Watson MA, Fleming TPMammaglobin, a mammary-specific member of the uteroglobin gene family, is overexpressed in human breast cancer. Cancer Res 56: 860-865

Department of Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.33). 03/1996; 56(4):860-5.
Source: PubMed


In this report, we describe a novel cDNA isolated from a primary human breast adenocarcinoma and differentially expressed in several breast carcinoma cell lines. The protein encoded by this cDNA, which we have named mammaglobin, is homologous to a family of secreted proteins that includes rat prostatic steroid-binding protein subunit C3, human Clara cell 10-kilodalton protein, and rabbit uteroglobin. Expression of the mammaglobin gene is restricted to the adult mammary gland. More significantly, in an analysis of 35 breast tumor biopsies, mammaglobin mRNA levels were increased at least 10-fold relative to normal breast tissue in 23% of cases. The breast-specific expression of this potentially secreted protein and its frequent overexpression in primary human breast tumors suggest that mammaglobin may be a novel marker for the management of breast cancer.

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    • "Mammaglobin B protein expression in breast cancers was observed at high frequency independent of stage and grade of the tumor or histology. The upregulated mRNA expression of mammaglobin has been described in 70–80% of primary and metastatic breast tumor biopsies (Watson and Fleming, 1996; Leygue et al., 1999). Furthermore, it has been used as a marker to detect circulating mammary carcinoma cells in peripheral blood using RT-PCR in women but it has yet not been studied in canine subjects. "
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    ABSTRACT: Mammaglobin is a glycoprotein exhibiting homology to uteroglobin gene family. Although the biological function of the protein is not yet known it has been reported to act as marker for breast cancer in women. This study reports the expression of mammaglobin gene in canine mammary tumor condition. The gene was cloned, sequenced and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli host system as 12. kDa (approx.) recombinant fusion protein. The expressed protein was further purified to homogeneity and confirmed by western blotting. Hyperimmune sera were raised against the expressed protein in rabbits and mice to standardize sandwich ELISA for relative quantification of circulating protein in the sera of dogs with mammary tumors. Based on receiver-operating characteristics analysis, the test was found to be 90% sensitive and 95% specific for a cut-off value of 0.177 with respect to histopathological staining in diagnosing canine mammary tumors and the protein level was not elevated in other diseased conditions. These findings indicate that it can act as a novel molecular marker for detecting mammary tumors in canines.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Research in Veterinary Science
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    • "This type of cancer is the leading cause of death in women aged between 35 and 64 years; therefore, several studies have evaluated the specific markers of breast tissue as potential molecular markers for the detection of circulating tumor cells (CTC) [5]. The mammaglobin A gene (MGA) was identified in 1996 by Watson and Fleming [6]; this gene has a length of approximately 4500 bp, and comprises three exons and two introns. The mRNA sequence corresponding to this gene is 503 bp long, and contains a 273 bp isoform. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Mammaglobin A (MGA), mainly expressed in the breast epithelium, is overexpressed in breast cancer, and has been established as a tumor and promissory marker for the early detection of metastasis. Aim: The main aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the presence of the MGA transcript in the peripheral blood of Brazilian breast cancer patients and healthy women and the development of breast cancer and tumor progression. Material and methods: The expression of the MGA transcript in peripheral blood of 102 breast cancer patients and 102 healthy women was assessed by RT-PCR. Results: MGA mRNA was expressed in the peripheral blood of 39 breast cancer patients and in none of the women from the control group. The presence of MGA was significantly associated with presence of metastasis and age at onset after 60years. The presence of MGA mRNA in peripheral blood displayed a sensitivity of 38.2%, specificity of 100.0%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 100.0%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 61.8% as a breast cancer marker. Conclusion: This study provides additional evidence of the presence of MGA in the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients, and its applicability as an efficient biomarker for breast cancer (High specificity and PPV). To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the expression of MGA mRNA in peripheral blood obtained from the Brazilian population.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
    • "In preliminary attempts at determining the clinical utility of mammaglobin as a breast tumour marker, Watson and Fleming27 found that mammaglobin mRNA expression was multiplied by at least 10-fold when compared to normal breast tissue, using RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis, whereas by immunohistochemistry, they detected hMAG in 91 per cent of the breast cancer cases, independent of stage and histological type35. Similarly, a number of subsequent studies described the detection of mammaglobin at high levels in primary breast cancers, while it was either undetectable in non-breast tumours or present at low levels in healthy breast tissue, but not in other tissues, making it a suitable candidate for diagnosis of breast cancer3738394041424344. "
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    ABSTRACT: Human mammaglobin is a member of the uteroglobin proteins family that has recently been tested as a specific marker for breast cancer. While low levels may be seen in normal breast tissue, expression is increased dramatically in breast cancer and is correlated with higher grade. Detection in blood and body fluids is also correlated with cancer metastasis, and its levels with prognosis. This promises to be a useful screen for early detection of breast cancer, especially in high risk individuals. Mammoglobin has also been used for immunotherapeutic targeting of breast cancer cells. However, there are some controversies regarding its diagnostic efficacy and prognostic value, which warrant further study.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · The Indian Journal of Medical Research
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