Impact of reactive oxygen species on spermatozoa: a balancing act between beneficial and detrimental effects. Hum Reprod 10(Suppl 1):15-21

Urology Research Laboratory, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
Human Reproduction (Impact Factor: 4.57). 11/1995; 10 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):15-21. DOI: 10.1093/humrep/10.suppl_1.15
Source: PubMed


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have beneficial or detrimental effects on sperm functions depending on the nature and the concentration of the ROS involved, as well as the moment and the location of exposure. Excessive generation of ROS in semen, mainly by neutrophils but also by abnormal spermatozoa, could be a cause for infertility. Hydrogen peroxide is the primary toxic ROS for human spermatozoa. Low concentrations of this ROS do not affect sperm viability but cause sperm immobilization mostly via depletion of intracellular ATP and the subsequent decrease in the phosphorylation of axonemal proteins. High concentrations of hydrogen peroxide induce lipid peroxidation and result in cell death. On the other hand, the superoxide anion appears to play a major role in the development of hyperactivation and capacitation. The observations that: (i) exogenously generated superoxide anions induce hyperactivation and capacitation; (ii) capacitating spermatozoa themselves produce elevated concentrations of superoxide anion over prolonged periods of time; and (iii) removal of this ROS by superoxide dismutase prevents sperm hyperactivation and capacitation induced by various biological fluids, stress the importance of the superoxide anion in these processes.

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    • "Excessive levels of ROS in spermatozoa are associated with infertility1234. Oxidative stress is the result of an excessive production of ROS and/or a decrease in the antioxidant defense system[5;6], and may cause serious cell injury and even cell death[6;7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress, the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and antioxidant defenses is associated with male infertility. Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) are antioxidant enzymes with a wide distribution in spermatozoa. PRDX6 is highly abundant and located in all subcellular compartments of the spermatozoon. Infertile men have lower levels of sperm PRDX6 associated with low sperm motility and high DNA damage. In order to better understand the role of PRDX6 in male reproduction, the aim of this study was to elucidate the impact of the lack of PRDX6 on male mouse fertility. Spermatozoa lacking PRDX6 showed significantly increased levels of cellular oxidative damage evidenced by high levels of lipid peroxidation, 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (DNA oxidation) and protein oxidation (S-glutathionylation and carbonylation), lower sperm chromatin quality (high DNA fragmentation and low DNA compaction due to low levels of protamination and presence of high percentage of free thiols) along with decreased sperm motility and impairment of capacitation as compared with WT spermatozoa. These manifestations of damage are exacerbated by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tert-BHP) treatment in vivo. While WT males partially recovered the quality of their spermatozoa (in terms of motility and sperm DNA integrity), Prdx6(-/-) males showed higher levels of sperm damage (lower motility and chromatin integrity) 6 months after the end of treatment. In conclusion, Prdx6(-/-) males are more vulnerable to oxidative stress than WT males, resulting in impairment of sperm quality and ability to fertilize the oocyte compatible with the subfertility phenotype observed in these knockout mice.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Biology of Reproduction
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    • "This work was supported by the by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (30972436 and Figure 6. Proposed mechanism of increased production of ROS by abnormal spermatozoa motility [53]. "
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the mechanism by which nonylphenol (NP) interferes with male infertility through evaluation of its effects on epididymal sperm of adult male rats.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
    • "Induction in ROS generation has been correlated with a reduction of sperm motility.[2829] The link between ROS and reduced motility may be due to a cascade of events that results in a decrease in axonemal protein phosphorylation and sperm immobilization, both of which are associated with a reduction in membrane fluidity that is necessary for sperm oocyte fusion.[30] The reduction in sperm count may be due to the adverse effect of different doses of deltamethrin on spermatogenesis. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Deltamethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used worldwide in agriculture, household pest control, protection of foodstuff, and disease vector control. Although initially thought to be least toxic, a number of recent reports showed its toxic effects in mammalian and non-mammalian animal species. The current study was performed to assess the dose-dependent deltamethrin toxicity on testes, liver, and kidney of male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four rats were divided in four groups of 6 each. Group A served as normal control. Group B, C, and D were administered with different doses (2 or 3 or 6 mg/kg corresponding to 1/30th or 1/20th or 1/10th of LD50, respectively) of deltamethrin for 28 days. Results: Deltamethrin exposure caused a significant reduction in weight of reproductive organs, decrease in sperm count, sperm motility, serum testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormones (FSH), and luteinizing hormones (LH) in testis. Glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were decreased in testis, liver and kidney of exposed rats. Deltamethrin exposure significantly increased sperm abnormalities in testis. Significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) level was observed in testis, liver and kidney. Deltamethrin also caused histological alterations in testes, liver, and kidney. Conclusions: The results indicated that deltamethrin at a dose of 6 mg/kg exerts significant harmful effects on testes, liver and kidney as compare to 2 mg and 3 mg/kg. The study concluded that the system toxicity induced by deltamethrin was dose dependent.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Toxicology International
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