Article

Identification of Fatty Acids in Edible Wild Plants by Gas Chromatography

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Abstract

The total lipidic content and the distribution of fatty acids in twenty edible wild plants in S.E. Spain was determined by GC. The lipidic content was higher than usual in the common vegetables. The high ratio of the omega 3 series of unsaturated fatty acids relative to the omega 6 series demonstrates the good nutritional qualities of these plants.

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... Other phytochemical investigations, including those by Guil et al. (1996) Samavati and Manoochehrizade (2013), discovered that the various parts of mallow contain terpenoids, of phenolics derivatives, flavonoids, polysaccharides, chemical elements, mucilages, vitamins C, E, coumarins, beta-carotene, fatty acids, in particular essential fatty acids like various sterols, amino acids, omega-3 and omega-6, and enzymes including sulphite oxidase and catalase. ...
... Many acids are present in this class, including caprylic, myristic, pentadecanoic, lauric, myristoleic, caproic, palmitic, palmitoleic, heptadecanoic, and stearic acids, as well as oleic, linoleic, -linolenic, arachidic, eicosenoic, cis-11,14-eicosadienoi, among others. Guil et al. (1996) report in their studies that extracts from Malva leaves treated with methanol and acetyl chloride has a lipid content of 0.47%, with α-linolenic acid as the majority lipid (42.2%). Its composition is essential, and essential fatty acids of the class of omega-3 and omega-6 class make this plant a nutraceutical food. ...
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Malva sylvestris is a plant commonly found in Europe, Asia, and Africa. The leaves and flowers of this plant have been used for centuries in traditional medicine to treat various ailments such as cough, cold, diarrhoea, and constipation. Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science were used to search for relevant material on the phytochemical profiling and pharmacologic activities of Malva sylvestris. The techniques used in phytochemical profiling and the pharmacologic activity of each compound were extracted from the included studies, including in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies. The phytochemical analysis of Malva sylvestris revealed that the leaves and flowers are the most commonly used parts of the plant and contain various bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, mucilages, terpenoids, phenol derivatives, coumarins, sterols, tannins, saponins, and alkaloids. These phytochemicals are responsible for the many pharmacological activities of Malva sylvestris, such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, laxative, antiproliferative and antioxidant properties. This review has presented an overview of the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities and the cytotoxic effects of Malva sylvestris on different types of cancer cells. It has also summarised the work on developing copper oxide nanoparticles using Malva sylvestris leaf extract and its potential use in food and medicine. This review aims to highlight the traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, and safety of Malva sylvestris.
... In all the tea PL samples, the PUFA and especially the essential ω3 PUFA ALA (18:3ω3), were the most abundant class of FA, followed by lower amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFA) such as the palmitic (16:0) and stearic (18:0) acids, and significantly less but considerable amounts of MUFA, such as OA (18:1c9). These results are in accordance with previous results for this tea variety [4,[6][7][8]30,31,38], but also for other tea varieties [39][40][41]. ...
... Interestingly, much less but considerable amounts of other long chain (LC) ω3 PUFA, such as the EPA (20:5ω3) and the DHA (22:6ω3), were also detected in these tea samples for the first time. It has been previously proposed that plant sources do not contain such LC-ω3 PUFA due to lack of appropriate enzyme machinery for producing them from ALA and LA, yet Guil et al. have reported the presence of low amounts of both EPA and DHA in several natural plants [41], which is in accordance with the results of this study. PL from several natural sources and foods that are rich in such unsaturated FA, have exhibited potent bioavailability, biofunctionality, and antithrombotic properties, not only against PAF [20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29], but also against other platelet agonists such as thrombin [23][24][25][26]28], collagen, and ADP [25]. ...
Article
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Tea provides health benefits, while oxidation is part of tea processing. The effect of oxidation on the antithrombotic properties of tea lipid extracts was evaluated for the first time. Total lipids (TL) extracted from fresh tea leaves and commercial tea powder, before and after 30-60 min of oxidation, were further fractionated into neutral lipids (NL) and polar lipids (PL). The antithrombotic bioactivities of tea TL, PL, and NL were assessed in human platelets against the inflammatory mediator platelet-activating factor. PL were further assessed against thrombin, collagen, and adenosine diphosphate, while their fatty acid composition was evaluated by GC-MS. PL exhibited the strongest antithrombotic effects against all platelet agonists and were rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated (ω3 PUFA) and monounsaturated (MUFA) fatty acids. A decline was observed in the antithrombotic activities, against all platelet agonists tested, for PL after 60 min of oxidation, and on their MUFA content, while their overall ω3 PUFA content and ω6/ω3 ratio remained unaffected. A synergistic effect between tea phenolic compounds and PL protects them against oxidation, which seems to be the rational for retaining the antithrombotic biofunctionalities of PL at a considerable favorable cardioprotective level, even after 60 min of tea oxidation. More studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms of the favorable synergism in tea PL extracts.
... PUFA/SFA and n6/n3 ratios in tomato fruit of our study indicate a good nutritional value of tomato fruit regardless of harvesting date and cover material. 44 According to Guil et al., 44 n-6/n-3 values lower than 4.0 indicate high nutritional value and beneficial health effects, which further highlights the importance of growing conditions for nutritional value and quality of tomato fruit. The observed differences in antioxidant properties of tomato fruit depending on the implemented assay were expected, since according to Floegel et al., 45 the results of antioxidant capacity measurements may differ among the implemented assays because they employ different principles. ...
... PUFA/SFA and n6/n3 ratios in tomato fruit of our study indicate a good nutritional value of tomato fruit regardless of harvesting date and cover material. 44 According to Guil et al., 44 n-6/n-3 values lower than 4.0 indicate high nutritional value and beneficial health effects, which further highlights the importance of growing conditions for nutritional value and quality of tomato fruit. The observed differences in antioxidant properties of tomato fruit depending on the implemented assay were expected, since according to Floegel et al., 45 the results of antioxidant capacity measurements may differ among the implemented assays because they employ different principles. ...
Article
BACKGROUND During the last decades, greenhouse technology for horticultural crops has focused on retaining optimum conditions within the greenhouse environment that could allow to finding the compromise between maximum yields and minimum production costs. The aim of the present manuscript was to evaluate the effect of three greenhouse covering materials and five harvesting dates on the yield and quality parameters of hydroponically produced tomato fruit, as well as on energy consumption. RESULTS Plants had a higher growth rate at early stages for S‐PE cover material, while differences were minimized at later stages. Tocopherols content was the highest for ID‐PE material and harvesting later than 170 days after transplanting (DAT), while sugars content (fructose and glucose) was the highest for S‐PE material and 157 DAT. Organic acids content was the highest at early harvestings, especially for 7‐PE and S‐PE cover materials, while it exhibited decreasing trends at later harvesting dates. Antioxidant properties showed a varied response to cover materials and harvesting dates, while β‐carotene, carotenoids, and chlorophylls were the highest for 7‐PE material. CONCLUSION In conclusion, the results showed that both cover materials and harvesting date may affect significantly tomato fruit quality, especially sugars and organic acids contents which are associated with fruit taste, as well as tocopherols which contribute to antioxidant properties and pigments that are associated with fruit ripening and earliness of marketable maturity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... The values of PUFA/SFA ratio were higher than 0.45 for all the studied oils, indicating a high nutritional value, especially in the case of linseed oils where the highest values were recorded (9.05-10.77), whereas pumpkin oil values were marginally higher than this threshold [55][56][57]. Similarly, n6/n3 ratio was lower than 4.0 in linseed and purslane seed oils due to their high content in omega-3 fatty acids and α-linolenic acid in particular. ...
... The recorded values for both ratios are in agreement with the literature reports as already described [17,26,29,46,53], except for the cases where genotypic differences or differences in the extraction protocols were identified [20,49,52]. According to Guil et al. [55], both these ratios (PUFA/SFA and n6/n3) are good indicators for the nutritional quality of a food product, however even in the case of pumpkin and luffa oils which did not met this specific criterion, there are several beneficial health effects evidenced that allow us to suggest their incorporation in the human diet. Moreover, it seems that the extraction with cold pressing may improve the nutritional value of seed oils by increasing the beneficial fatty acids content, such as α-linolenic acid in the case of linseed and purslane seed oil, thus improving the nutritional value and the bioactive properties of the obtained oils [58]. ...
Article
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In the present study, the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities, as well as the fatty acids composition in vegetable seed oils from linseed, purslane, luffa, and pumpkin were evaluated. For this purpose, two linseed oils and one luffa oil were commercially obtained, while purslane and pumpkin oils were obtained from own cultivated seeds. The results showed a variable fatty acids composition among the tested oils, with α-linolenic, linoleic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic acid being the most abundant compounds. In regards to particular oils, linseed oils were a rich source of α-linolenic acid, luffa and pumpkin oil were abundant in linoleic acid, while purslane oil presented a balanced composition with an almost similar amount of both fatty acids. Luffa oil was the most effective against two of the tested cancer cell lines, namely HeLa (cervical carcinoma) and NCI-H460 (non-small cell lung cancer), while it also showed moderate toxicity against non-tumor cells (PLP2 cell line). Regarding the antibacterial activity, linseed oil 3 and pumpkin oil showed the highest activity against most of the tested bacteria (especially against Enterobacter cloacae and Escherichia coli) with MIC and MBC values similar to the used positive controls (E211 and E224). All the tested oils showed significant antifungal activities, especially luffa and pumpkin oil, and for most of the tested fungi they were more effective than the positive controls, as for example in the case of Aspergillus versicolor, A. niger, and Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium. In conclusion, the results of our study showed promising antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties for the studied seed oils which could be partly attributed to their fatty acids composition, especially the long-chain ones with 12-18 carbons.
... Le dernier groupe de ce classement comprend les huiles de pourpier (Portulaca oleracea [177,301]), de chia (Salvia hispanica [29,100,197]), de pépin de framboise (Rubus idaeus [375]), de graine d'argousier (Hippophae rhamnoides [238,527]) et de salicorne (Salicornia europaea [177]). Le profil des produits de ce groupe associe un niveau d'ALA supérieur à 28% (pourpier : 32,4%, chia : 61,3%, pépin de framboise : 29,1%, graine d'argousier : 28,8%, salicorne : 28%), avec 20% ou plus de LA. ...
... Le dernier groupe de ce classement comprend les huiles de pourpier (Portulaca oleracea [177,301]), de chia (Salvia hispanica [29,100,197]), de pépin de framboise (Rubus idaeus [375]), de graine d'argousier (Hippophae rhamnoides [238,527]) et de salicorne (Salicornia europaea [177]). Le profil des produits de ce groupe associe un niveau d'ALA supérieur à 28% (pourpier : 32,4%, chia : 61,3%, pépin de framboise : 29,1%, graine d'argousier : 28,8%, salicorne : 28%), avec 20% ou plus de LA. ...
