ArticleLiterature Review

Primate Phylogeny: Morphological vs Molecular Results

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Abstract

Our comparative study of morphological (our data on selected living primates) and molecular characters (from the literature) confirms that, overall, phylogenetic reconstructions of Primates, and consequently their classifications, are more similar than dissimilar. When data from fossil Primates are incorporated, there may be several possible relationships among living Primates; the difference between most of them hinges mainly on the position of Tarsius. In one hypothesis, tarsiers are closely related to lemurs and lorises, and thus Primates is divided into Prosimii [lorises, lemurs, and tarsiers] and Anthropoidea [Platyrrhini and Catarrhini, i.e., monkeys, apes, and humans]. Two additional alternatives are that Tarsius is a sister group to the clade embracing lorises + lemurs and Anthropoidea and that in which all three lineages (Tarsius, lorises + lemurs, and Anthropoidea) form a polychotomy. In another hypothesis, tarsiers are closely related to anthropoids, giving these two branches: Strepsirhini [lemurs, lorises] and Haplorhini [tarsiers and Anthropoidea (Platyrrhini, the New World monkeys, and Catarrhini, Old World monkeys and Hominoidea)]. The first three alternatives gain some support from the fossil record, and the fourth from morphology of the living Tarsius and molecular data. It is emphasized that the morphological characters employed in this study for Tarsius are based on the only surviving genus of once-diverse tarsiiform primates known from the Eocene, and, although considered a "living fossil," it cannot represent all of them. Furthermore, Tarsius embodies derived features of its own which may affect its systematic position, but not necessarily the position of Tarsiiformes. Although the early Tertiary adapoids might have more nearly resembled anthropoids in their biochemistry and placental developments, this hypothesis is not testable from fossils, and any inferred relationships here must be based on characters of skeletal anatomy. Alternatively, anthropoids may be derived from certain omomyids or from some as yet undiscovered Eocene African taxon. Close relationships among Homo, Pan, and Gorilla have been confirmed during recent decades; Pongo is the sister group to this trichotomy. With increasing molecular data, Homo and Pan appear to be closer to each other than to any other living hominid taxon. Gorilla is a sister group to the Homo-Pan clade and Pongo is a sister group to all of them. Morphologists have given limited evidence for such a dichotomous grouping. In this study, we support the Homo-Pan clade, although with characters not as strong as for other clades.

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... Moreover, most phylogenetic analyses of primates seem to focus on either hard (e.g., Wible and Covert 1987;Swindler 2002) or soft tissue data (e.g., Gibbs et al. 2002;Diogo and Wood 2012), whereas less studies put stronger emphasis on an integrative approach (e.g., Williams et al. 2010). Last but not least, the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis merging extensive hard and soft tissue data that I am aware of already dates back 20 years (Shoshani et al. 1996). ...
... I will delineate character evolution down to the level of more peripheral branches for Hominoidea (apes and humans). In order to carve out evolutionary changes (evolutionary novelties, derived character states, apomorphies, also autapomorphies or synapomophies) that emerged in the primate stem lineage, I will additionally take into account plesiomorphic character states (plesiomorphies) in the closer phylogenetic relatives of primates, i.e., flying lemurs (Dermoptera), treeshrews (Scandentia), and rodents (Rodentia, part of Glires) (e.g., Springer et al. 2004;Godinot 2007;Janecka et al. 2007; see also Shoshani et al. 1996;Diogo and Wood 2012). The accent will be put on crown taxa, whereby a crown taxon encompasses the last common ancestor (LCA) of a group of living (extant) species plus all living and extinct descendants of this LCA (Wible and Covert 1987). ...
... Finally, I apologize to all whose contributions could not be included for reasons of space limitation. For additional contributions, I refer to the literature given in Dagosto (1988), Martin (1990), Beard (1993), Shoshani et al. (1996), Diogo and Wood (2012), and Fleagle (2013). ...
Article
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Molecular analyses of the last decades helped solving the major open questions on the external and internal phylogenetic relationships of primates. The present review uses these data for the inference of character evolution along the branches of the primate tree. Altogether, more than 200 evolutionary changes in hard and soft tissue anatomy/morphology, behavior, physiology, and protein constitution are presented in the context of their functional relevance and adaptive value. The compilation focuses on primates as a whole and on the higher-ranked primate subtaxa with living representatives: Strepsirhini: Lorisiformes, Galagidae, Lorisidae, Lemuriformes; Haplorhini: Tarsioidea, Anthropoidea, Platyrrhini, Atelidae + Cebidae, Atelidae, Cebidae, Aotinae, Callithrichinae, Cebinae, Pitheciidae, Pithecinae, Catarrhini, Cercopithecoidea, Cercopithecinae, Colobinae, Colobini, and Hominoidea. Within Hominoidea character evolution is traced down to more peripheral branches: Hylobatidae, Hominidae, Pongo, Homininae, Gorilla, Pan + Homo, Pan, and modern humans. Character states in extinct representatives of Plesiadapiformes, Omomyoidea, Propliopithecidae, Hominini, etc. are always taken into account; they are presented in detail whenever character-state distribution in living species is ambiguous or misleading. The taxonomic sample and the characters included combine to a phylogenetic system that illustrates primate evolution and diversity. The data presented additionally provide a detailed picture of the evolutionary steps and trends involved in hominization. Reflections on the frequently underestimated role of polymorphisms in phylogenetic analyses complete the survey.
... Given that vessel-and nerve-related characters are soft-tissue traits, this rationale might potentially apply to the carotid canal as well. A few previous studies have included carotid canal features in character-taxon matrices devised for cladistic analysis, focusing on the position of the carotid foramen in the bulla as well as on the overall direction and orientation of the canal itself (Beard and MacPhee, 1994;Ross, 1994;Shoshani et al., 1996;Ross et al., 1998;Kay et al., 2008;Alba et al., 2015b). These studies aimed at resolving phylogenetic relationships among higher-rank primate clades (Beard and MacPhee, 1994;Ross, 1994;Shoshani et al., 1996;Ross et al., 1998;Kay et al., 2008) and/or deciphering the phylogenetic relationships of particular fossil taxa (Ross et al., 1998;Kay et al., 2008;Alba et al., 2015b). ...
... A few previous studies have included carotid canal features in character-taxon matrices devised for cladistic analysis, focusing on the position of the carotid foramen in the bulla as well as on the overall direction and orientation of the canal itself (Beard and MacPhee, 1994;Ross, 1994;Shoshani et al., 1996;Ross et al., 1998;Kay et al., 2008;Alba et al., 2015b). These studies aimed at resolving phylogenetic relationships among higher-rank primate clades (Beard and MacPhee, 1994;Ross, 1994;Shoshani et al., 1996;Ross et al., 1998;Kay et al., 2008) and/or deciphering the phylogenetic relationships of particular fossil taxa (Ross et al., 1998;Kay et al., 2008;Alba et al., 2015b). Nonetheless, some of them found differences between platyrrhines and catarrhines, as well as among some catarrhine groups. ...
... For both angles, the standard reference vector corresponds to a 2D vector parallel to the anteroposterior cranial axis (from posterior to anterior), in lateral view for 2DYZA and in superior view for 2DXYA (Fig. 3). Aligning the carotid canal on the basis of petrosal/tympanic landmarks instead of the cranium as a whole enables the analysis of fragmentary fossils and has several advantages (see SOM S1 for further details), while being consistent with previous studies (Beard and MacPhee, 1994;Ross, 1994;Shoshani et al., 1996;Ross et al., 1998;Kay et al., 2008;Alba et al., 2015b) that assessed carotid foramen locations relative to the bulla instead of general cranial axes or planes. Volume and length The volume (V, in mm 3 ) of the 3D canal surfaces was computed using the module 'Surface Area Volume' in Avizo. ...
