance and regimentation of behavior, and heightened industriousness and responsibility. Typological differences between bingeing and abstaining anorexics were relatively few, though consistent with recent suggestions that the former subgroup, while more socially adept, exhibits greater impairment in self control mechanisms. Normalization of weight in anorexic patients is associated with increased extraversion and more realistic perception of self within a social context, as well as a greater self-doubt and unease. Results are discussed in relation to prior psychometric studies of personality in more chronically ill anorexic subjects, and implications for future research.
Article
All dominant models of the eating disorders implicate personality variables in the emergence of weight concerns and the development of specific symptoms such as bingeing and purging. Standardized measures of personality traits and disorders generally confirm clinical descriptions of restricting anorexics as constricted, conforming, and obsessional individuals. A less consistent picture suggesting affective instability and impulsivity has emerged from the assessment of subjects with bulimia nervosa. Considerable heterogeneity exists within eating disorder subtypes, however, and a number of special problems complicate the interpretation of personality data in this population. These include young age at onset, the influence of state variables such as depression and starvation sequelae, denial and distortion in self-report, the instability of subtype diagnoses, and the persistence of residual problems following symptom control.
Article
This study investigated whether patterns of late adolescent separation-individuation from parents, as measured by the Psychological Separation Inventory (PSI), are different for anorexic-like and bulimic-like young women in college. It was hypothesized that anorexic-like women would display a pattern of underseparation from both mother and father. Bulimic-like women were expected to show a pattern of underseparation on the conflictual dimension of the PSI but overseparation on the other dimensions. A total of 198 college women completed the PSI, the Eating Disorder Inventory, and a DSM-III-R symptom checklist. Using that checklist, 19 women were classified as bulimic-like (BUN), 8 as like restricting anorexics (RAN), 11 as showing a pattern resembling both bulimia and restricting anorexia (BULAN), 109 as showing limited bulimic or anorexic behaviors (SOME), and 25 as having no eating disorder symptoms (NED). Results indicated some support for the hypotheses. BUN women were overseparated in terms of attitudinal independence from both parents and underseparated in that they experienced more guilt and conflict concerning separation than did the SOME or NED women. The anorexic-like women reported considerable guilt and conflict about separation and tended to be underseparated in general. The results point to the potential value of separation-individuation issues in the distinction between restricting anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.
Article
Results from recent studies on body image have revealed differences between college-age individuals and older samples. In this study, adults 17 to 40 years old were evaluated for their body dissatisfaction on the Figure Rating Scale. Females had higher levels of body dissatisfaction than males and these differences did not diminish with age. However, consistent with physical changes in adulthood, current and ideal ratings became more discrepant with age. Interestingly, for women, affective and cognitive dimensions of body dissatisfaction became more consistent. Research on early adulthood personality development is used to help explain these results.
Cognitive therapy for anorexia nervosa Handbook of eating disorders: Physiology, psychology, and treatment of obesity, anorexia, and bulimia (pp, 301-327) The Eating Attitudes Test: An index of the symptoms of anorexia nervosa
  • D Garner
  • M Garfinkel
Garner, D, M, (1986), Cognitive therapy for anorexia nervosa. In K, D, Brownell & J, P, Foreyt (Eds,), Handbook of eating disorders: Physiology, psychology, and treatment of obesity, anorexia, and bulimia (pp, 301-327), New York: Basic Books, Garner, D, M,, & Garfinkel, P, E, (1979), The Eating Attitudes Test: An index of the symptoms of anorexia nervosa. Psychological Medicine, 9, 273-279.
Pretreatment evaluation in anorexia nervosa
  • K Halmi
  • D Goldberg
  • C Eckert
  • E Capser
  • R Davis
Halmi, K, D,, Goldberg, S, C, Eckert, E,, Capser, R,, & Davis, J, M, (1977), Pretreatment evaluation in anorexia nervosa. In R, A, Vigersky (Ed,), Anorexia nervosa. New York: Raven Press,
Bulimic beliefs: Food for thought Self-presentational motivations and personality differences in self-esteem Eating disorders: Obesity, anorexia nervosa, and the person within
  • B Bauer
  • G Anderson
  • P Baumeister
  • F Tice
  • M Hutton
Bauer, B, G,, & Anderson, W, P, (1989), Bulimic beliefs: Food for thought, journal of Counseling and Development, 67, 416-419, Baumeister, R, F., Tice, D, M,, & Hutton, D, G, (1989), Self-presentational motivations and personality differences in self-esteem, journal of Personality, 57, 547-579, Bruch, H, (1973), Eating disorders: Obesity, anorexia nervosa, and the person within. New York: Basic Books, Butterfield, P, S,, & Leclair, S, (1988), Cognitive characteristics of bulimic and drug-abusing women. Addictive Behaviors, 13, 131-138,
Self-presentational style and maladjustment: Presenting the perfect self
  • P L Hewitt
  • G L Flett
  • P Fairlie
Hewitt, P. L., Flett, G. L., & Fairlie, P. (1994). Self-presentational style and maladjustment: Presenting the perfect self. Unpublished manuscript.
Personality variables and disorders in anorexia and bulimia nervosa
  • K Vitousek
  • F Manke
Vitousek, K., & Manke, F. (1994). Personality variables and disorders in anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 137-147.
Perfectionism and depression: Evidence for a stable vulnerability factor
  • P L Hewitt
  • G L Flett
  • E Ediger
Hewitt, P. L., Flett, G. L., & Ediger, E. (1994). Perfectionism and depression: Evidence for a stable vulnerability factor. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Bulimic beliefs: Food for thought, journal of Counseling and Development
  • B Bauer
  • G Anderson
Bauer, B, G,, & Anderson, W, P, (1989), Bulimic beliefs: Food for thought, journal of Counseling and Development, 67, 416-419,
Handbook of eating disorders: Physiology, psychology, and treatment of obesity, anorexia, and bulimia
  • D Garner
  • M Garner
  • M Garfinkel
Garner, D, M, (1986), Cognitive therapy for anorexia nervosa. In K, D, Brownell & J, P, Foreyt (Eds,), Handbook of eating disorders: Physiology, psychology, and treatment of obesity, anorexia, and bulimia (pp, 301-327), New York: Basic Books, Garner, D, M,, & Garfinkel, P, E, (1979), The Eating Attitudes Test: An index of the symptoms of anorexia nervosa. Psychological Medicine, 9, 273-279.
Perfectionistic self-presentation and maladjustment
  • P L Hewitt
  • G L Flett
Hewitt, P. L., & Flett, G. L. (1993b). Perfectionistic self-presentation and maladjustment. Paper presented at the annual conference of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Canada.