Thesis
Les accidents cardio-vasculaires représentent la première cause de décès en France. Parmi les facteurs de risque de ces pathologies figure la structure de l’apport lipidique, excédentaire en acides gras saturés, et déficitaire en acides gras polyinsaturés n-3. L’objectif de cette thèse est la mise au point d’un corps gras alimentaire, dont le profil lipidique permet de participer au rééquilibrage des apports en acides gras, avec comme cible la prévention des maladies cardio-vasculaires.Quatre études ont été réalisées pour répondre à cette problématique. Après la mise au point du profil en acides gras optimal, l’impact de la formulation de la phase concrète sur la texture du produit a été étudié afin de concilier les exigences nutritionnelles et les contraintes techniques de sa fabrication et de sa conservation.La mise au point de la formulation de la phase fluide a engendré une étude sur le développement de composés volatils délétères suite à l’addition d’une proportion importante d’huile de poisson dans la formule. Ce travail a mis en évidence deux phénomènes liés au dégagement de ces molécules, l’un attribué à l’oxydation des lipides, l’autre au contact avec l’eau.Le besoin de protéger les nutriments d’intérêt dans la matrice alimentaire a conduit à la mise au point d’une technologie de microencapsulation, originale de par son procédé de fabrication et sa finalité.Enfin, une étude de la biodisponibilité chez l’animal a montré que ce produit alimentaire est un vecteur efficace de ces nutriments d’intérêt que sont les acides gras polyinsaturés à longue chaîne. Apportés dans une telle matrice, ces composés ont modifié le profil lipidique des cellules circulantes et cérébrales, ce qui permet potentiellement d’améliorer le statut inflammatoire et coagulant des animaux
... and oleic acids (16.98-25.58%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) accounted for almost 50% of total fatty acids, while the ratio of polyunsaturated: saturated fatty acids (PUFA/SFA) ranged between 1.24 and 1.42 and was higher than 0.45, as suggested by Guil et al. 34 for higher nutritional value. However, the n-3 fatty acid content was very low compared to n-6 fatty acids, which is typical of most of the vegetables and vegetable oils, thus resulting in very high n-6/n-3 ratios (283-597). ...
... Despite the high values of n-6/n-3 ratios, the low content in high homologues of n-6 fatty acids (fatty acids with >18 carbon atoms) is beneficial for human health, since they are considered as precursors of inflammatory responses. 34 Similar results have been reported in the study of Berry and Savello et al.,9,28 while Al-Wandawi 29 has detected high amounts of oleic acid instead of linoleic acid in the seeds of two okra varieties. ...
Article
Okra is a vegetable crop usually used for its immature pods. Harvest stage (fruit size) depends on consumers’ preferences and fruit that do not meet market requirements are being disposed of. Considering the short time interval from fruit set to harvest stage, the present study evaluates nutritional value, chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of okra seeds from genotypes cultivated under Mediterranean conditions, as an alternative end-use product. For this purpose, seeds from four okra cultivars and local landraces commonly cultivated in the Mediterranean basin, as well as seeds from four commercial cultivars from North America were collected at maturity stage. A significant variation between the studied okra genotypes was observed for all the evaluated parameters. Okra seeds of cv. “Silver Queen” were a significant source of proteins and minerals, such as Ca, K, Fe and Zn. Seeds of all the genotypes contained significant amounts of gamma-tocopherols, liposoluble pigments, and linoleic and palmitic acid. Total phenols content differed between the studied genotypes and correlated with EC50 values of Reducing Power assay. Seed extracts exhibited significant antibacterial properties, especially against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enteritidis and S. typhimurium, while fungistatic and fungicidal properties were better than ketoconazole in a genotype dependent manner. Antifungal properties of seeds were noticed towards all tested fungi, where Aspergillus versicolor and Caldosporium cladosporioides were the most sensitive species. Moreover, two of the tested genotypes (“Boyati” and “Clemson Spineless”) exhibited higher fungistatic and fungicidal properties than ketoconazole. In conclusion, okra seeds could be considered as innovative okra products and could be proposed for alternative end-uses in the food and pharmaceutical industry, especially for functional foods with antimicrobial and bioactive properties.
... mixta plants that were cultivated under different nitrogen fertilization rates. On the other hand, the highest ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids was recorded for the N3 × peat:perlite treatment due to the high content of α-linolenic acid, while, in all the tested treatments (except for the N0 × soil), the ratio values were higher than 0.45, indicating an improvement of nutritional value as the result of nitrogen fertilization [17,51]. Similarly, the ratio values of omega-6 (n6)/omega-3(n3) fatty acids were lower than 4.0 in all the tested treatments, suggesting a beneficial effect for the healthy fat composition [17,51]. ...
... On the other hand, the highest ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids was recorded for the N3 × peat:perlite treatment due to the high content of α-linolenic acid, while, in all the tested treatments (except for the N0 × soil), the ratio values were higher than 0.45, indicating an improvement of nutritional value as the result of nitrogen fertilization [17,51]. Similarly, the ratio values of omega-6 (n6)/omega-3(n3) fatty acids were lower than 4.0 in all the tested treatments, suggesting a beneficial effect for the healthy fat composition [17,51]. Tocopherol composition is presented in Table 2, with only two vitamin E isoforms (αand γ-tocopherol) being identified in the studied samples. ...
Article
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The Mediterranean basin is abundant in wild edible species with numerous health beneficial effects due to the presence of various bioactive phytochemicals. In the present work, the effect of nitrogen fertilization rates (0 ppm, (N0), 200 ppm (N1), 400 ppm (N2), and 600 ppm (N3) of total N) and growth substrate composition (soil or peat/perlite (2/1; v/v)) on the chemical composition and bioactive properties of Centaurea raphanina ssp. mixta plants was evaluated. The results of the study showed that both the tested factors affected nutritional value of the edible leaves, with the soil × N1 treatment being the most beneficial for fat, protein, and carbohydrate content and energetic value. On the other hand, the peat/perlite-grown plants that received 200 ppm of N had the highest content in α-, γ-, and total tocopherols, while the control treatment of soil-grown plants was the richest in individual and total sugars. Oxalic, citric, and total organic acids were the highest in the N2 × soil treatment, while malic acid was the highest in control treatment of the same substrate. The main fatty acids were palmitic, α-linolenic, and linoleic acids, with the highest contents being observed in the N0 × soil, N3 × soil, and N3 × peat/perlite treatments, respectively. The major phenolic compounds were pinocembrim neohesperidoside and pinocembrim acetyl neohesperidoside isomer II, with the highest content being observed in the N1 × soil treatment. The highest antihemolytic activity was observed in the N3 × peat/perlite treatment, while the most effective treatments against lipid peroxidation were N0 (in both soil and peat/perlite combinations) and N1 × peat/perlite. Lastly, all the tested extracts (except for N1 × soil) showed promising cytotoxic effects against HeLa (cervical carcinoma), HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma), MCF-7 (breast carcinoma), and NCI-H460 (non-small-cell lung cancer), while all the tested extracts exhibited better antifungal activities (lower minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) values) against Trichoderma viride than the positive controls. Overall, the present results suggest that the application of cost-effective practices such as the nitrogen application and the selection of growth substrate may regulate the chemical composition and the bioactive properties of C. raphanina ssp. mixta species and increase its added value under commercial cultivation conditions.
... family has been used both as food and medicine due to its emollient, wound healing, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties [18,19]. Ethnopharmacological studies have shown that mallow contains several compounds including flavonoids [20,21], terpenoids [22], phenol derivatives [20,22], polysaccharides [23], mucilages, coumarins [18], vitamins C and E, beta-carotene [20], fatty acids, and various sterols, especially essential fatty acids like omega-3 and omega-6 [20,24], chemical elements [25], enzymes (sulfite oxidase and catalase) [26,27], and amino acids [28,29]. Additionally, recent studies have shown that mallow has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties [30,31], and has been able to protect the liver from damage caused by paracetamol [32] and protect the kidneys against damage induced by ischemia and reperfusion [33]. ...
... Previous studies have revealed several effects of mallow extract. Some studies have shown that the extract has antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties due to its rich content of flavonoids, vitamins C and E, beta-carotene [18], omega-3, omega-6 [20,24], enzymes such as sulfite oxidase and catalase, as well as polysaccharides [23]. It has been shown that omega-3 has antioxidant properties and protects kidneys against renal damages induced by ischemia and reperfusion in rats [48,49]. ...
... Although cardoon heads can be used for food purposes, the ratios of n-6/n-3 and PUFA/SFA do not indicate significant health benefits, in contrast with seed oils which show a high nutritional value and functional properties. Considering that Guil et al. (1996) and Simopoulos (2008) have highlighted the importance of both ratios for the nutritional value of a food product, only seed oils presented a health beneficial nutritional value with n-6/n-3 and PUFA/SFA ratios having values lower than 4.0 (4.94) and higher than 0.45 (0.57), respectively, which indicates the high potential of using this oil for human consumption. Simopoulos (2004) and Harnack et al. (2009) have demonstrated the pivotal role of long chain PUFA in human diet and n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in particular, while they also reported that ratios of 10:1 (n-6/n-3) are very common in Western diets and are highly associated with the formation of pro-inflammatory/aggregatory fatty acids such as eicosanoids. ...
Article
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In the present study, the nutritional value of the edible parts (immature capitula) of cardoon plants was evaluated, while further analyses were carried out in order to assess antioxidant properties and phenolic compounds composition of the various plant parts and seed oils. Cardoon capitula (heads) were a rich source of carbohydrates, with the main detected free sugar being sucrose, as well as of macro- and micro-minerals (K, Ca, Mg, and Fe). Heads were also abundant in saturated fatty acids (palmitic, behenic, linoleic, stearic, caproic, and oleic acid), whereas seed oils in unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic acid). Total phenolic compounds (TPC) content and phenolics composition differed between the various plant parts, with heads and leaf blades having higher TPC than midribs and petioles. Moreover, heads and leaf midribs and petioles consisted mainly of phenolic acids (5-O-caffeoylquinic and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid), with flavonoids being detected in lower amounts. In contrast, the composition of polyphenols in leaf blades consisted mostly of flavonoids (Luteolin-7-O-glucoside and luteolin-7-O-malonylhexoside), whereas phenolic acids were also detected in considerable amounts (5-O-feruloylquinic and 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid). Regarding antioxidant properties, leaf blades and seeds exhibited the highest potency for all the tested assays which could be partly attributed to the synergistic effects of the phenolic compounds present in each sample. In conclusion, cardoon plant parts may find various uses in the food and pharmaceutical industry, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive molecules, while seed oils can be considered as alternative vegetable oils for human consumption.