Article
The small-bodied Miocene catarrhine Pliobates cataloniae (11.6 Ma, Spain) displays a mosaic of catarrhine symplesiomorphies and hominoid synapomorphies that hinders deciphering its phylogenetic relationships. Based on cladistic analyses, it has been interpreted as a stem hominoid or as a pliopithecoid. Intriguingly, the carotid canal orientation of Pliobates was originally described as hylobatid-like. The variation in carotid canal morphology among anthropoid clades shown in previous studies suggests that this structure might be phylogenetically informative. However, its potential for phylogenetic reconstruction among extinct catarrhines remains largely unexplored. Here we quantify the orientation, proportions, and course of the carotid canal in Pliobates, extant anthropoids and other Miocene catarrhines (Epipliopithecus, Victoriapithecus, and Ekembo) using three-dimensional morphometric techniques. We also compute phylogenetic signal and reconstruct the ancestral carotid canal course for main anthropoid clades. Our results reveal that carotid canal morphology embeds strong phylogenetic signal but mostly discriminates between platyrrhines and catarrhines, with an extensive overlap among extant catarrhine families. The analyzed extinct taxa display a quite similar carotid canal morphology more closely resembling that of extant catarrhines. Nevertheless, our results for Pliobates highlight some differences compared with the pliopithecid Epipliopithecus, which displays a somewhat more platyrrhine-like morphology. In contrast, Pliobates appears as derived toward the modern catarrhine condition as the stem cercopithecid Victoriapithecus and the stem hominoid Ekembo, which more closely resemble one another. Moreover, Pliobates appears somewhat derived toward the reconstructed ancestral hominoid morphotype, being more similar than other Miocene catarrhines to the condition of great apes and the hylobatid Symphalangus. Overall, our results rule out previously noted similarities in carotid canal morphology between Pliobates and hylobatids, but do not show particular similarities with pliopithecoids either—as opposed to extant and other extinct catarrhines. Additional analyses will be required to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of Pliobates, particularly given its dental similarities with dendropithecids.
... Homo sapiens 2 Marshall and Tanner (1986); Hayssen et al. (1993); Shoshani et al. (1996); Parent et al. (2003); Einspanier and Gore (2005); ...
... Pan troglodytes 1 Hayssen et al. (1993); Shoshani et al. (1996) Pan paniscus 1 Shoshani et al. (1996) Gorilla gorilla 1 Hayssen et al. (1993); Shoshani et al. (1996); Breuer et al. (2009) Gorilla beringei 1 Shoshani et al. (1996); Breuer et al. (2009) Pongo pygmaeus 1 Hayssen et al. (1993); Shoshani et al. (1996) Pongo abelii 1 Shoshani et al. (1996) Hylobates lar 1 Geissmann (1991); Rowe (1996); Shoshani et al. (1996); Reichard and Barelli (2008) Hoolock hoolock 1 Hayssen et al. (1993); Rowe (1996); Shoshani et al. (1996); Sati and Alfred (2001) 1 Geissmann (1991); Shoshani et al. (1996) Papio anubis 0 Hayssen et al. (1993); Rowe (1996); Shoshani et al. (1996); Einspanier and Gore (2005) Theropithecus gelada 0 Hayssen et al. (1993) Mandrillus sphinx 0 Wickings and Dixson (1992); ; Setchell et al. (2006a) Macaca mulatta 0 Hayssen et al. (1993); Rowe (1996); Shoshani et al. (1996); Einspanier and Gore (2005); Thierry (2006) Macaca fuscata 0 Hayssen et al. (1993); Shoshani et al. (1996); Einspanier and Gore (2005); Thierry (2006) Erythrocebus patas 0 Hayssen et al. (1993); Rowe (1996); Kappeler et al. (2003); Einspanier and Gore (2005) Chlorocebus aethiops 0 Hayssen et al. (1993); Rowe (1996); Bolter and Zihlman (2003); Bolter (2011) Semnopithecus entellus 0 Hayssen et al. (1993); Rowe (1996); Shoshani et al. (1996); Einspanier and Gore (2005) Alternative character version using binary coding: ...
... Pan troglodytes 1 Hayssen et al. (1993); Shoshani et al. (1996) Pan paniscus 1 Shoshani et al. (1996) Gorilla gorilla 1 Hayssen et al. (1993); Shoshani et al. (1996); Breuer et al. (2009) Gorilla beringei 1 Shoshani et al. (1996); Breuer et al. (2009) Pongo pygmaeus 1 Hayssen et al. (1993); Shoshani et al. (1996) Pongo abelii 1 Shoshani et al. (1996) Hylobates lar 1 Geissmann (1991); Rowe (1996); Shoshani et al. (1996); Reichard and Barelli (2008) Hoolock hoolock 1 Hayssen et al. (1993); Rowe (1996); Shoshani et al. (1996); Sati and Alfred (2001) 1 Geissmann (1991); Shoshani et al. (1996) Papio anubis 0 Hayssen et al. (1993); Rowe (1996); Shoshani et al. (1996); Einspanier and Gore (2005) Theropithecus gelada 0 Hayssen et al. (1993) Mandrillus sphinx 0 Wickings and Dixson (1992); ; Setchell et al. (2006a) Macaca mulatta 0 Hayssen et al. (1993); Rowe (1996); Shoshani et al. (1996); Einspanier and Gore (2005); Thierry (2006) Macaca fuscata 0 Hayssen et al. (1993); Shoshani et al. (1996); Einspanier and Gore (2005); Thierry (2006) Erythrocebus patas 0 Hayssen et al. (1993); Rowe (1996); Kappeler et al. (2003); Einspanier and Gore (2005) Chlorocebus aethiops 0 Hayssen et al. (1993); Rowe (1996); Bolter and Zihlman (2003); Bolter (2011) Semnopithecus entellus 0 Hayssen et al. (1993); Rowe (1996); Shoshani et al. (1996); Einspanier and Gore (2005) Alternative character version using binary coding: ...
... the skull conveys a strong phylogenetic signal, which is traditionally used for systematic analyses (for instance, see Cartmill, 1994;Fleagle, 1999;Kay et al., 1997;MacPhee and Cartmill, 1986;Shoshani et al., 1996); the skull houses the masticatory apparatus, the brain and the major sense organs; skull morphology is expected to reflect various functional adaptations that are of interest for evolutionary studies; the skull is a 3D biological structure with many quantifiable features of interest, and homologous locations; thus, it is possible to conduct comparative analyses using 3D geometric morphometric methods. ...
... In primates, as in other groups, the skull yields information that is widely used for phylogenetic analysis. The morphology of the skull supports the division of primates into two monophyletic suborders, the Strepsirrhini and the Haplorrhini (Fleagle, 1999;Kay et al., 1997;MacPhee and Cartmill, 1986;Shoshani et al., 1996). For instance, the extant representatives of the Haplorrhini suborder, Tarsius and the anthropoids, share unique cranial features among primates in the orbital region (Cartmill, 1994;Kay et al., 1997;Le Gros Clark, 1959; see also 2.1); all primates possess a post-orbital bar, but only Tarsius and the anthropoids have evolved a postorbital septum. ...
... le crâne comporte un signal phylogénétique fort, qui est utilisé dans les analyses de systématique et pour estimer les phylogénies (voir Cartmill, 1994 ;Fleagle, Résumé 1999 ;Kay et al., 1997 ;MacPhee et Cartmill, 1986 ;Shoshani et al., 1996). ...
Thesis
Since Haeckel (1866), the evolutionary modification of ontogeny has been recognized as an important source of morphological innovation. Due to recent advances in developmental genetics and phenotypic analysis, evolutionary developmental (evo-devo) studies have regained considerable interest and led to fundamental changes in our understanding of how ontogeny and phylogeny are related. This thesis investigates the relationship between ontogeny and phylogeny in strepsirrhine primates. The suborder Strepsirrhini, which comprises galagos, lorises and Malagasy lemurs, is thought to have retained most of the ancestral primate condition (as opposed to the suborder Haplorrhini, which comprises tarsiers and anthropoids). Nevertheless, strepsirrhines are highly diverse in their morphology. Here, the focus is on cranial diversity, which is analyzed from a developmental perspective with a new set of geometric morphometric tools. First, patterns of craniomandibular variability in extant adult primates are analyzed. Taking into account the phylogenetic constraints applying to the skull morphology permits a quantification of how dietary specialization and activity patterns influence cranio-mandibular morphology in both primates suborders. Also, the skull morphology in strepsirrhines and haplorrhines is clearly distinct, and it is shown here that differences between and within infraorders can be traced back to differences in developmental modes. According to a hypothesis proposed by Beard (1988), strepsirrhinism” represents the primitive condition of the primate skull. This thesis shows that the cranial morphology of the Omomyidae – a basal haplorrhine taxon comprising the genera Rooneyia, Necrolemur and Microchoerus – is closer to that of extant strepsirrhines than to that of haplorrhines, while the cranial morphology of Tarsius is closer to that of other extant haplorrhines, i.e., the anthropoids. Thus, it is probable that the shift towards a modern haplorrhine morphology occurred in one omomyid lineage, to the exclusion of the three genera mentioned above.New arguments are proposed to support the hypothesis that the cranio-mandibular morphologies of the cheirogaleids and galagids are the least derived from the ancestral condition of toothcombed strepsirrhines. This thesis presents a comparative geometric morphometric analysis of cranio-mandibular development in ten strepsirrhine and two haplorrhine species. Haplorrhines and strepsirrhines differ widely in ontogenetic trajectory direction, length and position. Within the strepsirrhines, divergence between taxon-specific ontogenetic trajectories and allometric grade shifts are more pronounced in lemurs than in lorises. This pattern of evolutionary modification of ontogenetic trajectories is interpreted in the context of the rapid adaptive radiation of lemurs. The last section uses insights obtained from the evolutionary developmental analysis of extant taxa for a comparative analysis of fossil strepsirrhine taxa. The morphologies of extant and extinct strepsirrhines are compared. In particular, the morphology of the skull is well known from two adapiform subfamilies, Adapinae and Notharctinae. Among the adapines, a size increase has occurred in the Leptadapis lineage via a shift in allometric grade, which suggests phyletic gigantism in this genus. Adapiforms exhibit longer ontogenetic trajectories than extant strepsirrhines. A trend toward a shortening of ontogenetic trajectories has occurred in the evolutionary history of strepsirrhines. This can be related to a context of general increase in encephalization within this lineage.
