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Abstract

The way in which exercise influences statural, hypertrophic and reparative growth is examined from the perspective of the human lifespan. Statural growth depends on a neuroendocrine programme which channels nutrient energy towards increments in lean body mass. Exercise can facilitate statural growth and is a necessary stimulus for reparative growth through its stimulatory effects on secretion of growth hormone (GH) and other anabolic hormones. An exercise-associated increase in GH secretion is a response to acute or prolonged exercise-induced fuel shortage that directs metabolism towards utilisation of lipids and promotes growth. Exercise can transiently block the expression of statural growth by competitively removing the necessary nutritional support for growth. Statural growth retardation can be corrected by catch-up growth, but stunting may also be permanent (depending on the timing and magnitude of the energy drain). Hypertrophic growth is less dependent on hormonal and nutritional support than statural growth, and exercise provides the necessary mechanical stress for growth and remodelling of the musculoskeletal system. Excessive mechanical strain may suppress hypertrophic growth. The intermittent nature of exercise provides temporal organisation that is necessary for the normal operation of cellular growth process. Exercise by pregnant women does not appear to influence fetal growth. Evaluation of the effect of exercise on growth of children and adolescents is complicated by nonrandom selection of individuals for participation in organised sports, and by lack of information on the magnitude of exercise-induced energy drain. Exercise is essential for regulation of body composition in adulthood. It provides mechanical and metabolic stimuli that are necessary for hypertrophy of the musculoskeletal system and increased GH secretion for reparative growth.
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... El desarrollo económico de nuestro país, especialmente en los últimos 30 años, ha permitido incrementar el tiempo de ocio de las personas, tiempo que se ha orientado, entre otras actividades, hacia la práctica de actividad física y el deporte. En este sentido, es un hecho ampliamente aceptado que la práctica de actividad física es una herramienta fundamental para permitir un crecimiento y maduración adecuado de los diferentes sistemas funcionales del niño [3]. En esta misma línea, parece que la práctica de actividad física sirve como medio de prevención de enfermedades crónicas, degenerativas y cardiovasculares, tanto en jóvenes como en adultos. ...
... There is a common belief that high effort, especially lifting weight might limit longitudinal growth in children and adolescent. However, exercise might positively influence longitudinal growth (Borer, 1995;Hills and Byrne, 2010) and there is no evidence that muscle strengthening activities have a negative impact on growth (Falk and Eliakim, 2003;Malina, 2006;Faigenbaum et al., 2009). In fact, HIMT might be even beneficial, since high intensity activities increase circulating human growth hormone in children and adolescents (Saggese et al., 1987;Nemet, 2008, 2013). ...
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Studies comparing children and adolescents from different periods have shown that physical activity and fitness decreased in the last decades, which might have important adverse health consequences such as body fat gain and poor metabolic health. The purpose of the current article is to present the benefits of high-intensity multimodal training (HIMT), such as CrossFit, to young people, with a critical discussion about its potential benefits and concerns. During HIMT, exercise professionals might have an opportunity to promote positive changes in physical function and body composition in children and adolescents, as well as to promote improvements in mental health and psychosocial aspects. Moreover, this might serve as an opportunity to educate them about the benefits of a healthy lifestyle and overcome the perceived barriers for being physically active. In technical terms, the characteristics of HIMT, such as, the simultaneous development of many physical capacities and diversity of movement skills and exercise modalities might be particularly interesting for training young people. Many concerns like an increased risk of injury and insufficient recovery might be easily addressed and not become a relevant problem for this group.
... On the other hand, it is accepted that increased physical activity and musculoskeletal stress are important for promoting growth in children (D. A. Bailey et al., 1978, K. T. Borer, 1995. Moreover, children's involvement in sport training might provide particular long-term health benefits (e.g., stimulation of bone growth and density may ameliorate the risk of future skeletal diseases) (T. ...
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