... In contrast, the lowest n6/n3 fatty acid ratio in stems and leaves was recorded at the earliest harvesting stage (29 DAS). In addition, for all the studied harvesting stages and plant parts, the PUFA/SFA ratio was higher than 0.45, while the n6/n3 ratio was lower than 4.0, indicating a high nutritional value of the edible plant parts [32]. Moreover, the detected values for the above-mentioned ratios of our study were within the same range as the ones recorded in the study of Fontana et al. [19]. ...
Article
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Purslane (Portulaca oleraceae L.) is a widespread weed, which is highly appreciated for its high nutritional value with particular reference to the content in omega-3 fatty acids. In the present study, the nutritional value and chemical composition of purslane plants in relation to plant part and harvesting stage were evaluated. Plants were harvested at three growth stages (29, 43 and 52 days after sowing (DAS)), while the edible aerial parts were separated into stems and leaves. Leaves contained higher amounts of macronutrients than stems, especially at 52 DAS. α-tocopherol was the main isoform, which increased at 52 DAS, as well total tocopherols (values were in the ranges of 197–327 μg/100 g fresh weight (fw) and 302–481 μg/100 g fw, for α-tocopherol and total tocopherols, respectively). Glucose and fructose were the main free sugars in stems and leaves, respectively, whereas stems contained higher amounts of total sugars (values were ranged between 0.83 g and 1.28 g/100 g fw). Oxalic and total organic acid content was higher in leaves, especially at the last harvesting stage (52 DAS; 8.6 g and 30.3 g/100 g fw for oxalic acid and total organic acids, respectively). Regarding the fatty acid content, stems contained mainly palmitic (20.2–21.8%) and linoleic acid (23.02–27.11%), while leaves were abundant in α-linolenic acid (35.4–54.92%). Oleracein A and C were the major oleracein derivatives in leaves, regardless of the harvesting stage (values were in the ranges of 8.2–103.0 mg and 21.2–143 mg/100 g dried weight (dw) for oleraceins A and C, respectively). Cytotoxicity assays showed no hepatotoxicity, with GI50 values being higher than 400 μg/mL for all the harvesting stages and plant parts. In conclusion, early harvesting and the separation of plant parts could increase the nutritional value of the final product through increasing the content of valuable compounds, such as omega-3 fatty acids, phenolic compounds and oleracein derivatives, while at the same time, the contents of anti-nutritional compounds such as oxalic acid are reduced.
... Overall, the observed fatty acid composition was similar to the fatty acid profile reported for different ecotypes of C. spinosum 8 and C. spinosum harvested at different times. 37 Although a lower omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids ratio was observed in the present study compared to that reported by Petropoulos et al. 8 mainly as a consequence of a lower content of linoleic acid (C18:2n6c), for all the tested treatments, the ratio values were lower than 4.0, which, according to Guil et al., 38 indicates a high nutritional value. When examining the effect of the NO 3 -N:NH 4 -N ratio of the nutrient solution on the fatty acids composition, it was observed that an equal proportion of NO 3 -N and ...
Article
Background: Nitrogenous fertilizers may affect the yield and quality of leafy vegetables through the application rate and nitrogen form. In the present study, the effect of nitrate:ammonium nitrogen ratio in nutrient solution on chemical composition and bioactive properties of Cichorium spinosum leaves was evaluated. For this purpose, C. spinosum plants were fertigated with nutrient solution containing different ratios of nitrate:ammonium nitrogen, namely (1) 100:0 NO3 -N:NH4 -N, (2) 75:25 NO3 -N:NH4 -N, (3) 50:50 NO3 -N:NH4 -N, (4) 25:75 NO3 -N:NH4 -N, (5) 0:100 NO3 -N:NH4 -N of total nitrogen, and (6) 100% ureic nitrogen. Results: The only detected tocopherol isoforms were α- and δ-tocopherol, which were positively affected by nitrate nitrogen (100:0 NO3 -N:NH4 -N). Similar results were observed for individual and total organic acids. The main detected sugars were fructose, glucose and sucrose, with a varied effect of nutrient solution composition on their content, whereas total sugars concentration was positively affected by a balanced or a slightly increased proportion of NH4 -N (50:50 and 25:75 NO3 -N:NH4 -N). Fatty acids profile was beneficially affected by the highest NH4 -N ratio (0:100 NO3 -N:NH4 -N), whereas higher amounts of NO3- than NH4+ nitrogen (75:25 NO3 -N:NH4 -N) resulted in higher content of total phenolic compounds. Finally, no cytotoxic effects were observed against non-tumor (PLP2, HeLa) and tumor (HepG2, MCF-7, NCI-H460) cell lines for any of the studied nutrient solutions. Conclusion: The modulation of NO3 -N:NH4 -N ratio in the nutrient solution supplied to C. spinosum, may enhance the content of desirable health-promoting compounds and reduce the content of antinutrients, thus increasing the overall quality of the final product without compromising yield. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Although cardoon heads can be used for food purposes, the ratios of n-6/n-3 and PUFA/SFA do not indicate significant health benefits, in contrast with seed oils which show a high nutritional value and functional properties. Considering that Guil et al. (1996) and Simopoulos (2008) have highlighted the importance of both ratios for the nutritional value of a food product, only seed oils presented a health beneficial nutritional value with n-6/n-3 and PUFA/SFA ratios having values lower than 4.0 (4.94) and higher than 0.45 (0.57), respectively, which indicates the high potential of using this oil for human consumption. Simopoulos (2004) and Harnack et al. (2009) have demonstrated the pivotal role of long chain PUFA in human diet and n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in particular, while they also reported that ratios of 10:1 (n-6/n-3) are very common in Western diets and are highly associated with the formation of pro-inflammatory/aggregatory fatty acids such as eicosanoids. ...
Article
Nine wild edible species belonging to Astreaceae family, native to the Mediterranean basin were tested for their chemical composition (phenolic compounds, tocopherols, and organic acids) and antimicrobial activities over two growing periods, apart from Scolymus hispanicus and Hedypnois cretica which were tested for only one growing period. Flavonoids were the most abundant phenolic compounds in all the species, except for the case of Taraxacum species where significant amounts of chicoric acid were detected, while phenolic compounds content increased in the 2nd growing period by 4.6–397.4% for the tested species. α- and β-tocopherols were the main tocopherols, apart from Taraxacum sp. where significant amounts of γ-and δ-tocopherols (18.32 and 16.31 μg/100 g fresh weight) were detected, while total tocopherols content either increased (Reicardia picroides, Picris echioides, Urospermum picroides, and Taraxacum officinale) or decreased (Hymenonema graecum, Sonchus oleraceus, Taraxacum sp.) in the 2nd growing period. Oxalic acid was the most abundant organic acid, with the highest content (972 mg/100 g fresh weight) being observed in H. graecum (L.) DC. in the 1st growing period. Moreover, with the exception of H. graecum and S. olearaceus, total organic acids content increased in the 2nd growing period. Significant antimicrobial activities were observed against Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium and Penicillium ochrochloron for all the studied species. In conclusion, the studied species showed great potential for commercial cultivation, while plant extracts could find use in the food industry as alternative food preservatives.
... Among the fatty acids, α-linolenic acid (polyunsaturated omega-3), considered an essential fatty acid only obtained from the diet [45], was the predominant fatty acid found in H. speciosa leaves, followed by palmitic (saturated) and linoleic (polyunsaturated omega-6) acids. Moreover, the PUFAs/SFAs and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratios calculated indicate good nutritional quality, including health benefits [46]. α-Linolenic acid cannot be synthesized by humans; however, dietary α-linolenic acid is the precursor of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, which are anti-inflammatory eicosanoids [47,48]. ...
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Hancornia speciosa Gomes is a fruit tree, commonly known as the mangaba tree, which is widespread throughout Brazil. The leaves of this plant are used in traditional medicine for medicinal purposes. Thus, the objective of this study was to perform a physicochemical characterization, identify the lipophilic antioxidants and fatty acids, and determine the microbiological quality and safety of H. speciosa leaves. In addition, the antioxidant, antimutagenic, and inhibitory activities of the ethanolic extract of H. speciosa leaves (EEHS) against enzymes related to neurodegenerative diseases, inflammation, obesity, and diabetes were investigated. Furthermore, this study aimed at assessing the in vivo effects of the EEHS on the glycemia of normoglycemic and diabetic Wistar rats. Physicochemical characterization was performed by colorimetry and gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The total number of colonies of aerobic mesophiles, molds, and yeasts was determined. The total coliforms and Escherichia coli were counted using the SimPlates kit, and sulphite-reducing Clostridium spores were quantified using the sulphite-polymyxin-sulfadiazine agar method. Salmonella spp. were detected using the 1-2 Test. The antioxidant activity of the EEHS was measured by its inhibition of 2,2 ′ -azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride- (AAPH-) induced oxidative hemolysis of human erythrocytes. The antimutagenic activity was determined using the Ames test. The acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, tyrosinase, hyaluronidase, lipase, α -amylase, and α -glycosidase enzyme-inhibiting activities were assessed and compared with commercial controls. The in vivo effects of the EEHS were assessed using the oral glucose tolerance test in normoglycemic Wistar rats and measuring the blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. The results demonstrated physical-chemical parameters of microbiological quality and safety in the leaves of H. speciosa , as well as antioxidant and antimutagenic activities and inhibition of enzymes related to neurodegenerative diseases, inflammation, obesity, and diabetes. In in vivo assays, it was shown that the normoglycemic rats challenged with glucose overload show significantly decreased blood glucose levels when treated with the EEHS. Taken together, the results ensure the microbiological quality and safety as well as showing the contents of carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids of H. speciosa leaves. Additionally, the antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-Alzheimer’s disease, anti-Parkinson’s disease, antiobesity, and antihyperglycemic activities of the EEHS were demonstrated.
... ALA is one of the most abundant unsaturated fats contained in most plants. However, because most plants lack the essential fatty acid desaturases and fatty acid elongases, very few of them are able to produce the essential oils (62,65). As a result, land animal fat and most non-transgenic plant oils are not suitable natural sources of ω3-LCPUFAs. ...