... The results of the first comprehensive cladistic analysis of the higher-level phylogeny of all of the major extent groups of primates (18 genera) that included both molecular characters and a large number of morphology-based characters [28] was consistent with the tree shown in figure 1. The 264 morphology-based characters (mainly compiled from previous data) [29,30] used by Shoshani et al. [28] included some soft-tissue data, but the vast majority of the characters were based on the hard tissue anatomy of various regions of the body. ...
... The results of the first comprehensive cladistic analysis of the higher-level phylogeny of all of the major extent groups of primates (18 genera) that included both molecular characters and a large number of morphology-based characters [28] was consistent with the tree shown in figure 1. The 264 morphology-based characters (mainly compiled from previous data) [29,30] used by Shoshani et al. [28] included some soft-tissue data, but the vast majority of the characters were based on the hard tissue anatomy of various regions of the body. Although Shoshani et al. [28] stressed that their study was the first published report "based on a rigorous maximum parsimony computer analysis of a large data matrix on living Primates" to provide "morphological (cladistic) evidence" for the chimp-human clade, that clade structure was only weakly supported (e.g., their cladistic analysis had a bootstrap support value of just 42 (out of 100)." ...
... The 264 morphology-based characters (mainly compiled from previous data) [29,30] used by Shoshani et al. [28] included some soft-tissue data, but the vast majority of the characters were based on the hard tissue anatomy of various regions of the body. Although Shoshani et al. [28] stressed that their study was the first published report "based on a rigorous maximum parsimony computer analysis of a large data matrix on living Primates" to provide "morphological (cladistic) evidence" for the chimp-human clade, that clade structure was only weakly supported (e.g., their cladistic analysis had a bootstrap support value of just 42 (out of 100)." In particular, the results of the Shoshani et al. [28] analysis supported the monophyly of the clade Haplorrhini (i.e., Tarsius plus anthropoids), as most (but not all) molecular studies do ( Figure 1) but Shoshani et al. [28] noted that various paleontological studies have supported a Tarsius-Strepsirrhini clade. ...
... 8.1). Two examples of the many homologies of the Pan-Homo clade are high encephalization and delayed puberty (Shoshani et al. 1996). 1 The criterion of similarity between species or taxa is determined by the comparison of their characters, which are the attributes of form, structure, or composition that distinguish each ot" them .. For example, comparable characters for primate species may be genetic, such as the location of · a particular gene on a chromosome (Chen and Li 2001), morphological, such as the shape and size of the skull and teeth (Shoshani et al. 1996), or even behavioral, like diet or group size (MacLean et: al. 2012). The variants of those characters' expressions among species, called character states (e.g.; absent/present, long/short, large/small), help determine relatedness. ...
... 8.1). Two examples of the many homologies of the Pan-Homo clade are high encephalization and delayed puberty (Shoshani et al. 1996). 1 The criterion of similarity between species or taxa is determined by the comparison of their characters, which are the attributes of form, structure, or composition that distinguish each ot" them .. For example, comparable characters for primate species may be genetic, such as the location of · a particular gene on a chromosome (Chen and Li 2001), morphological, such as the shape and size of the skull and teeth (Shoshani et al. 1996), or even behavioral, like diet or group size (MacLean et: al. 2012). The variants of those characters' expressions among species, called character states (e.g.; absent/present, long/short, large/small), help determine relatedness. ...
Chapter
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In recent decades, phylogenetic methods originated in evolutionary biology have been put forward as fruitful strategies to trace and reconstruct the origin, development, distribution, and interrelatedness of archaeological artifacts and traditions. Artifact phylogenies are increasingly being used by archaeologists to infer, develop, and test hypotheses about the processes that originate and shape material culture sets, as well as to study the extent and rates of cultural innovation, borrowing, diffusion, convergence, and loss. As an analytical tool, cultural phylogenetics can also be used to test hypotheses about the emergence, change, and exchange of artifact types, thereby allowing researchers to make inferences about temporal and regional behavioral patterns. This chapter will review some basic concepts of evolutionary phylogenetics, discuss its applications in archaeology, and reflect on some of the main challenges and prospects faced by the field.
... Anatomical data cannot completely endorse any of the following three hypotheses: anthropoids derived from the omomyid group (tarsiers), adapid group (lemurs and lorises) or a third group of primitive primates. [32][33][34] Molecular data on the involucrin 35 and epsilon globin genes 36 favour the omomyid theory, the sister grouping of tarsiers and anthropoids as Haplorhini. The insertional events presented here provide support for the aforementioned studies as well as comparative studies of tarsier Alu elements 37 and thus favour the omomyid theory. ...
... Therefore, the deletion scenario is less likely. Nevertheless, Figure 2 The absence of BC200 RNA from all three prosimians (see below) would favor the scenario that Anthropoidea originated from a third group of primitive primates 33,34 or that BC200 RNA arose relatively late, after Anthropoidea split off from their sister group(s). Among Strepsirhini (galago and lemur), as expected from their closer phylogenetic relationship, there are several shared retronuons ( Figure 1: and see Material on our URL http://exppc01.uni-muenster.de/expath/addmat/ ...
Article
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The gene encoding brain-speci®c dendritic BC200 small non-messenger RNA is limited to the primate order and arose from a monomeric Alu element. It is present and neuronally expressed in all Anthropoidea examined. By comparing the human sequence of about 13.2 kb with each of the prosimian (lemur 14.6 kb, galago 12 kb, and tarsier 13.8 kb) orthologous loci, we could establish that the BC200 RNA gene is absent from the prosimian lineages. In Strepsirhini (lemurs and lorises), a dimeric AluJ-like element integrated very close to the BC200 insertion point, while the corresponding tarsier region is devoid of any repetitive element. Consequently, insertion of the Alu monomer that gave rise to the BC200 RNA gene must have occurred after the anthropoid lineage diverged from the prosimian lineage(s). Shared insertions of other repetitive elements favor proximity of simians and tarsiers in support of their grouping into Haplorhini and the omomyid hypothesis. On the other hand, the nucleotide sequences in the segment that is available for comparison in all four species reveal less exchanges between Strepsirhini (lemur and galago) and human than between tarsier and human. Our data imply that the early activity of dimeric Alu sequences must have been concurrent with the activity of monomeric Alu elements that persisted longer than is usually thought. As BC200 RNA gave rise to more than 200 pseudogenes, we used their consensus sequence variations as a molecular archive recording the BC200 RNA sequence changes in the anthropoid lineage leading to Homo sapiens and timed these alterations over the past 35-55 million years.
... Endothermy and high metabolic rate pose hyperthermia risks for mammals ( Kr ol, 2010a, 2010b), which must minimize metabolic heat production and/or heat gain from the environment. Fur or hair to block solar radiation ( Dunbar, 1979;Walsberg, 1988) and behavioral strategies such as sun avoidance ( Roberts and Dunbar, 1991;Hill, 2006;Terrien et al., 2011) nocturnality ( Haim et al., 2006) and postural changes ( Shoshani et al., 1996) are variously employed to minimize environmental heat gain. Endogenous heat production may be minimized through reduction in basal metabolic rate ( Cain et al., 2006), sometimes accomplished via tighter coupling of mitochondrial respiration ( Nicholls and Locke, 1984), either as short-term acclimation or evolutionary adaptation ( Taylor, 2014). ...
