Inhalation anesthetics: Desflurane and sevoflurane
Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, University of Chicago, IL 60637, USA. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
(Impact Factor: 1.19).
12/1995; 7(7):564-77. DOI: 10.1016/0952-8180(95)00129-8
This article reviews the physico-chemical properties and performance characteristics of the two new potent inhaled anesthetics, desflurane and sevoflurane. Both drugs provide a greater degree of control of anesthetic depth and a more rapid immediate recovery from anesthesia than is currently available with other inhaled agents because of their decreased solubility. Desflurane is currently in widespread clinical use in the United States and parts of Europe. Compared with sevoflurane, it has the additional advantage of being extremely resistant to degradation and biotransformation. However, its pungent odor and tendency to irritate the respiratory tract make it unsuitable for inhalational inductions, and it has been linked to CO production in CO2 absorbents. The sympathetic nervous system activation that occurs with desflurane limits its use in patients with cardiac disease. Otherwise, its hemodynamic and physiologic effects are similar to those seen with isoflurane. Studies of the economics of using desflurane are mixed, although it may offer the advantage of shorter postoperative recovery time. Sevoflurane is currently in widespread clinical use in Japan and parts of South America. The FDA Advisory Panel has recently recommended approval of sevoflurane in the United States, and we can expect the drug to be clinically available in the United States in the second quarter of 1995. Compared with desflurane, sevoflurane has the additional advantage of being nonirritating to the airway; inhalational induction of anesthesia with sevoflurane is achieved rapidly and easily. The instability of sevoflurane with CO2 absorbents and its in vivo biotransformation produce potentially toxic byproducts. These byproducts, including Compound A and fluoride, have been extensively studied, and although the possibility for iatrogenic sequelae from sevoflurane exists, the likelihood of long-term toxicity appears quite low. Phase IV studies are indicated to determine the safety of administering sevoflurane (1) to renally impaired patients and (2) to any patient with fresh gas flows less than 2 L/min. Sevoflurane is otherwise very well tolerated and appears to offer the advantage of rapid and smooth induction and emergence from general anesthesia.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "Sevoflurane has many advantages such as pleasant odor, no pungency, and bronchodilating effect, while desflurane does not have these qualities.10 However, the concern about the nephrotoxicity of sevoflurane exists still.19 "
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Although there is no clinical evidence of nephrotoxicity with the volatile anesthetics currently used in general anesthesia, a better agent should be needed in terms of preserving postoperative renal function in living kidney donors who have only single remaining kidney. The purpose of the current retrospective, single-center study was to evaluate and compare renal function of living kidney donors after nephrectomy under either sevoflurane or desflurane anesthesia.
Materials and Methods
From January 2006 through December 2011, a total of 228 donors undergoing video assisted minilaparotomy surgery nephrectomy for kidney donation were retrospectively enrolled in the current study. The donors were categorized into a sevoflurane group or desflurane group based on the type of volatile anesthetic used. We collected laboratory data from the patients preoperatively, immediately after the operation, on the first postoperative day and on the third postoperative day. We also compared renal function of the kidney donors after donor nephrectomy by comparing creatinine level and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).
The decrease in renal function after surgery in both groups was the most prominent on the first postoperative day. There were no significant differences between the two groups in postoperative changes of creatinine or eGFR.
Sevoflurane and desflurane can be used safely as volatile anesthetics in donors undergoing nephrectomy.
Available from: Ayse Topal
- "It has emerged as the most promising agent for inhalation induction in human patients [12,1]. Due to its low blood solubility (its blood/gas partition coefficient is 0.68), induction and emergence are rapid [13,14,1,4]. Sevoflurane has a pleasant, non-pungent odour which permits a smooth and rapid induction by inhalation; it has made mask induction more attractive [12,1]. "
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ABSTRACT: The effects of sevoflurane or isoflurane on arterial blood gas, arterial oxyhaemoglobin saturation and end-tidal CO2 tension were monitored during induction and maintenance of anaesthesia in 10 premedicated New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits.
For induction, the anaesthetic agents were delivered via a face-mask. After induction was completed, an endotracheal tube was introduced for maintenance of anaesthesia for a period of 90 minutes. Changes in heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood gas, arterial oxyhaemoglobin saturation, blood pH and end-tidal CO2 tension were recorded. Although sevoflurane and isoflurane produce similar cardiopulmonary effects in premedicated rabbits, sevoflurane provides a smoother and faster induction because of its lower blood/gas partition coefficient. Thus sevoflurane is probably a more suitable agent than isoflurane for mask induction and maintenance. Its lower blood solubility also makes sevoflurane more satisfactory than isoflurane for maintenance of anaesthesia because it allows the anaesthetist to change the depth of anaesthesia more rapidly.
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