Biological effects of oxysterols: current status. Food Chem Toxicol

Nutrition and Food Science Unit, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, Spain.
Food and Chemical Toxicology (Impact Factor: 2.9). 03/1996; 34(2):193-211. DOI: 10.1016/0278-6915(95)00094-1
Source: PubMed


A review of relevant literature on biological activities of oxysterols (OS) and cholesterol is presented. The data clearly demonstrate manifold biological activities, often detrimental, for OS compared with little or no such activity of a deleterious nature for cholesterol itself. Cholesterol is perhaps the single most important compound in animal tissue and, as such, it is difficult to imagine it as a toxin or hazard. In contrast, OS exhibit cytotoxicity to a wide variety of cells leading to angiotoxic and atherogenic effects; alter vascular permeability to albumin; alter prostaglandin synthesis and stimulate platelet aggregation, an important process facilitating atherosclerosis and thrombosis; alter the functionality of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors, possibly stimulating hypercholesterolaemia; modify cholesteryl ester accumulation in various cells, inducing foam cell formation; and enrich the LDL particle in cholesteryl esters, possibly increasing its atherogenicity. Furthermore, OS are mutagenic and carcinogenic, although some have been studied as antitumour agents based on their cytotoxic properties. Moreover, numerous studies have implicated OS in membrane and enzyme alterations that are interrelated with many of the foregoing effects. The authors find that OS deserve much more attention than cholesterol itself in terms of research activity but that unfortunately the reverse is true with regard to funding.