Thesis
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The increased awareness of the health benefits of ω3-long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-LCPUFAs) has led to a drastic increase in the consumption of fish-oil supplements. This has resulted in environmental concerns and the identification of key membrane-bound desaturases involved in the biosynthesis of ω3-LCPUFAs in order to generate a sustainable source of ω3-LCPUFAs. The Micromonas pusilla Δ6 desaturase (MpΔ6des) is a membrane-bound desaturase that is specific for ω3-LCPUFA precursors and acyl-Coenzyme A substrates (acyl-CoAs). The incorporation of MpΔ6des into the ω3-LCPUFA biosynthesis pathway allows efficient ω3-LCPUFA production in transgenic plants. However, little is known of the molecular basis underlying its ω3-specificity, stability and acyl-CoAs specificity. MpΔ6des is relatively challenging in terms of protein engineering targets in that there is no molecular structure available, it cannot be expressed in easily manipulated prokaryotic systems such as Escherichia coli, and the activity cannot be rapidly screened via the conventional techniques. Thus, computational, structure-based, protein design and high-throughput directed evolution could not be used. To overcome the technical hurdles, we have applied bioinformatics-based techniques (consensus mutagenesis, ancestral protein reconstruction and sequence similarity networks) to engineer MpΔ6des and to better define the sequence-structure-function relationship of proteins within the desaturase superfamily. Consensus mutagenesis of MpΔ6des (Chapter 2) demonstrated that it is possible to modulate the ω3/ω6-specificity of MpΔ6des semi-independently. The geometry of the substrate-binding pocket of MpΔ6des was not only influenced by the residues located in the substrate-binding cavity, but also by distal residues, possibly through intramolecular interaction networks. An ancestral algal front-end Δ6 desaturase (ANC175) was inferred (Chapter 3), which resembles the properties of the progenitor of the algal Δ6 desaturases. The comparison between ANC175 and contemporary desaturases indicated that the divergence of the ω3/ω6-specificity of algal Δ6 desaturases is associated with the environmental differences seen in the habitats of the different algal species. Chapter 4 describes a bioinformatics analysis of the desaturase superfamily, showing that the four major desaturase subfamilies (the first desaturases, methyl-end desaturases, front-end desaturases and Δ4 sphingolipid desaturases) are structurally and functionally distinct. Conserved motif analysis of the front-end desaturases suggested that two cytosolic regions (a loop between AH1 and H2, and the cytosolic side of TM3) play crucial roles in determining the substrate head-group specificity of the front-end desaturase. Altogether, this thesis promotes a more detailed structural and functional understanding of the front-end desaturases, especially MpΔ6des. It validates the use of bioinformatics-based approaches such as consensus mutagenesis and ancestral protein reconstruction, showing that small libraries that are relatively “rich” in valuable mutations can be produced, even in the absence of detailed structural information or a high-throughput screen. We have successfully created novel variants of MpΔ6des with significantly enhanced ω3-specificity and with enhanced expression. These results also shed new light on the evolution of ω3/ω6-specificity in the front-end desaturase subfamily. Finally, the use of sequence similarity networks allowed us to propose a more detailed classification of the desaturase superfamily and identify specific sequence motifs that can be used to predict the substrate “head-group” specificity of these enzymes.
... ARA was also detected in seagrasses [76]. Some higher terrestrial plants have little amounts of ARA [70,[77][78][79]. Table 1 summarized amounts of ARA in species of the plant kingdom. ...
Article
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Some of the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) as ARA (arachidonic acid, n-6), EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid, n-3) and DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid, n-3) cannot be synthesized by mammals and it must be provided as food supplement. ARA and DHA are the major PUFAs that constitute the brain membrane phospholipid. n-3 PUFAs are contained in fish oil and animal sources, while the n-6 PUFAs are mostly provided by vegetable oils. Inappropriate fatty acids consumption from the n-6 and n-3 families is the major cause of chronic diseases as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. The n-6: n-3 ratio (lower than 10) recommended by the WHO can be achieved by consuming certain edible sources rich in n-3 and n-6 in daily food meal. Many researches have been screened for alternative sources of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs of plant origin, microbes, algae, lower and higher plants, which biosynthesize these valuable PUFAs needed for our body health. Biosynthesis of C18 PUFAs, in entire plant kingdom, takes place through certain pathways using elongases (Elo) and desaturases (Des) to synthesize their needs of ARA (C20-PUFAs). This review is an attempt to highlight the importance and function of PUFAs mainly ARA, its occurrence throughout the plant kingdom (and others), its biosynthetic pathways and the enzymes involved. The methods used to enhance ARA productions through environmental factors and metabolic engineering are also presented. It also deals with advising people that healthy life is affected by their dietary intake of both n-3 and n-6 FAs. The review also addresses the scientist to carry on their work to enrich organisms with ARA.
... November 20, 2017 1 / 16 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 to being orally consumed, mallow has been used for medicinal and therapeutic purposes since 3000 BC due to its laxative, emollient and anti-inflammatory properties [2]. Phytochemical studies on mallow have shown that its various parts contain flavonoids [3][4], terpenoids [5], phenol derivatives [3,5], polysaccharides [6], mucilages and coumarins [7], vitamins C and E and beta-carotene [3], fatty acids and various sterols, particularly essential fatty acids such as omega-3 and omega-6 [3,8], chemical elements [9], enzymes such as sulfite oxidase and catalase [10][11][12] and amino acids [13,14]. Many studies have examined mallow and proposed numerous properties for this herb. ...
Article
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Mallow (Malva sylvestris L.) has had medicinal and therapeutic uses in addition to its oral consumption. The present study was conducted to examine the protective effect of Malva sylvestris L. extract on ischemia-reperfusion-induced kidney injury and remote organ injuries in the liver. Before ischemia-reperfusion, rats in the different groups received intraperitoneal normal saline or mallow extract at the doses of 200, 400 or 600 mg/kg of body weight. After 30-minutes of bilateral renal ischemia followed by 24-hours of reperfusion, tissue damage in the kidney and liver samples were determined through studying H&E-stained slides under a light microscope. The degree of leukocyte infiltration and tissue mRNA expressions of TNF- and ICAM-1 were then measured to examine the degree of renal inflammation. The renal tissue MDA and FRAP levels were measured for determining the amount of oxidative stress. Plasma concentrations of creatinine, urea, ALT and ALP were also measured. Ischemia-reperfusion led to a significant increase in plasma concentrations of creatinine, urea, ALT and ALP, and renal tissue MDA, and a significant decrease in renal tissue FRAP. The expression of pro-inflammatory factors in the kidney tissue, the level of leukocyte infiltration and the amount of tissue damage in the kidney and liver also increased. Pretreatment by mallow extract led to a significant improvement in all the variables measured. The 200- and 400-mg doses yielded better results in most parameters compared to the 600-mg dose. The findings showed that mallow extract protects the kidney against ischemia-reperfusion and reduces remote organ injury in the liver.
... The PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios are determinant for the nutritional value of a food product. [131,132] Petropoulos et al. [26] reported high ratios of n-6/n-3 fatty acids in cardoon seeds, mainly due to the lower amounts of n-3 fatty acids, particularly α-linolenic acid. This finding implies that its consumption has to be supplemented by sources of n-3 fatty acids in order to avoid the negative health side effects due to high cumulative intake of n-6 fatty acids. ...
Article
Cardoon is a multi‐purpose and versatile Mediterranean crop, adapted to climate change, with a wide spectrum of potential applications due its added value as a rich source of fibers, oils and bioactive compounds. The Cynara species are a component of the Mediterranean diet and have been used as food and medicine since ancient times. The important role of cardoon in human nutrition, as a functional food, is due to its high content of nutraceutical and bioactive compounds such as oligofructose inulin, caffeoylquinic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, sesquiterpenes lactones, triterpenes, fatty acids and aspartic proteases. The present review highlights the characteristics and functions of cardoon biomass which permits the development of innovative products in food and nutrition, pharmaceutics and cosmetics, plant protection and biocides, oils and energy, lignocellulose materials, and healthcare industries following the actual trends of a circular economy.
... and linoleic acid (20%) (Ali et al., 2012;Álvarez-Chávez et al., 2008;Ayerza and Coates, 2011;Porras-Loaiza et al., 2014). Moreover, omega-3/omega-6 fatty acid ratio is 3:1 and therefore considered of high nutritional value (Guil et al., 1996;Porras-Loaiza et al., 2014). In 2009, the European Commission authorized the use of chia seeds in bread products with a maximum content of 5% (Commission Decision 2009/827/EC). ...
Article
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In the present study, the selectivity and efficacy of several post and pre-emergence herbicides in chia (Salvia hispanica L.) were examined. Field experiments were conducted at two locations with different soil types and environmental conditions. Our results showed that the pre-emergence application of pendimethalin, oxyfluorfen and linuron reduced total weed density by 71-74%, 74-82% and 53-55%, respectively. Despite their high effectiveness, the above-mentioned herbicides had a negative effect on plant density and biomass yield. In addition, herbicides bentazon and fluazifop-p-butyl which applied post-emergence did not affect significantly plant height and biomass yield. In conclusion, the herbicides linuron, pendimethalin and oyxfluorfen do not seem to be a viable option for weed control in chia crop, whereas the post-emergence applied herbicides did not affect significantly plants’ growth. Further evaluation of chia tolerance to herbicides is needed under different application rates in order to make safe suggestions for chemical control of weeds.
... The current results are in agreement with those of Ercisli and Orhan (2007) and Elmaci and Altug (2002) reporting these two acids for the three mature Morus fruits (43.4 to 61.9% and 12.1 to 24.8% for linoleic and palmitic acids, respectively). These fatty acids have an important energetic function in the human body, with a protective role for the cardiovascular system (Guil et al., 1996). ...
Article
Mulberry is one of the most consumed fruit for its special taste, and its nutritional and medicinal properties. The present study aims to track for the first time the chemical changes occurring in three Tunisian Mulberry species: Morus alba L., Morus nigra L. and Morus rubra L. fruits according to four classified maturity stages. Nutritional composition showed that mulberries content varied from species to the other and from a stage to another. Protein increases during maturation while Ash decrease with surprisingly the highest amounts in Morus rubra L. Fatty acid composition proved richness of polyunsaturated fatty acids, with a light decrease from immature stages to mature ones. Mulberries volatile components showed a heterogeneous composition such as mineral composition with a decrease during maturation of calcium, iron, magnesium and manganese amounts). Also, polyphenols and flavonoids content became lower, reducing antioxidant potential with maturation while anthocyanins content became higher. Results proved that mulberry powdered fruits, specially Morus rubra L. have high nutritional potential and suggest immature stages valorization for human beings.
... Many epidemiological studies have revealed a relation between health benefits and the consumption of glassworts [1][2][3]. Because they are rich sources of protein, vitamins, dietary fiber, essential fatty acids and minerals, they have become essential for human nutrition [4][5][6][7]. Glassworts have been reported to be rich sources of antioxidant compounds [8][9][10][11]. Therefore, the significance of glassworts is not only due to their nutritive values but also because they are an excellent source of bioactive compounds that possess potentially important therapeutic effects, such as The effects of SF extract, vanillic acid and p-coumaric acid on the expression of selected genes in HT-29 cells were studied by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) using Corbett Rotor Gene 6000 (Corbett Life Science, Concorde, NSW, Australia). ...