... Further, continuously measured variables would provide improved statistical power, though we were unable to quantify the variables in this way. Our semi-quantitative approach using ordered traits are commonly used to build robust primate and hominin phylogenies (e.g., Shoshani et al., 1996;Gibbs et al., 2000), as well as research explaining variation in primate trait diversity ( Plavcan et al., 1995). We gathered climate data (see SOM 4) for each primate species from PanTHERIA ( Jones et al., 2009), including mean temperature, mean annual rainfall, latitude, and actual evapotranspiration (AET). ...
Article
Sweating is an unusual thermoregulatory strategy for most mammals, yet is critical for humans. This trait is commonly hypothesized to result from human ancestors moving from a forest to a warmer and drier open environment. As soft tissue traits do not typically fossilize, this idea has been difficult to test. Therefore, we used a comparative approach to examine 15 eccrine gland traits from 35 primate species. For each trait we measured phylogenetic signal, tested three evolutionary models to explain trait variation , and used phylogenetic models to examine how traits varied in response to climate variables. Phylogenetic signal in traits varied substantially, with the two traits exhibiting the highest values being gland distribution on the body and percent eccrine vs. apocrine glands on the body. Variation in most traits was best explained by an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model suggesting the importance of natural selection. Two traits were strongly predicted by climate. First, species with high eccrine gland glycogen content were associated with habitats exhibiting warm temperatures and low rainfall. Second, species with increased capillarization were associated with high temperature. Glycogen is a primary energy substrate powering sweat production and sodium reabsorption in the eccrine gland, and increased capillarization permits greater oxygen, glucose and electrolyte delivery. Thus, our results are evidence of natural selection for increased sweating capacity in primate species with body surface eccrine glands living in hot and dry climates. We suggest that selection for increased glycogen content and capillari-zation may have been part of initial increases in hominin thermoregulatory sweating capacity.
... Although the trees that we used are considered widely accepted, we acknowledge that there are other phylogenies that might contradict some of the positions in the tree [28,98]. The supertree also reflects discussions on phylogenetic relationships from Strasser & Delson (on Paradolichopithecus and Mesopithecus [99]), Shoshani et al. (on Archaeolemur [100]) and Frost (on Kuseracolobus [101]). Dental eruption sequences exist for two other platyrrhine species that are not included in the analysis, Saguinus nigricollis [102] and S. graellsi [46], but Arnold et al.'s [94] tree did not include them. ...
Article
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Darwinius is an adapoid primate from the Eocene of Germany, and its only known specimen represents the most complete fossil primate ever found. Its describers hypothesized a close relationship to Anthropoidea, and using a Saimiri model estimated its age at death. This study reconstructs the ancestral permanent dental eruption sequences for basal Euprimates, Haplorhini, Anthropoidea, and stem and crown Strepsirrhini. The results show that the ancestral sequences for the basal euprimate, haplorhine and stem strepsirrhine are identical, and similar to that of Darwinius. However, Darwinius differs from anthropoids by exhibiting early development of the lower third molars relative to the lower third and fourth premolars. The eruption of the lower second premolar marks the point of interruption of the sequence in Darwinius. The anthropoid Saimiri as a model is therefore problematic because it exhibits a delayed eruption of P 2. Here, an alternative strepsirrhine model based on Eulemur and Varecia is presented. Our proposed model shows an older age at death than previously suggested (1.05– 1.14 years), while the range for adult weight is entirely below the range proposed previously. This alternative model is more consistent with hypotheses supporting a stronger relationship between adapoids and strepsirrhines.
... The phylogenetic position of tarsiers among primates makes them an important group to examine in the phylogenetic argument since they possess numerous primitive mammalian traits that were subsequently lost in anthropoids (Martin, 1990). Molecular studies, using protein and DNA sequence evidence (Bonner et al., 1980;DeJong and Goodman, 1988;Dijan and Green, 1991;Koop et al., 1989a,b;Miyamoto and Goodman, 1990;Pollock and Mullin, 1987;Porter et al., 1995;Shoshani et al., 1996;Zietkiewicz et al., 1999), lend support to the classification of tarsiers as a sister clade of the anthropoids, both subsumed within the suborder Haplorhini. Additionally, many morphological studies based on derived features support the grouping of tarsiers as haplorhines (Beard et al., 1991;Martin, 1990;Ross, 1994;Szalay et al., 1987). ...
Article
Energy dynamics represent an important interface between an organism and its environment. A variety of factors, including body mass, locomotor strategy, and foraging behavior, determine an animals energy demands. Body mass is the most important determinant in predicting metabolic costs both for resting metabolic rate (RMR; the amount of energy used by an inactive animal under thermoneutral conditions) (Kleiber, 1961) and total daily energy costs (TEE or FMR) (Nagy, 1987; Nagy et al., 1999). The Kleiber (1961) scaling relationship correlates RMR with adult body mass and demonstrates that RMR scales to the three-quarters power of body mass in mammals, from the very small (e.g., mice) to the very large (e.g., elephants). While most mammals have RMRs predicted by body size, certain groups (e.g., marsupials, edentates) deviate significantly from this relationship. Primates as a group do not significantly differ from the mammalian scaling relationship, though there exists a great deal of variation within the order. For example, strepsirrhines differ from other primates in having depressed RMRs from those predicted for their size based on the Kleiber scaling relationship. Although a number of explanations have been offered to explain hypometabolism1 in strepsirrhines, the phenomenon remains enigmatic. At least four hypotheses for strepsirrhine hypometabolism have been proposed: (1) adaptation to arboreal folivory, (2) adaptation to a diet deviant for body size, (3) a thermoregulatory adaptation, and (4) phylogenetic inertia (i.e., hypometabolism is a primitive mammalian trait) (Kurland and Pearson, 1986; Ross, 1992). Since Kurland and Pearsons (1986) review of strepsirrhine2 hypometabolism, RMR has been measured on numerous additional primate species, doubling the available data for strepsirrhines. Additional data are available on diet and ecology in primate species. In this chapter, we examine data on resting metabolic rates from a large sample of primate species to investigate variation in RMRs within the primate order. First, we explore the nature of metabolic variation in strepsirrhines and haplorhines, specifically focusing on strepsirrhine hypometabolism. We then consider whether specific ecological factors, such as folivory, arboreality, or activity cycle (i.e., diurnal or nocturnal), can explain strepsirrhine hypometabolism. After evaluating these proximate explanations, we then examine whether strepsirrhine hypometabolism may be a primitive characteristic shared with other closely related mammalian species. Finally, the implications of primate metabolic variation and strepsirrhine hypometabolism for early primate evolution are addressed.
... Interspecific relationship and divergence dates of the species analyzed here were obtained from Perelman et al. (2011) and Langergraber et al. (2012). Names of the hominid clades follow Shoshani et al. (1996), and are defined as follows: [Pongo/Gorilla/Pan/Homo] ¼ Hominidae (hominids); [Gorilla/Pan/ Homo] ¼ Homininae (hominines or African hominids); [Homo/ Pan] ¼ Hominini (hominins). Using this classification implies that the human clade should be named at a subtribal level as Hominina or homininans (Andrews and Harrison., 2005;Wood, 2010;Harrison, 2010a). ...
Article
The presence of three interconnected auditory ossicles in the middle ear is a defining characteristic of mammals, and aspects of ossicle morphology are related to hearing sensitivity. However, analysis and comparison of ossicles are complicated by their minute size and complex three-dimensional shapes. Here we introduce a geometric morphometric measurement protocol for 3D shape analysis based on landmarks and semilandmarks obtained from μCT images and apply it to ossicles of extant hominids (great apes and humans). We show that the protocol is reliable and reproducible over a range of voxel resolutions, and captures even subtle shape differences. Using this approach it is possible to distinguish the hominid taxa by mean shapes of their malleus and incus (p < 0.01). The stapes appears less diagnostic, although this may in part be related to the small sample size available. Using ancestral state estimation, we show that, within hominids, Homo sapiens is derived with respect to its malleus (short manubrium, long corpus, head anterior-posterior flattened, articular facet shape), incus (wide intercrural curvature, long incudal processes, articular facet shape) and stapes (high stapes with kidney-shaped footplate). H. sapiens also shows a number of plesiomorphic shape traits whereas Gorilla and Pan possess a number of autapomorphic characteristics. The Pongo ossicles appear to be close to the plesiomorphic hominid condition. The malleus shows little difference in size among hominids, and allometry is thus of little importance. In contrast, the incus and stapes are more variable in size, and their shape is more strongly related to size differences. Although the form-function relationships in the middle ear are not fully understood, some aspects of ossicle morphology suggest that interspecific differences in hearing capacities are present among hominids. Finally, the results of this study provide a comparative framework for morphometric studies analyzing ossicles of extinct hominids, with a bearing on taxonomy, phylogeny and auditory function.