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    • "On the contrary, the data presented by Mariutti et al. [21] indicated that garlic was not effective in controlling lipid and cholesterol oxidation in chicken meat and accelerated lipid oxidation. Because current findings show that many cholesterol oxides are cytotoxic, atherogenic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic [3] [4] [5], it is important to know more about the formation and inhibition of COPs in muscle foodstuff during treatment and storage. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the influence of ground mustard seed on the concentration of COPs and TBARS value in cooked model pork meat products as well as sensory quality. "
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of ground mustard seed on the formation of cholesterol oxidation products and malondialdehyde was evaluated by comparing their concentration in fresh and stored cooked model pork meat product prepared with addition of two levels of mustard seed and without this flavouring. The sensory quality of product was also determined using quantitative descriptive analysis.Obtained results pointed out that the addition of mustard seed to the composition of cooked model meat products decreased TBARS values. The concentration of cholesterol oxides in model meat product samples was between 5.14 and 30.42 μg/100 g product during 12 days of chilling storage. Results showed that a low amount (0.5%) of ground mustard seed was effective in inhibiting the formation of oxysterols. The highest effectiveness of mustard seed was observed in case of 7-ketocholesterol and 7β-hydroxycholesterol formation. The results of sensory evaluation indicated that mustard seed at the level of 0.2 and 0.5% of model pork products had positive effects on their sensory qualities.The lower concentration of cholesterol oxidation products in the investigated cooked meat product with mustard seed addition at 1 day since the production may be connected with the presence of phenolic compounds generated during heat-treatment of meat product such as canolol.Practical applicationsOxidation processes are one of the major problems encountered in meat processing and storage. The addition of natural antioxidants is a major way to inhibit oxidation processes in meat products. Mustard seeds are excellent source of phenolic compounds which have been reported to show good antioxidant activity. The results of this study support that incorporation of ground mustard into cooked meat product can improve lipid stability and functional value for consumers. Therefore, mustard seed can serve as ingredient in developing healthy meat products.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology
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    • "Hence, they are known to have ten times higher anti-oxidant activity than tocopherol derivatives [8,9]. In addition, γ-oryzanol is a potent inhibitor of cholesterol oxidation [10-12], reduce serum cholesterol levels in animals [13-15], effective in the treatment of inflammatory diseases [16,17], effective in anxiety neurosis and menopausal disorders [18-20], inhibit tumor growth [16,21], helps to lower blood pressure [22] and promotes food storage stability when used as a food additives [23,24]. On the other hand, ferulic acid esters are found in the seeds of grain crops such as rice, wild rice, corn, wheat, rye and barley. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Rice is the staple food and one of the world’s three major grain crops. Rice contains more than 100 bioactive substances including phytic acid, isovitexin, γ-oryzanol, phytosterols, octacosanol, squalene, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), tocopherol, tocotrienol derivatives, etc. Out of them, γ-oryzanol is known to have important biological profile such as anti-oxidants, inhibitor of cholesterol oxidation, reduce serum cholesterol levels in animals, effective in the treatment of inflammatory diseases, inhibit tumor growth, reduce blood pressure and promotes food storage stability when used as a food additive, etc. Hence in the present investigation, we aimed to evaluate the content and composition of γ-oryzanol from pigmented rice germplasms using a liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESI/MS). Findings In the present study, 33 exotic pigmented rice accessions (red, white and purple) have been evaluated. Among them, the contents of γ-oryzanol varied from 3.5 to 21.0Âmg/100Âg with a mean of 11.2Âmg/100Âg. A total of ten components of γ-oryzanol including ∆7-stigmastenyl ferulate were identified of which, cycloartenyl ferulate, 24-methylenecycloartanyl ferulate, campesteryl ferulate and sitosteryl ferulate were identified as the major components. The mean proportions of steryl ferulates were in the descending order of 24-methylenecycloartanyl ferulate > cycloartenyl ferulate > campesteryl ferulate > sitosteryl ferulate > ∆7-campestenyl ferulate > campestanyl ferulate > sitostanyl ferulate > ∆7-stigmastenyl ferulate > stigamsteryl ferulate > ∆7-sitostenyl ferulate. Almost 11 accessions (33%) showed higher content than the control rice Chucheongbyeo and higher proportions ranged from 10 to 15Âmg/100Âg. Interestingly, the red rice accession Liberian Coll. B11/B-11 (21.0Âmg/100Âg) showed higher content γ-oryzanol than control rice Jeokjinjubyeo (19.1Âmg/100Âg) and the purple rice accession Padi Adong Dumarat, Mardi No.4376 (20.3Âmg/100Âg) showed a similar content with control rice Heugjinjubyeo (21.4Âmg/100Âg). Conclusions Most of analyzed rice accessions were found to possess higher contents of γ-oryzanol than the control rice, Chucheongbyeo. In particular, the red accessions showed highest content than the white and purple accessions. The content and composition of γ-oryzanol in 33 exotic pigmented rice accessions have been evaluated and compared significantly by the present investigation.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · BMC Research Notes
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    • "These natural or natural-based compounds have been applied widely in medicinal formulation for their properties of low toxicity and environmental friendly [12]. For example, trans-ferulic acid (1, Figure 1) ubiquitously distributed in primary plant cell walls and crop bran [13] exhibited diverse physiological activities such as reduction of serum cholesterol levels [14], antioxidant properties in several oil models [15], antibacterial [16] and anticancer activity [17], [18]. trans-Cinnamic acid (3, Figure 1) also was found to have allelopathy activity [19], moderate to strong insecticidal activity [20], and a significant inhibitory effect on phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity in wheat seedlings [21]. "
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    ABSTRACT: A series of trans-3-aryl acrylic acids 1-27 and their derivatives 28-34 were prepared and evaluated for their antiviral activity against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) for the first time. The bioassay results showed that most of these compounds exhibited good antiviral activity against TMV, of which compounds 1, 5, 6, 20, 27 and 34 exhibited significantly higher activity against TMV than commercial Ribavirin both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, these compounds have more simple structure than commercial Ribavirin, and can be synthesized more efficiently. These new findings demonstrate that trans-3-aryl acrylic acids and their derivatives represent a new template for antiviral studies and could be considered for novel therapy against plant virus infection.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · PLoS ONE
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