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Phase I-II detoxification and antioxidant enzymes are responsible for the detoxification and elimination of activated carcinogens, acting as important biomarkers for chemoprevention. Among them, cytochrome P450s plays a prominent role in the metabolic activation of xenobiotics. The herb Salicornia freitagii (SF) (Amaranthaceae) is known for its anticancer, antioxidant, antidiabetic and antiinflammatory activities. In this study, we determined the bioactive phenolics in the SF methanol extract and investigated its antiproliferative potential in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. We also investigated the modulation of some phase I and II enzyme (CYP 1A1, 1A2, 2E1, GSTP1 and GPx) mRNA expression and enzymatic activities by the SF extract and its major bioactive phenolic compounds. LC/MS-MS analysis showed that the main phenolic compounds of the methanolic SF extract are vanillic acid (48 μg/100g) and p-coumaric acid (10.8 μg/100g). SF extract, vanillic acid and p-coumaric acid exhibited high antiproliferative activities in HT-29 cells, with IC50 values of 81.79μg/mL, 98.8 μM and 221.6 μM, respectively. The mRNA expression levels of CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 were decreased, while those of GSTP1 and GPx in HT-29 cells were increased after application of either the SF extract or vanillic acid. The SF extract by itself also increased the activities of GPx and GSTP1 enzymes 1.68- and 1.49-fold, respectively. Our data indicate that the SF extract and its major bioactive compound, vanillic acid, could exert a modulatory effect on the expression of enzymes that are involved in xenobiotic activation and detoxification pathways in the gastrointestinal tract. For this reason, SF can be considered as a natural source of chemopreventive agents.
... Significant differences between salinity treatments were observed for total saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which consequently resulted in differences for PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios. In any case, leaves of C. spinosum showed a high nutritional value regarding fatty acid composition, with PUFA/SFA ratio being higher than 0.45 and n-6/n-3 ratio lower than 4.0 (Guil et al., 1996). ...
Poster
Soil salinity is an ever-growing problem that hinders vegetable cultivation in many areas within the Mediterranean basin. Cichorium spinosum is native to the Mediterranean basin and is usually found in coastal areas and plateaus. In the present study, C. spinosum plants were grown under saline conditions (1.8, 4 and 8 dS/m), in order to evaluate the effect of salinity on their nutritional value and chemical composition. From the results it was observed that high salinity levels (8 dS/m) affected nutritional value by increasing dry matter and ash content, whereas carbohydrate content decreased. Sugar composition and total sugar content was also affected, since a decrease in fructose and glucose content as well as in total carbohydrates content was observed. Increasing salinity resulted in an increase of α- and δ-tocopherol and consequently of total tocopherols. Ascorbic acid was not detected in any of the studied treatments, whereas chlorophyll a and b content increased under high salinity conditions. Fatty acids consisted mainly of linoleic, α-linolenic and palmitic acid, whereas no significant differences were observed between control and salinity treatments. PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratio was higher than 0.45 and lower than 4.0, for all the treatments respectively. Considering the great genetic diversity and the adaptation under harsh conditions that various C. spinosum ecotypes exhibit, this species could be a potential alternative crop for mountainous areas and especially in soils with salinity problems.
... Moreover, fatty acids composition depicted the high nutritional value of C. spinosum leaves, since PUFA/SFA ratio was higher than 0.45 (4.35-4.99) and n-6/n-3 ratio lower than 4.0 (0.45-0.48), which both are considered as significant indices for quality and health benefits (Guil, Torija, Giménez, & Rodriguez, 1996). According to Simopoulos (2008), diets with low n-6/n-3 ratio may reduce the risk of many chronic diseases that plague the modern Western world, and the adoption of Mediterranean diet would be beneficial to that purpose. ...
Article
Soil salinization is an increasing problem for many areas throughout the world that renders prohibitive vegetables and crop production in general. In the present study, Cichorium spinosum L. plants were grown under saline conditions in order to evaluate chemical composition and bioactive compounds content of their leaves. Salinity increase resulted in significant changes of macro and micro-nutrients content (nutritional value, sugars, fatty acids, minerals, ascorbic acid and tocopherols), whereas the concentration of phenolic compounds was not significantly affected. Chicoric and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid were the most abundant phenolic acids. In contrast, antioxidant activity and mineral composition were beneficially affected by mid-to-high and high salinity levels. In conclusion, C. spinosum can be cultivated under saline conditions without compromising the quality of the final product, especially in semi-arid areas where irrigation water is scarce and/or of low quality due to high content of NaCl (coastal areas or areas where underground water is saline).
... Moreover, the recorded ratios of n6/n3 fatty acids and PUFA/SFA were lower than 4.0 and higher than 0.45, respectively, for all the tested treatments, thus indicating a high nutritional value for the edible leaves of Cichorium species [49]. Regarding the particular effect of the tested treatments on fatty acid composition, C322 had the highest content of PUFA (79.2%), which could be associated with the highest tocopherol content observed for this treatment and its protective role against lipid oxidation and the regulation of unsaturated fatty acid metabolism [50], whereas the lowest SFA and MUFA were recorded for the same treatment. ...
Article
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Cichorium spinosum L. is a perennial wild edible plant that is usually found near the coasts of the Mediterranean basin. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of the fertilization regime on the growth and chemical profile of pot-grown C. spinosum plants, as well as the effect of extraction protocol (aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts on bioactive properties). For this purpose, plants were fertilized via a nutrient solution that differed in the amounts (mg/L) of N:P:K, e.g., 100:100:100 (C111), 200:100:100 (C211), 200:200:200 (C222), 300:100:100 (C311), 300:200:200 (C322), and 300:300:300 (C333) mg/L of N:P:K, as well as a control treatment with no fertilizer added (C0). The fertilization regime had a beneficial effect on the growth parameters of spiny chicory, while it improved its nutritional value, as indicated by the polyunsaturated (PUFA)/saturated (SFA) ratio being higher than 0.45 and the omega-6 (n-6)/omega-3 (n-3) ratio being lower than 4.0. Seven phenolic compounds were detected, including two phenolic acids and five flavonoids, while a varied composition was recorded depending on the fertilization regime and the extraction protocol. In regards to the studied bioactive parameters, antioxidant activity was significantly affected by the applied fertilizers and the extraction protocol, while there was no significant effect on the cytotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and anti-inflammatory activity. The antimicrobial properties of C. spinosum showed varying trends depending on the bacterial strain, the fertilization regime, and the extraction protocol, whereas we recorded the extracts’ weak antifungal activity against the studied fungi. In conclusion, even though the fertilization of C. spinosum plants had beneficial effects on growth and nutritional value, a significant effect of the extraction protocol on the chemical profile and bioactivities of the edible leaves was also recorded, indicating the application of tailor-made fertilization regimes combined with the most suitable extraction method for the achievement of high-quality final products.
... Later in 1996, a study concerning fatty acid percentage contents in edible wild plants was undertaken treating different plants; Beta maritima L., Cakile maritima Scopoli, Portulaca oleracea L., Amaranthus viridis L., Chenopodium album L., Sonchus oleraceus L. and Stellaria media Villars, Crithmum maritimum L., Malva sylvestris L., Parietaria diffusa Mert., Pichris echioides L., Rumex crispus L., Salicornia europaea L., Sisymbrium irio L., Sonchus oleraceus L., Sonchus tenerrimus L., Stellaria media Villars, and Verbena officinalis L. In this study, some of these mentioned plants scored the presence of EPA and DHA. The content in EPA in these different plants went from 0 to 0.9 g/100 g, the content of DHA went from 0 to 2.3 g/100 g [56], however, this present study showed that the content in EPA and DHA in argan tree leaves is considered very important compared with other plants, and what make it more interesting is that argan tree is an evergreen tree with no valorized leaves. ...
Article
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Argan trees are normally endemic to Morocco and Algeria, but hundreds of argan trees exist in Tunisia, some introduced from Morocco and some from unknown origins. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the genetic, morphological, and biochemical diversity of the argan trees in Tunisia. In this study, we used morphometric data collected from vegetative tissue, as well as pomological characteristics related to fruits, stones, and kernels. Genetic variation in 60 trees of Tunisian Argania spinosa L. was estimated using inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs). Mutation screening and genotyping by high-resolution melting (HRM) was performed to detect delta-6-desaturase (D6D) variants in the tested individuals, and finally fatty acid analysis of argan leaves with gas chromatography (GC) was performed. The plant materials used in this study originated from four different sites in Tunisia. Analysis of morphological characteristics showed large variability both within and between the studied collections. The analysis of ISSR polymorphisms gave information about the diversity within and between populations. HRM analysis showed that all 60 argan individuals were grouped into 10 different categories. The results of the gas chromatography analysis showed that the presence of omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA was noticeable in some argan leaves.
... PUFA were the most abundant class of fatty acids in all the tested materials, mainly due to the high content of linoleic and α-linolenic acids, followed by saturated (SFA) and MUFA (Table 2). Moreover, the ratio of PUFA/SFA and n6/ n3 were higher than 0.45 and lower than 4.0, respectively for all the tested materials indicating a high nutritional value (Guil, Torija, Giménez, & Rodriguez, 1996). Seed oils obtained with HE and CE1 methods showed lower n6/n3 ratio values due to the higher content in α-linolenic acid comparing to CE2 method. ...
Article
In the present study, nutritional value, chemical composition and bioactive properties of purslane seeds, seed oils and seedcakes wereexamined. Data were analyzed by a one-way ANOVA, while means were compared with Tukey's HSD test. For seed oil extraction mechanical and ultrasound assisted methods were tested. Cold extraction methods (CE1 and CE2) resulted in higher oil yield (increased by 33.7% and 38.1%, respectively) comparing to hot extraction (HE) method. Seeds contained the highest amount of fats and energy (15.03 ± 0.06 g/100 g dry basis (db) and 459 ± 1 kcal/100 g db, respectively), while seedcakes from CE2 had the highest content in proteins and ash (31.20 ± 0.03 and 4.27 ± 0.06 g/100 g db, respectively). Seeds and seedcakes contained a balanced content of linoleic and α-linolenic acids (33.80-34.74% and 32.83-34.64%, respectively). HE and CE1 oils had slightly higher amounts of α-linolenic (39.67% and 39.57%, respectively) than linoleic acid (35.44% and 35.13%, respectively), whereas CE2 oils contained twice as much linoleic as α-linolenic acid (49.77% and 24.18%, respectively). In conclusion, the tested materials are good sources of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids and proteins, while extraction method affected oil yield and fatty acids composition of seed oils.
... Among the plants making up the present pasture community, C. intybus and U. urens may contribute towards an increased intake of carotenoids (Guil et al., 2003;Horsted et al., 2006), whereas M. sylvestris and U. urens may improve the α-linolenic acid intake (Guil et al., 1996;Guil et al., 2003). C. intybus has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-hypercholesteolemic properties (Saeed et al., 2015), the consequence of its containing a number of beneficial compounds (Shad et al., 2013). ...