... That traditional, premolecular, understanding of how modern humans are related to the other great apes has been superseded by a hypothesis that was initially driven by molecular evidence (Zuckerkandl et al., 1960;Goodman, 1962), but which is now supported by copious genetic, molecular, and morphological evidence. Draft sequences of the nuclear genomes of the chimpanzee (Consortium, 2005), orangutan (Locke et al., 2011), gorilla (Scally, 2012), and bonobo ; better-quality annotated sequences (Gordon et al., 2016); and morphological evidence (Shoshani et al., 1996;Gibbs et al., 2002;Lockwood et al., 2004;Diogo and Wood, 2011) are all consistent with the hypothesis that chimpanzees/bonobos are more closely related to modern humans than they are to gorillas. So the options for what a review of human evolutionary history should cover range from a long version, for example, one that starts c.400 million years ago (Ma) at the base of the major branch of the TOL tree that contains vertebrates with four limbs, to a much shorter version that would begin with the first appearance of modern humans c.200 thousand years ago (ka). ...
Chapter
We briefly review the relationships of modern humans and the great apes before considering the evidence for and against Ardipithecus ramidus, Ardipithecus kadabba, Orrorin tugenensis, and Sahelanthropus tchadensis being the earliest members of the hominin clade. We then describe each of the well-established hominin taxa recognized in a speciose interpretation of the hominin fossil record into five morphological grades, " archaic hominins, " " megadont and hypermegadont archaic homi-nins, " " transitional hominins, " " premodern Homo, " and " anatomically modern Homo " (the grade that includes modern humans). Within each grade we summarize the species and site samples in historical order. We also consider evidence for anagenesis and cladogenesis within the hominin clade. Finally, we summarize currently available estimates for endocranial volume and body mass, two variables particularly relevant for understanding the evolution of the hominin nervous system.
... gorilla). The observed DNA differences among the living apes and modern humans, plus morphological evidence (Shoshani et al., 1996;Gibbs et al., 2002;Lockwood et al., 2004;Diogo and Wood, 2011), are consistent with the hypothesis that chimpanzees/bonobos are more closely related to modern humans than they are to gorillas. If these differences are calibrated using paleontological evidence for the split between the apes and the Old World Monkeys, and if we make the assumption that most of the DNA differences are neutral, this suggests that the hypothetical ancestor of modern humans and chimpanzees/bonobos lived between about 5 and 8 Ma, and probably closer to 5 than to 8 Ma (Bradley, 2008). ...
Article
In this review of the evidence for and against taxic diversity within the hominin clade, we begin by looking at the logic and the history of simple "ladder-like" interpretations of the hominin fossil record. We then look at the hominin fossil record in a series of time intervals and use current published evidence about the first and last appearance dates of each taxon to decide whether a species or specimens should be included in one, or more, of the intervals. Within each time interval, we consider the strength of the evidence that more than one hominin species is sampled. Decisions about whether taxonomic diversity exists depend on what alpha taxonomic hypotheses are used and although we use a relatively speciose interpretation of the hominin fossil record, we also explore what impact more inclusive interpretations of alpha taxonomy would have on assessments of hominin taxic diversity. With the exception of the oldest (7-5 Ma) all of the other time intervals have in our judgment at least one well-supported example of taxic diversity and several have multiple examples. In summary, not all new hominin taxa are created equally, but while taxic diversity may not be as prevalent as some have claimed, it is a feature of the hominin clade from 4 Ma until c.40 ka years ago. Am J Phys Anthropol 159:S37-S78, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... However, the mechanisms underlying the high susceptibility to stress of tree shrew remained unknown. Moreover, the long debate on the evolutionary phylogenetic position of the tree shrew [20][21][22] and the small number of related studies had limited the applications of the tree threw model for studying human diseases. ...
Article
Full-text available
Stress is increasingly present in everyday life in our fast-paced society and involved in the pathogenesis of many psychiatric diseases. Corticotrophin-releasing-hormone (CRH) plays a pivotal role in regulating the stress responses. The tree shrews are highly vulnerable to stress which makes them the promising animal models for studying stress responses. However, the mechanisms underlying their high stress-susceptibility remained unknown. Here we confirmed that cortisol was the dominate corticosteroid in tree shrew and was significantly increased after acute stress. Our study showed that the function of tree shrew CRH-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was nearly identical to human that contributed little to their hyper-responsiveness to stress. Using CRH transcriptional regulation analysis we discovered a peculiar active glucocorticoid receptor response element (aGRE) site within the tree shrew CRH promoter, which continued to recruit co-activators including SRC-1 (steroid receptor co-activator-1) to promote CRH transcription under basal or forskolin/dexamethasone treatment conditions. Basal CRH mRNA increased when the aGRE was knocked into the CRH promoter in human HeLa cells using CAS9/CRISPR. The aGRE functioned critically to form the â €œ Stress promoterâ € that contributed to the higher CRH expression and susceptibility to stress. These findings implicated novel molecular bases of the stress-related diseases in specific populations.
... Gorilla and Homo (Hominidae) are from the early Pliocene. In addition, fossil Propliopithecidae was derived from late Eocene to early Oligocene of Fayûm quarries (Africa), which was one of the earliest members of Hominoidea (Horn et al., 2011;Shoshani et al., 1996). Outgroups. ...
Article
Changes in the palaeoenvironment and paleoclimate expedite the process of evolutionary divergence in animals. The evolutionary events of some small mammals distributed in Xinjiang Arid Region remain ambiguous. Thus, it is necessary to predict their evolutionary histories based on divergence estimates. Some museum specimens were involved in this analysis because of sampling limitation for threatened species in the arid region. A related problem is that some mutilated specimens without complete taxonomic data made it difficult to directly analyze species divergence. Here, sequences of cytochrome c oxydase I were used to identify museum specimens and combined with cytochrome b to estimate the recent divergence of extant small mammals constrained with eight fossil calibrations. The results showed that the massive species differentiation emerged during the Middle and Late Miocene periods. We inferred that differentiation of these small mammals might be associated with the retreat of the Tethys Sea from the Tarim Basin around the Eocene-Oligocene boundary and the global climate fluctuations during the Miocene period. Furthermore, the aridification and changes in the Taklimakan and Gurbantunggut Deserts might have driven the diversification of intraspecies and the emergence of cryptic species since the Late Pleistocene.
... SILCOX 2007). Hitherto only two potential, morphological autapomorphies of the primates, the possession of a petrosal bulla (WIBLE & COVERT 1987) and an orthomesometrial embryonic disc (LUCKETT & HARTENBERGER 1993;SHOSHANI & al. 1996), have been discovered. Unfortunately both features are hardly applicable to fossil specimens since even the presence of a petrosal bulla can only be confirmed by developmental evidence barely preserved in the fossil record (SILCOX 2007). ...
... The results obtained with IRBP for the phylogenetic position of Tarsius corroborate those obtained through the study of other DNA sequences (Goodman et al., 1998), Alu repeats (Zietkiewicz et al., 1999), SINE insertions (Schmitz et al., 2001), and composite trees (Purvis, 1995 ). To the contrary, paleontological studies cannot distinguish between three alternative hypotheses: either Tarsius is sister group of strepsirrhines, or it branches before the anthropoid-strepsirrhine split, or it forms a trifurcation with anthropoids and strepsirrhines (Gregory, 1910; Simpson, 1945; Shoshani et al., 1996; Fleagle, 1999). Alternative points of view also occur with molecular studies: Murphy et al. (2001a) analyzed about 10 kb from 18 orthologous mitochondrial and nuclear DNA segments, and showed that Tarsius clusters with Lemur in a Prosimia clade. ...
