The Epidemiology of Vibrio Infections in Florida, 1981–1993

Epidemiology Program, Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Tallahassee, USA.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 6). 06/1996; 173(5):1176-83. DOI: 10.1093/infdis/173.5.1176
Source: PubMed


The epidemiology of 690 Vibrio infections reported in Florida during 1981–1993 is described. Most infections resulted in one of three clinical syndromes:
gastroenteritis (51%), wound infections (24%), or primary septicemia (17%). Case-fatality rates were 1% for gastroenteritis,
5% for wound infections, and 44% for primary septicemia. While gastroenteritis had little seasonal variation, 91% of primary
septicemias and 86% of wound infections occurred from April through October, mostly due to the seasonality of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections. Infected wounds were largely a result of occupational activities around seawater. Some 68% of gastroenteritis
cases and 83% of the primary septicemias were associated with raw oyster consumption. Preexisting liver disease was present
in 48% of patients with primary septicemia and was associated with a fatal outcome in both wound infections (relative risk
[RR], 28.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.3–127.5; P < .0001) and primary septicemia (RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2–3.1; P < .01).

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    • "Numerosas infecciones humanas asociadas con Vibrio cholerae no O1 se han reportado mundialmente . Entre ellas se encuentran gastroenteritis, septicemia, bacteriemia, meningitis, infecciones en heridas y oído, especialmente después del consumo de alimentos marinos crudos o mal cocidos o el contacto con el agua de mar (Fernández et al., 2000; Hlady y Klontz, 1996). De ahí la importancia de considerar su presencia en las aguas estudiadas, principalmente las de aguas de consumo y las recreativas. "

    Full-text · Dataset · Mar 2014
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    • "Vibrio and Aeromonas are well known waterborne organisms that cause NSTI with high mortality through infection of patients with chronic illnesses, especially in the liver. Careful history taking concerning seawater exposure or fish stings [38] with liver or spleen dysfunction is the key to narrowing down the candidate organism. "
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    ABSTRACT: Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) are fulminant infections of any layer of the soft tissue compartment associated with widespread necrosis and systemic toxicity. Delay in diagnosing and treating these infections increases the risk of mortality. Early and aggressive surgical debridement with support for the failing organs significantly improves the survival. Although there are different forms of NSTIs like Fournier's gangrene or clostridial myonecrosis, the most important fact is that they share common pathophysiology and principles of treatment. The current paper summarizes the pathophysiology, clinical features, the diagnostic workup required and the treatment principles to manage these cases.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013
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    • "Therefore, the actual role of this micro-organism in the etiology of the wound infection remains unclear, with a role as colonizing bacterium being equally likely as a role as (secondary) pathogen. While mixed infections with P. damselae and V. parahaemolyticus or V. alginolyticus have been mentioned in the literature [2], the case reported here, presenting as a mixed infection of P. damselae with V. harveyi, is to the best of our knowledge the first one reported in the literature. Since the patient denied having taken antibiotics following the initial hospital visit it is likely that the isolated microorganisms were those solely accountable for the infection. "
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    ABSTRACT: Marine microorganisms are uncommon etiologies of skin and skin structure infections, that is, wound infections. We report a case of severe wound infection, caused by the marine Photobacterium damselae (Vibrionaceae), in a 64-year-old male patient, returning from Australia. The isolate tested positive for pPHDD1, a plasmid conferring high-level virulence. Furthermore, the wound was coinfected with Vibrio harveyi, a halophile bacterium, which has never been reported from human infections before. Identification was achieved by use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) and confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing. Data retrieval from bibliography was complicated since P. damselae has been renamed often with a number of synonyms present in the literature: Photobacterium damsela, Vibrio damselae, Vibrio damsela, Pasteurella damselae, and Listonella damsela. With all synonyms used as query terms, a literature search provided less than 20 cases published worldwide. A majority of those cases presenting as severe wound infection are even fatal following progression into necrotizing fasciitis. Management with daily wound dressing and antibiotic therapy (ofloxacin empirically, followed by doxycycline after availability of microbiology) led in the reported case to a favorable outcome, which seems to be, however, the exception based on a review of the available literature.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Case Reports in Medicine
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