Article
The aim of the present work was to examine the influence of access to pasture in an outdoor housing system on rooster sperm quality and response to cryopreservation and to examine the possible correlation between values for sperm quality variables and welfare indicators. Two groups of Black-barred An-daluza and Red-barred Vasca roosters were housed in an outdoor system, with one group given daily access to a grazing area containing plant species that typically grow on uncultivated Mediterranean land. Semen was collected once per week from each group, and the following sperm quality variables were assessed: sperm volume, appearance, concentration, motility, membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, and morphological abnormalities. In addition, two welfare indicators were examined: the heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio, and the duration of tonic immobility (TI). Ejaculates from the birds with access to pasture had higher percentages of sperm showing progressive motility (P = 0.019), and returned a higher motility index (P = 0.035). Unexpectedly , the H/L ratio was also higher in these birds. Virtually no differences were seen between the treatment groups with respect to sperm quality after freezing-thawing, although the semen of the Red-barred Vasca birds with access to pasture did show a higher percentage of progressive motility (P = 0.023) than the birds of the same breed with no such access. Significant correlations were detected between the H/L ratio and sperm motility (r = 0.420, P = 0.038), the sperm motility index (r = 0.526, P = 0.002), and progressive motil-ity (r = 0.467, P = 0.003). No differences were seen between the treatment groups with respect to the duration of TI. In conclusion, access to pasture improved fresh sperm motility.
... Because of its content, purslane is one of the richest plant sources for human nutrition [4]. Sow-thistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.) is also appreciated as an ingredient with a level of lipids higher than that in common vegetables [5]. ...
... On the other hand, the values of the n6/n3 ratio were below 4.0 when plants were grown under water deficit conditions, as well as in fully irrigated plants treated with the XS treatment, due to the increase in linoleic and under these conditions. This parameter is also important for the nutritional value of tomato fruit, and deficit irrigation could be a useful tool to improve the quality of fruit in a sustainable manner [60]. ...
Article
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of three biostimulant products (Nomoren (N), Twin Antistress (TW), x-Stress (XS) and control treatment (C: no biostimulants added)) on the nutritional value, chemical composition and bioactive properties of greenhouse tomato fruit grown under full (W+: 100% of field capacity) and deficit irrigation (W-: 70% of field capacity) conditions. Fat content was the highest for the fully irrigated plants that received no bi-ostimulants (CW+), while proteins and carbohydrates and energetic value were the highest in the XSW+ treatment. The content of the main detected sugars (fructose, glucose and trehalose) varied depending on the irrigation and biostimulant treatment. The highest amounts of individual and total organic acids and tocopherols were recorded in fully irrigated plants treated with Twin Antis-tress (TW), whereas the lowest overall values were observed under deficit irrigation for plants that received the XS treatment. The most abundant fatty acids were palmitic (27.5-36.0%) and linoleic acid (27.4-35.4%), followed by oleic (9.2-21.2%), linolenic (5.4-13.1%) and stearic acid (5.3-6.8%). Moreover, the highest values of β-carotene and lycopene were recorded for the CW-and NW+ treatments , respectively. The TWW+ showed the highest antioxidant activity for both assays tested (TBARS and OxHLIA). Most of the tested extracts showed lower antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria compared to the positive controls. On the other hand, CW+, XSW+ and XSW-treatments showed higher antifungal activity (MIC values) than positive controls. In conclusion, each biostimulant product had a different effect on the determined characteristics depending on the level of irrigation. Therefore, more research is needed to better identify the mechanisms of action and the physiological processes, after which the tested biostimulants may be used to standardize the application of such products in tomato cultivation.
... The main fatty acids present in fresh S. ramosssima are palmitic, linoleic, and linolenic acids, with a predominant amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (58.40 g/100 g), mainly linolenic acid (33.50 g/100 g) ( Table 1), and results are in accordance to data previously published [7,43,44]. The PUFA n-6/PUFA n-3 ratio was 0.72 in the lipophilic fraction of fresh S. ramosissima and corresponded, in this study, to the ratio of linoleic/linolenic acids. ...
Article
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Salicornia ramosissima J. Woods is a halophyte plant recognized as a promising natural ingredient and eventually a salt substitute (NaCl). However, its shelf-life and applicability in several food matrices requires the use of drying processes, which may impact in its nutritional and functional value. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of oven and freeze drying on the nutritional composition, volatile profile, phytochemical content and bioactivity of S. ramosissima, using several analytical tools (LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS, GC-MS) and bioactivity assays (ORAC, HOSC, ACE inhibition and antiproliferative effect on HT29 cells). Overall results show that the drying process changes the chemical com-position of the plant. When compared to freeze drying, the oven drying process had a lower impact on the nutritional composition, but the phytochemical content and antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Despite this, oven dried and freeze dried samples demonstrated similar antiproliferative (17.56 mg/mL and 17.24 mg/mL) and antihypertensive activities (24.56 mg/mL and 18.96 mg/mL), respectively. The volatile composition was also affected comparing fresh and dried plants and between both drying processes: while for freeze dried sample terpenes corresponded to 57% of the total peak area, a decrease to 17% was observed for the oven dried sample. The oven dried S. ramosissima was selected to formulate a ketchup, and the product formulated with 2.2% (w/w) of oven dried plant showed a good consumer acceptance score. These findings support the use of dried Salicornia ramosissima as a promising functional ingredient that can eventually replace the use of salt.
... Good sources of n-3 fatty acids were fish, seafood and plant oils. Previous studies have been reported that edible vegetables such as mint (Pereira and Sinclair, 2001), purslane (Liu et al, 2000) and vervain (Guil, Torija, Gimenezn and Rodriguez, 1996) content high percentage of n-3 fatty acids. Wild plants including vegetables and seeds consumption have long been considered to have health benefits mainly due to vitamins, minerals and phytonutrients, various studies had been done in Thailand to assess the nutrients. ...
... Interestingly, it has been previously proposed that plant sources do not contain the long chain n-3 PUFA EPA, DPA, and DHA due to lack of appropriate enzyme machinery for producing them from ALA and LA, yet Guil et al. have reported the presence of low amounts of both EPA and DHA in several natural plants [30], which was also recently observed in tea PL bioactives [23] but also in the ACBP-derived PL bioactives assessed in the present study and in the PL bioactives of apple products (apple juice and cider) from the same apple varieties (Jonagold, Dabinett, and Aston Bitter) [7], while apple-derived rhamnogalacturonan II, the most structurally complex segment of the 10% of apple pectin, and its unusual sugar-based compounds have also been reported to contain DHA as determined by GC-MS of their trimethylsilyl-esters O-methyl glycosides [31]. ...
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The valorization of food industry by-products as sources of bioactive compounds is at the forefront of research in functional foods and nutraceuticals. This study focuses on bioactives of apple cider by-products (ACBPs) with putative cardio-protective properties. Total lipids (TLs) were extracted from ACBPs of apple varieties that are low (ACBP1), medium (ACBP2), and high (ACBP3) in tannins and were further separated into polar lipids (PLs) and neutral lipids (NLs). The functionality of these lipid extracts and of their HPLC-derived lipid fractions/PL subclasses were assessed in vitro against human platelet aggregation induced by the thrombotic and inflammatory platelet agonists platelet-activating factor (PAF) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). The fatty acid profile of PLs and their most bioactive lipid fractions were evaluated by GC–MS analysis. The PL extracts exhibited higher specificity against the PAF-induced platelet aggregation compared to their anti-ADP effects, while TL and NL showed lower bioactivities in all ACBPs. HPLC analysis unveiled that the most bioactive PL from all ACBPs were those in PL fraction 3 containing phosphatidylcholines (PCs). PLs from all ACBPs and their PC bioactives were rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and especially in the essential omega-6 (n-6) linoleic acid (LA) and omega-3 (n-3) alpha linolenic acid (ALA), with favorably low values of the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio, thus providing a rationale for their higher anti-inflammatory bioactivities. Within this study, highly bioactive PL compounds with strong anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet properties were identified in ACBPs, which can be potentially utilized for producing cardio-protective functional foods and/or nutraceuticals.
... In addition, the plantain is a carrier of mammalian enzymesproteases and organic acids. Thus, the acid complex of plantain leaves is represented by: fumaric, oxalic (31-103 mg%) [4], tartaric (1.60-1.87%), citric (1.22-1.53%), ...
... Total saturated fatty acids (SFA) concentration was 159.82 mg/100 g, w/w, with the main constituent being palmitic acid (108.75 mg/100 g, w/w). For a nutritional "good quality", including beneficial effects in terms of cardiovascular risk reduction, the PUFA/SFA ratio should be > 0.45, whilst n-3/n-6 fatty acids ratio should be > 4 [35]. In the present study, the PUFA/SFA ratio was 2.52 and the n-3/n-6 fatty acids ratio was 5.76. ...
Article
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Crepis vesicaria subsp. taraxacifolia (Cv) of Asteraceae family is used as food and in traditional medicine. However there are no studies on its nutritional value, phenolic composition and biological activities. In the present work, a nutritional analysis of Cv leaves was performed and its phenolic content and biological properties evaluated. The nutritional profile was achieved by gas chromatography (GC). A 70% ethanolic extract was prepared and characterized by HLPC-PDA-ESI/MSn. The quantification of chicoric acid was determined by HPLC-PDA. Subsequently, it was evaluated its antioxidant activity by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods. The anti-inflammatory activity and cellular viability was assessed in Raw 264.7 macrophages. On wet weight basis, carbohydrates were the most abundant macronutrients (9.99%), followed by minerals (2.74%) (mainly K, Ca and Na), protein (1.04%) and lipids (0.69%), with a low energetic contribution (175.19 KJ/100 g). The Cv extract is constituted essentially by phenolic acids as caffeic, ferulic and quinic acid derivatives being the major phenolic constituent chicoric acid (130.5 mg/g extract). The extract exhibited antioxidant activity in DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays and inhibited the nitric oxide (NO) production induced by LPS (IC50 = 0.428 ± 0.007 mg/mL) without cytotoxicity at all concentrations tested. Conclusions: Given the nutritional and phenolic profile and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, Cv could be a promising useful source of functional food ingredients.
... ppm. Unsaturated fatty acids are highly represented in wild plants and a significant amount of ω3 and ω6 series was previously reported in Crithmum maritimum leaves 19,20 . Several signals characterized the region between 3.5 and 4.6 ppm (Fig. 2b). ...