Article
The first third (ca. 1200 bp) of exon 1 of the nuclear gene encoding the interstitial retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) has been sequenced for 12 representative primates belonging to Lemuriformes, Lorisiformes, Tarsiiformes, Platyrrhini, and Catarrhini, and combined with available data (13 other primates, 11 nonprimate placentals, and 2 marsupials). Phylogenetic analyses using maximum likelihood on nucleotides and amino acids robustly support the monophyly of primates, Strepsirrhini, Lemuriformes, Lorisiformes, Anthropoidea, Catarrhini, and Platyrrhini. It is interesting to note that 1) Tarsiidae grouped with Anthropoidea, and the support for this node depends on the molecular characters considered; 2) Cheirogaleidae grouped within Lemuriformes; and 3) Daubentonia was the sister group of all other Lemuriformes. Study of the IRBP evolutionary rate shows a high heterogeneity within placentals and also within primates. Maximum likelihood local molecular clocks were assigned to three clades displaying significantly contrasted evolutionary rates. Paenungulata were shown to evolve 2.5-3 times faster than Perissodactyla and Lemuriformes. Six independent calibration points were used to estimate splitting ages of the main primate clades, and their compatibility was evaluated. Divergence ages were obtained for the following crown groups: 13.8-14.2 MY for Lorisiformes, 26.5-27.2 MY for Lemuroidea, 39.6-40.7 MY for Lemuriformes, 45.4-46.7 MY for Strepsirrhini, and 56.7-58.4 MY for Haplorrhini. The incompatibility between some paleontological and molecular estimates may reflect the incompleteness of the placental fossil record, and/or indicate that the variable IRBP evolutionary rates are not fully accommodated by local molecular clocks.
... Novel characters and characters drawn from previous studies (e.g., Andrews and Martin, 1987;Harrison, 1987b;Moy a-Sol a and K€ ohler, 1995;Shoshani et al., 1996;Cameron, 1997;Strait et al., 1997;Rae, 1997;Collard and Wood, 2000;Singleton, 2000;Strait and Grine, 2004;Rossie and MacLatchy, 2006;Alba et al., 2015;Nengo et al., 2017) that described size or proportions of a feature qualitatively were quantified where possible. Features with variants present in frequencies of 20% or greater were scored as polymorphic; because sample sizes for extinct taxa are low, all variation was scored as polymorphic (following Strait and Grine, 2004). ...
Article
Despite intensive study, many aspects of the evolutionary history of great apes and humans (Hominidae) are not well understood. In particular, the phylogenetic relationships of many fossil taxa remain poorly resolved. This study aims to provide an updated hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships for Middle-Late Miocene fossil apes, focusing on those taxa typically considered to be great apes. The character matrix compiled here samples 274 characters from the skull, dentition, and postcranium. Multiple iterations were performed to examine the effects of ingroup taxon selection, outgroup constraints, treatment of continuous data, character partitions (craniodental, postcranial), and missing data. Parsimony and Bayesian methods were used to infer phylogenetic relationships. Most European hominoids (Hispanopithecus, Rudapithecus, Dryopithecus, Pierolapithecus) are recovered as stem hominids, not more closely related to orangutans or to African apes and humans (Homininae), whereas Ouranopithecus, Graecopithecus, and Nakalipithecus are inferred to be members of the hominine clade. Asian fossil hominoids, with the exception of Lufengpithecus hudienensis, are recovered as part of the orangutan clade (Ponginae). Results suggest that Kenyapithecus and Griphopithecus are possible stem hominids, whereas Equatorius and Nacholapithecus are consistently recovered as stem hominoids. Oreopithecus and Samburupithecus are not recovered as hominids. Results of Bayesian analyses differ from those of parsimony analyses. Craniodental and postcranial character partitions are incongruent in the placement of hylobatids, which is interpreted as evidence that hylobatids and hominids independently evolved adaptations to suspensory positional behaviors. An understanding of phylogenetic relationships is necessary to address many of the questions asked in paleoanthropology. Thus, the updated hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships presented here can be used to gain a better understanding of important morphological transitions that took place during hominid evolution, ancestral morphotypes at key nodes, and the biogeography of the clade.
... 。鼻面の長いマ ンドリル属とヒヒ属は,マンガベイと姉妹関係にある 別のグループに分類されていた。頭蓋と歯の形態に基 づく分岐分析においても,この系統仮説が支持されて いる (Gilbert & Rossie, 2007) 。しかし分子系統は,マン ガベイ属とマンドリル属が近縁であること,ロフォセ ブス属はヒヒ属に近縁であることを示した (Disotell et al., 1992;Harris, 2000;Tosi et al., 2003a) 。ちなみに,ゲ ラダヒヒ属の分類体系はやや混乱していたが,分子系 統によるとヒヒ属やロフォセブス属に近縁であること が示唆されている。 一方,マカク亜族の方はマカク属(Macaca)のみし か現存していないが,ミトゲノムの解析によるとマカ ク属内の分岐の深さはヒヒ亜族の属間の分岐の深さに 匹敵すると考えられている (Liedigk et al., 2014) 。マカ ク属については,分子以前にも比較的正しい分類体系 を構築できていた。たとえば,生殖器の形態 (Fooden, 1976)や化石の産出状況などから構築された Delson (1980)の体系は,枝葉末節を除けば後に発表される分 子系統とほぼ一致している (Tosi et al., 2003b;Li et al., 2009) (Brandon-Jones et al., 2004;Karanth et al., 2008;Osterholz et al., 2008;Wang et al., 2015) ,メガネザル類の系統的位 置 (Roos et al., 2004;Fleagle, 2013) ,アイアイ類の系統 的位置やロリス類の単系統性 (Yoder et al., 1996;Roos et al., 2004 (Schmitz et al., 2001;Salem et al., 2003;Ryabinina et al., 2008;Li et al., 2009 (Shoshani et al., 1996;Goodman et al., 1998) to infer relationships between extant and extinct taxa. One of the most disruptive factors obscuring phylogenetic signals of morphological characteristics is size-related shape variation (i.e., allometry). ...
Article
Molecular phylogenetic analyses have established most components of primate systematic classiications, which are signiicantly diferent from the traditional morphology-based classiications. This becomes an issue when inferring the phylogeny of extinct taxa, for which molecular data are usually unavailable. Researchers have attempted to extract phylogenetic signals from morphological characters to infer relationships between extant and extinct taxa. One of the most disruptive factors obscuring phylogenetic signals of morphological characteristics is size-related shape variation (i.e., allometry). Although some issues remain, researchers have successfully detected phylogenetic information that was previously hidden by the strong efects of allometry. Recently, the importance of morphological data and fossil evidence has been reconsidered, and the total-evidence approach has been resurrected. This approach incorporates both extinct and extant taxa and uses all available data, i.e., both molecular and morphological characters. The validity of the total-evidence approach should be evaluated under various conditions using simulation studies and tested using the actual data for various primate taxa.
... Hasil ini sama seperti penelitian yang telah dilakukan Widayanti et al. (2006) dengan menggunakan gen Cyt b, dan Musser dan Dagosto (1987) berdasarkan data morfologi. Hasil ini berbeda dengan pendapat Groves (1998) (Shoshani et al., 1996). Berdasarkan 3 kemungkinan pengelompokan ordo primata tersebut, maka Tarsius sp. ...
Article
Full-text available
Penelitian ini bertujuan mengkaji keragaman genetik gen penyandi ND4 pada Tarsius bancanus, T. b. borneanus, T. dianae dan T. spectrum dan untuk penegakan taksonominya. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) diisolasi dari biopsi jaringan masing-masing spesies Tarsius dengan cara diekstraksi untuk digunakan sebagai DNA cetakan dalam proses amplifikasi dengan metode polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Primer yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini didesain untuk mengamplifikasi gen ND4 dan dilanjutkan dengan elektroforesis. Produk PCR hasil amplifikasi yang telah dimurnikan, selanjutnya dipergunakan sebagai DNA cetakan untuk reaksi penentuan runutan nukleotida. Runutan nukleotida gen ND4 hasil pengurutan dilakukan penjajaran berganda dengan primata lain yang diambil dari Genbank menggunakan Clustal W. Selain berdasarkan runutan nukleotida, gen ND4 dianalisis berdasarkan runutan asam amino dari basa-basa yang diterjemahkan mengikuti vertebrate mitochondrial translation code yang ada pada program MEGA versi 4.1. Konstruksi pohon filogenetika menggunakan metode neighbor joining. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan dari 1378 nukleotida ditemukan 119 situs yang bersifat beragam. Jarak genetika berdasarkan nukleotida gen ND4 yang dihitung menggunakan model dua parameter Kimura, terdapat nilai paling kecil 0,6%, nilai terbesar 13%, dan nilai rata-rata sebesar 6,1%. Filogram berdasarkan hasil runutan nukleotida gen ND4 yang menggunakan metode neighbor joining, dapat mengidentifikasi dan membedakan percabangan antar spesies Tarsius.
... Hasil ini sama seperti penelitian yang telah dilakukan Widayanti et al. (2006) dengan menggunakan gen Cyt b, dan Musser dan Dagosto (1987) berdasarkan data morfologi. Hasil ini berbeda dengan pendapat Groves (1998) (Shoshani et al., 1996). Berdasarkan 3 kemungkinan pengelompokan ordo primata tersebut, maka Tarsius sp. ...
Article
Full-text available
Penelitian ini bertujuan mengkaji keragaman genetik gen penyandi ND4 pada Tarsius bancanus, T. b. borneanus, T. dianae dan T. spectrum dan untuk penegakan taksonominya. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) diisolasi dari biopsi jaringan masing-masing spesies Tarsius dengan cara diekstraksi untuk digunakan sebagai DNA cetakan dalam proses amplifikasi dengan metode polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Primer yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini didesain untuk mengamplifikasi gen ND4 dan dilanjutkan dengan elektroforesis. Produk PCR hasil amplifikasi yang telah dimurnikan, selanjutnya dipergunakan sebagai DNA cetakan untuk reaksi penentuan runutan nukleotida. Runutan nukleotida gen ND4 hasil pengurutan dilakukan penjajaran berganda dengan primata lain yang diambil dari Genbank menggunakan Clustal W. Selain berdasarkan runutan nukleotida, gen ND4 dianalisis berdasarkan runutan asam amino dari basa-basa yang diterjemahkan mengikuti vertebrate mitochondrial translation code yang ada pada program MEGA versi 4.1. Konstruksi pohon filogenetika menggunakan metode neighbor joining. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan dari 1378 nukleotida ditemukan 119 situs yang bersifat beragam. Jarak genetika berdasarkan nukleotida gen ND4 yang dihitung menggunakan model dua parameter Kimura, terdapat nilai paling kecil 0,6%, nilai terbesar 13%, dan nilai rata-rata sebesar 6,1%. Filogram berdasarkan hasil runutan nukleotida gen ND4 yang menggunakan metode neighbor joining, dapat mengidentifikasi dan membedakan percabangan antar spesies Tarsius.
... Humans and chimps are either most closely related to one another ( Fig. 2A), or chimps, humans, and gorillas all derive from a trichotomous branching event at the base of the African ape and human clade (Fig. 2B), or else chimpanzees and gorillas form a clade with humans as the sister taxon (Fig. 2C). Although morphological studies (e.g., Martin, 1985Martin, , 1986Andrews and Martin, 1987) have traditionally favored an African ape clade (Fig. 2C), the majority of molecular analyses (Ruvolo, 1994(Ruvolo, , 1995Begun, 1999;Satta et al., 2000), and more comprehensive morphological analyses (Groves, 1986;Begun, 1992Begun, , 1994Shoshani et al., 1996;Gibbs et al., 2000), favor a chimpanzee-human clade ( Fig. 2A). Fossil hominoid anatomy is consistent with this hypothesis (Begun, 1992;White et al., 1994;Richmond and Strait, 2000;Wood and Richmond, 2000;Senut et al., 2001;Haile-Selassie, 2001). ...
... In all three species, SLC6A1 is upregulated in cerebral cortex of females compared to males. Molecular genetic phylogenies suggest that macaques more closely resemble humans than do either squirrel monkeys or marmosets [53] but macaques and squirrel monkeys are polygamous and sexually dimorphic in size whereas marmoset males and females are monogamous and similar in size [54]. SLC6A1 encodes gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter 1 (GAT-1) which terminates GABA neurotransmission via synaptic reuptake specifically in cerebral cortex [55]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Stress is a recognized risk factor for mood and anxiety disorders that occur more often in women than men. Prefrontal brain regions mediate stress coping, cognitive control, and emotion. Here, we investigate sex differences and stress effects on prefrontal cortical profiles of gene expression in squirrel monkey adults. Methods Dorsolateral, ventrolateral, and ventromedial prefrontal cortical regions from 18 females and 12 males were collected after stress or no-stress treatment conditions. Gene expression profiles were acquired using HumanHT-12v4.0 Expression BeadChip arrays adapted for squirrel monkeys. Results Extensive variation between prefrontal cortical regions was discerned in the expression of numerous autosomal and sex chromosome genes. Robust sex differences were also identified across prefrontal cortical regions in the expression of mostly autosomal genes. Genes with increased expression in females compared to males were overrepresented in mitogen-activated protein kinase and neurotrophin signaling pathways. Many fewer genes with increased expression in males compared to females were discerned, and no molecular pathways were identified. Effect sizes for sex differences were greater in stress compared to no-stress conditions for ventromedial and ventrolateral prefrontal cortical regions but not dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Conclusions Stress amplifies sex differences in gene expression profiles for prefrontal cortical regions involved in stress coping and emotion regulation. Results suggest molecular targets for new treatments of stress disorders in human mental health. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s13293-017-0157-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
... On the other hand, data obtained by analyzing the non-including data from fossil records alternative phylogenetic affinities among the extant primate infraorders by recombining mitochondrial DNA do not consistently support the former hypothesis. Moreover, these data either placing tarsiers as a sister group to the Strepsineed to be interpreted with caution since evidence exrhini or showing the Tarsioidea to branch off before ists that mitochondrial sequence evolution might devithe Anthropoidea-Strepsirhini split, or giving rise to a ate from a purely neutral model of evolution on the polytomy involving these three taxa, cannot be excluded lineage to simians after the strepsirhines branched off (Shoshani et al. 1996;Fleagle 1999). This conflict is (Andrews et al. 1998). ...
Article
Transpositions of Alu sequences, representing the most abundant primate short interspersed elements (SINE), were evaluated as molecular cladistic markers to analyze the phylogenetic affiliations among the primate infraorders. Altogether 118 human loci, containing intronic Alu elements, were PCR analyzed for the presence of Alu sequences at orthologous sites in each of two strepsirhine, New World and Old World monkey species, Tarsius bancanus, and a nonprimate outgroup. Fourteen size-polymorphic amplification patterns exhibited longer fragments for the anthropoids (New World and Old World monkeys) and T. bancanus whereas shorter fragments were detected for the strepsirhines and the outgroup. From these, subsequent sequence analyses revealed three Alu transpositions, which can be regarded as shared derived molecular characters linking tarsiers and anthropoid primates. Concerning the other loci, scenarios are represented in which different SINE transpositions occurred independently in the same intron on the lineages leading both to the common ancestor of anthropoids and to T. bancanus, albeit at different nucleotide positions. Our results demonstrate the efficiency and possible pitfalls of SINE transpositions used as molecular cladistic markers in tracing back a divergence point in primate evolution over 40 million years old. The three Alu insertions characterized underpin the monophyly of haplorhine primates (Anthropoidea and Tarsioidea) from a novel perspective.
... Phylogenetic evidence also unavailable to Williams in 1957 now confirms that great apes belong in our hominid family (13,14), and we all share similar oldest ages of parturition (15,16). This is grounds for inferring that humans don't "stop early." ...
Preprint
Great apes, the other living members of our hominid family, become decrepit before the age of forty and rarely outlive their fertile years. In contrast, women - even in high mortality hunter-gatherer populations - usually remain healthy and productive well beyond menopause. The grandmother hypothesis aims to account for the evolution of this distinctive feature of human life history. Our previous mathematical simulations of that hypothesis fixed the end of female fertility at the age of 45, based on the similarities among living hominids, and then modeled the evolution of human-like longevity from an ancestral state, like that of the great apes, due only to grandmother effects. A major modification here allows the age female fertility ends to vary as well, directly addressing a version of the question, influentially posed by GC Williams six decades ago: Why isn't menopause later in humans? Our model is an agent-based model (ABM) that accounts for the coevolution of both expected adult lifespan and end of female fertility as selection maximizes reproductive value. We find that grandmother effects not only drive the population from an equilibrium representing a great ape-like longevity to a new human-like longevity, they also maintain the observed termination of women's fertility before the age of 50.