Article
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is nowadays the sixth cause of tumour-related deceases worldwide, estimated to become the third in Western countries by 2030. New drugs for HCC treatment still have many adverse effects. Several lines of evidence indicate that plant metabolites offer concrete opportunities for developing new therapeutic strategies for many diseases, including cancer. We previously reported that ethyl acetate extract of a spontaneous edible plant harvested in Apulia, Crithmum maritimum , significantly inhibited cell growth in HCC cells. By ¹ H-NMR spectroscopy, here we show that Crithmum maritimum ethyl acetate extract counteracts the Warburg effect, by reducing intracellular lactate, inhibits protein anabolism, by decreasing amino acid level, and affects membrane biosynthesis by lowering choline and phosphocholine. Also, we observed an effect on lipid homeostasis, with a reduction in triglycerides, cholesterol, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and diunsaturated fatty acids (DUFA), and an increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Taken together, these data demonstrate that Crithmum maritimum -induced cytostasis is exerted through a multi-effect action, targeting key metabolic processes in HCC cells. Overall, our findings highlight the role of Crithmum maritimum as a promising tool for the prevention and the improvement of the therapeutic options for HCC and other types of tumours.
... (adapted from Guil et al., 1996) α-linolenic acid -18:3 ω-3 32.60 ...
... This fatty acids profile is typical in various wild edible greens, which are a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids with are highly associated with significant beneficial health effects [31,46,48,[59][60][61]. Moreover, PUFA/SFA and n6/n3 ratios were within the recommended range that suggests good nutritional value [22,62], regardless of the nitrogen level and time of harvest. This result further supports our previous findings that suggested that C. raphanina subsp. ...
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertigation (0, 200, 400, and 600 ppm of total nitrogen) and harvesting time (9 March 2018 and 19 April 2018) on the plant growth, chemical composition, and bioactive properties of Centaurea raphanina subsp. mixta plants. The highest yield of fresh leaves was observed for the treatment of 200 ppm of N without compromising nutritional value. The increasing nitrogen levels resulted in an increase of α-and total tocopherols and sugars content, especially in the second harvest for tocopherols and in the first harvest for sugars. Similarly, total organic acids and oxalic acid content increased with increasing nitrogen levels in both harvests, while fatty acids composition had a varied response to the tested factors. Pinocembrin neohesperidoside and pinocembrin acetyl neohesperidoside isomer II were the most abundant phenolic compounds with the highest content being observed in the control treatment of the first and second harvest, respectively. The highest antioxidant activity was observed for the control and the 600 ppm treatments of the second harvest for the OxHLIA and TBARS assays, respectively, probably due to the high content of pinocembrin acetyl neohesperidoside isomer II and α-tocopherol, respectively. Finally, cytotoxic effects and antimicrobial properties showed a varied response depending on the treatment. In conclusion, C. raphanina subsp. mixta has low requirements of nitrogen to achieve the highest yield, while a varied response to the tested fertigation treatments and harvesting time was observed in terms of the chemical composition and the bioactive properties.
... The result of fatty acid compositions was similar to that reported in the study of (Petropoulos et al., 2017). The ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids (PUFA/SFA) ranged from 1.14 to 1.21, implying TA B L E 1 Proximal composition, total phenolic (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and in vitro antioxidative activities of ROS and SEOS flour high nutritional value (Guil, Torija, Giménez, & Rodríguez, 2009). While the amount of n-3 fatty acids was dramatically lower than that of n-6 fatty acids, which is typical for most vegetable oils. ...
Article
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Health‐conscious consumers are increasingly interested in gluten‐free (GF) foods. Raw okra seed (ROS) flour and steam‐exploded okra seed (SEOS) flour were explored for developing GF cookies with high nutritional values and in vitro enzymatic digestion. Results indicated that the steam explosion exhibited significant effects on enhancing the release of dietary fibers and lipids in okra seed flour at moderate explosion pressure. Although steam explosion caused the loss of flavonoid compounds, moderate high explosion pressure enhanced the release of total phenolics ranged from 294.57 to 619.07 mg GAE/100 g DM with significantly improved DPPH• radical scavenging activity (from 18.78% to 67.34%) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (from 13.37% to 149.04%). The rapidly digestible starch (RDS) content in GF cookies decreased with increasing steam explosion severity, whereas slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) contents significantly increased from 36.91% to 40.92% and from 2.50% to 9.06%, respectively. Steam explosion is an effective technique for enhancing the release of nutrients like dietary fiber and total phenolics, and okra seed flour, especially SEOS flour, can be alternative choices to provide food functional materials for developing various GF food products.
... Similarly, according to Saini et al. [72], the fatty acid profile showed a significant variation during the maturation process, and linoleic acid increased at the red maturity stage whereas oleic acid decreased. Moreover, the PUFA/SFA ratio was higher than 0.45 with all the studied treatments, indicating good nutritional value, whereas the ratio of n6/n3 fatty acids was higher than 4.0 regardless of the fertilizer regime, which, according to the literature, should be lower than 4.0 to indicate good nutritional quality [100,101]. Caprylic acid (C8:0); capric acid (C10:0); lauric acid (C12:0); tridecylic acid (C13:0); myristic acid (C14:0); pentadecylic acid (C15:0); palmitic acid (C16:0); palmitoleic acid (C16:1); margaric acid (C17:0); stearic acid (C18:0); oleic acid (C18:1n9); linoleic acid (C18:2n6c); α-linolenic acid (C18:3n3); arachidic acid (C20:0); 11-eicosenoic acid (C20:1); eicosadienoic acid (C20:2); eicosatrienoic acid (C20:3n3); heneicosylic acid (C21:0); eicosapentaenoic acid (C20: 5n3); behenic acid (C22:0); erucic acid (C22:1n9); docosadienoic acid (C22:2); tricosylic acid (C23:0); lignoceric acid (C24:0); SFA: saturated fatty acids; MUFA: monounsaturated fatty acids; PUFA: polyunsaturated fatty acids; n6/n3: omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids; C: control; CF: conventional fertilizer; SR: slow release nitrogen fertilizer; CFZ: conventional fertilizer + zeolite; M: sheep manure. Mean values in the same row followed by different letters are significantly different at p < 0.05 according to Duncan's multiple range test (DMRT). ...
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In this study, we evaluated the effect of various fertilization regimes on processing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Heinz 3402) yield and quality by applying the following treatments: (i) control (C), (ii) conventional fertilizer (21-0-0, N-P-K) (CF), (iii) slow release nitrogen fertilizer 46-0-0 (SR), (iv) conventional fertilizer (21-0-0, N-P-K) + Zeolite (CFZ), and v) composted sheep manure (M). The results of the study showed that the SR and CFZ treatments resulted in the highest fruit yield per hectare compared to the rest of the fertilizer and the control treatments. Fruit firmness was higher for the treatments C, M and SR, while color parameters (chroma and hue angle) were higher for the C and M treatments, respectively. Moreover, the total soluble solids content (TSS; °Brix) was higher when manure (M) was applied. In terms of chemical composition, the total and individual tocopherols and sugars were the highest for the M and C treatments, respectively, whereas the oxalic, malic and total organic acid contents were the highest for the CFZ treatment. Moreover, the tested treatments showed a varied response in different antioxidant assays, although the M treatment exhibited a high antioxidant capacity in most of the assays, except for the β-carotene/linoleate assay. The carotenoid and chlorophyll contents were the highest for the control treatment. The main detected fatty acid was linoleic acid, followed by palmitic, oleic and α-linolenic acid, while the CFZ treatment had the highest content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) due to its high content of linoleic acid. In conclusion, although the application of fertilizers increased yield, the quality parameters and chemical composition showed a varied response to the fertilization regime, especially the TSS content and juice pH and electric conductivity (EC), which are significant for the marketability of the final product.
... The increased content of the main fatty acids under saline conditions in the first harvest could be associated with the increased tocopherols content (see Table 3) which can protect lipids from oxidative degradation [14,81,82]. However, apart from the individual fatty acids content, the ratios of PUFA/SFA and n6/n3 fatty acids also show valuable information regarding the nutritional value of the species, where it seems that moderate and high salinity (S1 and S2) resulted in PUFA/SFA and n6/n3 ratios associated with better quality in regards to the fatty acids composition compared with the rest of the treatments [40,83]. Wild edible greens are considered a good source of health beneficial compounds such as n-3 fatty acids, therefore, the suggestion of simple cultivation practices that may improve their nutritional value is of major importance for the domestication of these species and their inclusion in human diet on a regular basis. ...
Article
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The aim of this report was to study the effect of salinity (control: 2dS/m, S1: 4 dS/m and S2: 6 dS/m) and harvest time (first harvest on 9 May 2018 and second harvest on 19 April 2018) on the growth and the chemical composition of Centaurea raphanina subsp. mixta plants. The plants of the first harvest were used for the plant growth measurements (fresh weight and moisture content of leaves, rosette diameter, number and thickness of leaves), whereas those of the second harvest were not used for these measurements due to the flowering initiation, which made the leaves unmarketable due to their hard texture. The results of our study showed that C. raphanina subsp. mixta plants can be cultivated under mild salinity (S1 treatment) conditions without severe effects on plant growth and yield, since a more severe loss (27.5%) was observed for the S2 treatment. In addition, harvest time proved to be a cost-effective cultivation practice that allows to regulate the quality of the final product, either in edible form (first harvest) or for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical purposes as well as antimicrobial agents in food products. Therefore, the combination of these two agronomic factors showed interesting results in terms of the quality of the final product. In particular, high salinity (S2 treatment) improved the nutritional value by increasing the fat, proteins and carbohydrates contents in the first harvest, as well as the tocopherols and sugars contents (S1 and S2 treatments, respectively) in the second harvest. In addition, salinity and harvest time affected the oxalic acid content which was the lowest for the S2 treatment at the second harvest. Similarly, the richest fatty acid (α-linolenic acid) increased with increasing salinity at the first harvest. Salinity and harvest time also affected the antimicrobial properties, especially against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Trichoderma viride, where the extracts from the S1 and S2 treatments showed high effectiveness. In contrast, the highest amounts of flavanones (pinocembrin derivatives) were detected in the control treatment (second harvest), which was also reflected to the highest antioxidant activity (TBARS) for the same treatment. In conclusion, C. raphanina subsp. mixta plants seem to be tolerant to medium salinity stress (S1 treatment) since plant growth was not severely impaired, while salinity and harvesting time affected the nutritional value (fat, proteins, and carbohydrates) and the chemical composition (tocopherols, sugars, oxalic acid, fatty acids), as well as the bioactive properties (cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties) of the final product.
... Simopoulos (2004) have reported that consumption of wild greens could benefit health by reducing the risk of various chronic diseases, since they contribute to a low n-6/n-3 fatty acids diet. According to Guil, Torija, Gim enez, and Rodriguez (1996), PUFA/SFA ratio must be higher than 0.45 and n-6/n-3 ratio lower than 4.0 for a better nutritional value, which was the case for all the evaluated ecotypes of the present study. The fact that n-6/n-3 ratios of other leafy vegetable salads that are widely consumed in the Mediterranean were higher than those of our study, indicates the high nutritional value of C. spinosum (Kaliora et al., 2015). ...
Article
Wild edible greens have been consumed as leafy vegetables throughout the centuries by many rural communities within the Mediterranean basin. In the present study, the nutritional profile and chemical composition of various Cichorium spinosum L. ecotypes was evaluated. For this purpose, ten ecotypes of C. spinosum collected in situ, grown in pots or purchased by retail supermarkets were examined. Nutritional value showed a great variation between the studied ecotypes for all the assessed parameters, whereas significant differences were observed between wild and cultivated ecotypes, as well as between conventionally cultivated and organic products. In terms of fatty acid composition, the conventionally grown ecotype had the highest nutritional value, as expressed by polyunsaturated fatty acids/unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA/SFA) and omega-6/omega-3 (n-6/n-3) fatty acids ratios. In conclusion, considering the differences between ecotypes, grown conditions and cultivation systems observed in this study, the selection of ecotypes with high nutritional value and their incorporation in commercial cultivation systems could allow for further exploitation of C. spinosum.
Article
Sanguisorba minor Scop. is a perennial plant native in the Mediterranean region which exhibits several medicinal activities. In the present study, plant growth, chemical composition, antitumor and antimicrobial properties of S. minor plants were evaluated under different growing conditions. In particular, plants were grown in different substrates, namely: (A) peat, (B) peat: perlite (1:1) and (C) peat: perlite (2:1). The dry weight of the aerial parts and roots was higher for peat treatment (A), whereas plant growth was severely affected in peat:perlite (1:1) treatment (B). The main detected sugars were fructose and glucose, while oxalic acid and citric acid were the main detected organic acids. Growth substrate and plant part also had an impact on composition of phenolic compounds, while roots contained significantly higher amounts of phenolic compound than the aerial parts. Moreover, plant extracts exhibited antiproliferative activity against four tumor cell lines (HeLa, HepG2, MCF-7 and NCI-H460) and a primary culture of porcine liver cells (PLP2), as well as significant antimicrobial properties. In conclusion, S. minor presented significant bioactive properties, while growth substrates affected nutritional value, chemical composition, antitumor and antimicrobial properties of the species which could be probably attributed to higher phenolic compounds content and different composition in phenolic compounds. Therefore, although the species is commonly found in the Mediterranean region it is underexploited yet and plant tissues could be a potential source of natural bioactive compounds with further use in pharmaceutical and medicinal applications.
Article
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of fruit size on nutritional value, chemical composition and antioxidant properties of Mediterranean okra genotypes. For this purpose, pods from four okra cultivars and local landraces commonly cultivated in Greece, as well as pods from four commercial cultivars from North America were collected at two sizes (3–5 and >7 cm). Significant differences were observed between the studied genotypes for both nutritional value and chemical composition parameters. Small fruit had a higher nutritional value, whereas chemical composition differed in a genotype dependent manner with most of the studied cultivars showing better results when harvested in small size. In conclusion, fruit size has a genotype dependent impact on chemical composition and nutritional value of okra pods and the common practice of harvesting okra fruit while they still have a small size helps to increase nutritional value for most of the studied genotypes.
Article
Excessive dietary sodium (salt) intake is a primary cause of high blood pressure and, consequently, a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The World Health Organization wants to reduce the current sodium mean intake of approximately 4 g/d by half. Bread is commonly consumed and a major source of sodium. Therefore, reducing sodium content in bread would bring important economic and public health benefits. Thus, the goal of this paper is to provide an overview of the role of salt in bread manufacturing, summarize already tested reduction strategies, and explore glasswort (Salicornia ramosissima J. Woods) as a salt substitute. Some alternatives to the sodium additives often used in the bread-making process are also suggested. For this, an extensive literature review was carried out. Overall, salt reduction in bread, while maintaining product quality, is difficult to accomplish due to its multifunctional role in the bread-making process. Several strategies have been tried so far, with only partial success. Consequently, the use of glasswort (S. ramosissima J. Woods) as salt substitute shows great potential. However, other research is still needed to safely implement it in the baking industry. On the other hand, the reduction of salt alone is not the complete answer, and the replacement of sodium-based additives also needs to be considered to effectively lower sodium consumption.
Chapter
The use of wild greens as food is as old as civilization. Many have been consumed through the generations, but in the last century changes in life style have lead to the loss of a vast part of this knowledge. Since the 20th century many strategies have been followed to revalorize the nutritional potential of wild greens for improving the quality of modern diets. In this chapter, scientific literature on nutrient and bioactive compound content in wild vegetables traditionally eaten all over the has been reviewed. Also, the implications of wild greens consumption for human health and the possible toxicity of some wild plants are discussed. Wild greens are a valuable tool to improve the health status of populations by providing fiber, vitamins (folates, vitamin C, provitamin A), and minerals (K, Ca Fe, Mn) in both developed and developing countries.
Article
The present work details the nutritional and chemical compositions of borage and centaurea, at three flowering stages. Water was the main constituent, followed by total dietary fiber. Both flowers showed statistically different (p < 0.05) nutritional and chemical profiles, although in both, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (mainly linoleic and α-linolenic acids), free sugars (3.9–28.9% dw as fructose, glucose, and sucrose), tocopherols (with the major contribution of α-tocopherol from 1.24 to 2.75 mg/100 g dw), carotenoids (0.2–181.4 mg/100 g dw, mainly as lutein), and organic acids (6.1–14.4 g/100 g dw, mainly malic, succinic, and citric acids) were quantified. Concerning flowering, significant differences (p < 0.05) were found for some components, particularly carotenoids; however, no specific trend was observed in either of the two flower species. Thus, the present study shows that each flower species, as well as their flowering stages, may have different phytochemical and nutritional compositions.
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The study aims to identify the fatty acid composition in Prinsepia utilis seeds collected from diverse populations of Western Himalaya, India. The seeds contained higher saturated fatty acid (SFA- 43.09%; Average of all populations) followed by polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA - 29.57%) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA - 25.53%), however variations among growing populations was measured. The correlation analysis reveals a significant (p < 0.05) negative connection between 10-Octadecenoic acid methyl ester (FA1), and altitude. Edaphic factors like available nitrogen showed significantly (p < 0.05) but the negative correlation with cis-11-Eicosenoic acid, methyl ester (FA10; p < 0.001), Docosanoic acid, methyl ester (FA11; p < 0.05), Heptadecanoic acid, methyl ester (FA14; p < 0.05), and Tricosanoic acid, methyl ester (FA29; p < 0.05). Antioxidant activity did not show any variation in the seed oil of different populations but varied among the concentrations (5-50 µL) used. IC50 values of DPPH activity was significantly (p < 0.05) varied connect ranged from 11.31-24.21 µL/mL among the different populations. These variations in fatty acid composition and IC50 values of the DPPH activity can be one of the indicators for selecting a promising population that would be harnessed for its potential in nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals industries.
Chapter
This chapter presents 38 monographs about 41 selected wild edible plants traditionally consumed in different countries of the Mediterranean basin: Allium ampeloprasum, Anchusa azurea, Apium nodiflorum, Arbutus unedo, Asparagus acutifolius, Beta marítima, Borago officinalis, Bryonia dioica, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Chenopodium album, Chondrilla juncea, Cichorium intybus, Crataegus monogyna, Crithmum maritimum, Eruca vesicaria, Foeniculum vulgare, Humulus lupulus, Malva sylvestris, Montia fontana, Myrtus communis, Papaver rhoeas, Plantago lanceolata, Plantago major, Portulaca oleracea, Prunus spinosa, Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum, Rubus ulmifolius, Rumex acetosa, R. papillaris, R. pulcher, Scolymus hispanicus, Silene vulgaris, Silybum marianum, Smilax aspera, Sonchus asper, S. oleraceus, Tamus communis, Taraxacum officinale, T. obovatum, Urtica dioica, and Ziziphus lotus. These monographs have two parts. The first part consists of a botanical and graphical description of the species and a resume of ethnobotanical data registered in the Mediterranean countries for this edible plant. The second part supplies food composition data for each species, covering the main constituents, vitamins and other bioactive compounds as well as fatty acids profile, based on scientific literature data.
Article
The present study aimed to evaluate the nutritional and bioactive potential of four edible flowers (borage, centaurea, camellia, and pansies). Significant differences were observed among the four. Water was the main constituent (>76%, fresh weight - fw). Linoleic and palmitic acids were the major fatty acids found in borage and red and yellow pansies, while in camellia it was the arachidic acid. In white pansies, behenic and arachidic acids were predominant. Concerning vitamin E, α-tocopherol was the major vitamer. Carotenoids values varied between 5.8 and 181.4 mg β-carotene/100 g dry weight (dw) in centaurea and borage, respectively, being particularly rich in lutein. Malic acid was the major organic acid, except in centaurea, where succinic acid was predominant. Fructose, glucose and sucrose were detected in all flowers. These results can contribute to the knowledge of these edible flowers and consequently increase their popularity among consumers and in the food industry.
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Methods currently in use for the quantitative measurement of fatty acids by gas-liquid chromatography after transesterification are usually lengthy and cumbersome. The technique described is a one-step reaction that is carried out in the same tube and bypasses all the extraction and purification steps. Recoveries of fatty acid and triglyceride standards (C6:0 to C24:1) were better than 96%. When the direct transesterification method was compared to the Folch extraction procedure, increases of fatty acid concentration of 11.4% and 15.8% were observed in human milk and adipose tissue, respectively. The method appears to be particularly advantageous for the recovery of the highly volatile medium chain triglycerides and there is no need to add an antioxidant to protect unsaturated lipids.
Article
Leaf lipids of 10 members of the Caryophyllaceae contain significant proportions of γ-linolenic and octadecatetraenoic acids. Octadecatetraenoic acid is concentrated mainly in the monogalactosyl diglyceride fraction and γ-linolenic acid in the more polar fraction of Stellaria media.
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The lipid and fatty acid composition of six members of two closely related genera of the Amaranthaceae have been studied using a combination of chromatographic procedures. The total lipids varied between 16.95 and 9.75% dry weight. Of these amounts, the non-polar lipids (mainly triglycerides) represented approximately 90%, while polar lipids (glycolipids and phospholipids) accounted for the remaining percentage. A relatively high degree of unsaturation was found for all lipids due to the dominance of linoleic acid (about 50%). The storage, metabolic, structural, and nutritional functions of the different acyllipids are discussed.
Article
Total lipids and omega-3 fatty acids in purslane(Portulaca oleracea) were determined in leaves, stems and whole plants at three ages. Significant differences (P<0.05) existed in levels of total lipids among ages and between leaves and stems, but no relationship of age to plant part (>O5) was found. Contents of 18:3ω3,20:5ω3, 22:5ω3,22:6ω3,18:2ω6 and 18:loω9 showed that leaves were the richer source of omega-3 acids at each age.
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The fatty acid composition of the diethyl ether extract from nine varieties of Canadian weed seeds is reported. Fatty acid compositions forRumex pseudonatronatus L. Borbus,Setaria viridis L. Beauv., andChenopodium album L. have not been previously reported.
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