Article
Histidine-proline-rich glycoprotein (HPRG), or histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG), is a serum protein that is synthesized in the liver and is actively internalised by different cells, including skeletal muscle. The multidomain arrangement of HPRG comprises two modules at the N-terminus that are homologous to cystatin but void of cysteine proteinase inhibitor function, and a second half consisting of a histidine-proline-rich region (HPRR) located between two proline-rich regions (PRR1 and PRR2), and a C-terminus domain. HPRG has been reported to bind various ligands and to modulate angiogenesis via the histidine residues of the HPRR. However, the secondary structure prediction of the HPRR reveals that more than 98% is disordered and the structural basis of the hypothesized functions remains unclear. Comparison of the PRR1 of several mammalian species indicates the presence of a conserved binding site that might coordinate the Zn²⁺ ion with an amino acid arrangement compatible with the cysteine-containing site that has been identified experimentally for rabbit HPRG. This observation provides a structural basis to the function of HPRG as an intracellular zinc chaperone which has been suggested by the involvement of the protein in the maintenance of the quaternary structure of skeletal muscle AMP deaminase (AMPD). During Anthropoidea evolution, a change of the primary structure of the PRR1 Zn²⁺ binding site took place, giving rise to the sequence M-S-C-S/L-S/R-C that resembles the MxCxxC motif characteristic of metal transporters and metallochaperones.
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Historical biogeography has recently experienced a significant advancement in three integrated areas. The first is the adoption of an ontology of complexity, replacing the traditional ontology of simplicity, or a priori parsimony; simple and elegant models of the biosphere are not sufficient for explaining the geographical context of the origin of species and their post-speciation movements, producing evolutionary radiations and complex multi-species biotas. The second is the development of a powerful method for producing area cladograms from complex data, especially cases of reticulated area relationships, without loss of information. That method, called Phylogenetic Analysis for Comparing trees (PACT), is described herein. The third element is the replacement of the model of maximum vicariance with the model called the Taxon Pulse hypothesis. PACT analysis of Hominoidea, Hyaenidae, and Proboscidea beginning in the Miocene, reveals that all three groups share a general episode of species formation in Africa in the early Miocene, followed by “out of Africa” expansion into Europe, Asia and North America, a second general episode of species formation in Asia in the mid-Miocene, followed by “out of Asia” expansion into Africa, Europe and North America. Finally, there were two additional “out of Africa” events during the late Miocene and into the Pliocene, the last one setting the stage for the emergence and spread of Homo . In addition to these shared episodes of vicariance and dispersal, each group exhibits clade-specific within-area and peripheral isolates speciation events. The complex history of dispersal and speciation over large areas exhibited by hominoids is part of a more general history of biotic diversification by taxon pulses.
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In the Divine Comedy, in the sixth cornice near the top of Mount Purgatory, Dante and Virgil are overtaken by a group of emaciated shades. The Gluttonous, whom the shades represent, are being purged of their love of excessive drinking and eating by having to endure thirst and starvation while milling around a pool of running water, in an air scented with the smell of fruit. As they pass by and Dante looks into their faces, reduced to skin and bone, he comments: Parean l’occiaie anella senza gemme: chi nel viso de lo nomini lege ‘omo’ ben avria conosciuta l’emme Each socket seemed a ring without a gem; He who reads OMO in man’s countenance Right plain in these might recognize the M.*
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Traditional microbiology has proven to be insufficient for studying entire microbial communities in situ, because only a small fraction of microbes can be grown in pure culture. The idea of circumventing this bottleneck by directly sequencing DNA from the environment led to a new field of research, called metagenomics. As a consequence of its approach, metagenomics provides a very unbiased view of all organisms contained in a sample, but it also has to cope with heavily fragmented sequence data. MLTreeMap, which is presented in this thesis, is a software framework designed to give insights into phylogenetic and functional properties of metagenomes and of the underlying microbial communities. It does so by detecting and phylotyping a series of relevant marker genes on the submitted DNA fragments. Among these genes are protein coding phylogenetic markers, 16S and 18S rRNA genes and markers for important functional pathways. Examples of the latter are genes coding for the key enzymes of photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, methane fixation and ammonia oxidation. MLTreeMap is available as a web-server at http://mltreemap.org and also as a stand-alone version. It has been published in BMC Genomics in 2010 [1].
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This brief commentary begins with my graduate work with Elwyn Simons which culminated in the 1965 “Preliminary Revision of the Dryopithecinae,” then about the most comprehensive review of the paleontological record of the great apes (Simons and Pilbeam, 1965). It reflected a time when that fossil record was dominated by teeth and fragmentary jaws, one decent skull, and a handful of postcranial remains. Much has changed since then, both in the record itself and in how it is interpreted, and what follows are reflections on where we are, how we got here, and where we might go next.
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The vermiform appendix in human is considered to be a vestigial organ by most of the authors. Absence of appendix is already reported in Indian population. Whether the human appendix is performing any function is debatable but when present it can create trouble. So if there is no appendix we can escape the ill-effects of the organ. With this hope the study has been done to see whether the appendix is really going to be rudimentary or absent or not. Marerials and Methods: Length, external diameter, number of lymphoid follicles, maximum diameter of the follicle or submucous coat, thickening of the muscle coat and seromucosal thickening of freshly removed appendix from human cadavers were seen. After fixation in 10% formal saline tissues were stained with haematoxylin-eosin stain and photographs were taken. The results had been tabulated and statistically correlated. The parameters like number of lymphoid follicles, length and diameter all are changed as per the age advancement which is strictly indicating some functional activities of the organ which is against the idea of vestigiality of the appendix. Human appendix cannot be called a vestigial organ unless the functional inactivity is proved. Lymphoid changes which occur after birth to provide the gut immunity is needed to be proved by further studies. There might be incidental absence or rudimentary appendix in human body, but that does not indicate that we would not have any appendix in future.
Article
Traditionally, morphologically based phylogenetic relationships within the family Elephantidae (mostly Loxodonta, Elephas, and Mammuthus) depicted Elephas and Mammuthus as closely related taxa with Loxodonta as a sister-group to this clade. Until recently, molecular studies were unable to resolve relationships among the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus), Asian (Elephas), and African (Loxodonta) elephants, or indicated a phenetic pairing of Loxodonta and Mammuthus with Elephas as a sister-group to this grade. In this study we provide further morphological evidence for the traditional hypothesis and data from aligned DNA sequences of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b in support of the monophyletic Mammuthus-Elephas clade. In both data sets, morphological and molecular, the extinct American mastodon (Mammut) was employed as an outgroup. The molecular results demonstrate the importance of using a closely related taxon as an outgroup for resolving phylogenies of highly derived species. Tests on the importance of the numbers of outgroups and which outgroup may be better for testing phylogenetic relationships reveal that the closer the outgroup to the ingroup, the more corroborative the results will be. Evolutionary rates calculated from the morphological characters indicate that, among the three genera studied, Loxodonta is the slowest evolving taxon, followed by Elephas, and Mammuthus. DNA sequences indicate similar rate differences among the three taxa. Morphological data also corroborate the classical hypothesis that the family Stegodontidae is monophyletic and its members (Stegolophodon and Stegodon) do not group within Elephantidae. A comparison among mammoths reveals that many of the skull characters are interlinked and may be considered as one, or as a suite of characters, eg antero-posterior compression of skull. An important trend has been observed - the most primitive mammoths had fewer numbers of plates per given tooth and lower lamellar frequencies. A simplified possible mammoth ancestry and radiation is provided.
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Colin G roves was one of the world’s leading anthropologists, primatologists and mammalian taxonomists. This bibliography with 775 entries contains all his publications, including books, chapters in books, scientific and popular articles, book reviews, obituaries and letters or articles in newspapers. There is a list of 62 taxa described by Colin G roves and six eponyms.
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Living hominoids (apes) are united by features related to their unusual locomotion, but few such traits are found in the earliest fossil forms. Which adaptations were likely present in the earliest hominoids?
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DNA evidence and the time scale provided by the model of local molecular clocks coupled to fossil evidence yields a genealogical classification of primates that has all of its taxa represent clades and assigns the same hierarchical rank to taxa of roughly equivalent age. In this classification, when each clade is traced back to its last common ancestor with a sister clade (each taxon treated as a total group, i.e. crown group plus stem group), the haplorhine suborders Tarsiiformes and Anthropoidea along with the strepsirhine suborders Lemuriformes and Loriformes represent clades that originated at estimated ages of 58-50 Ma (Millions years ago); the lemuriform infraorders Chiromyiformes and Eulemurides along with the anthropoidean infraorders Platyrrhini and Catarrhini originated at 45-40 Ma, and families within these infraorders at 28-25 Ma, subfamilies at 23-22 Ma, tribes at 20-15 Ma, subtribes at 14-10 Ma, genera at 10-7 Ma, subgenera at 6-4 Ma, and species at 4-<1 Ma. In contrast to the traditional family Hominidae which has Homo sapiens as its only living species, the age equals rank system places all living apes and humans in subfamily Homininae. In turn Homininae divides into Hylobatini (common and siamang gibbons) and Hominini, the latter into Pongina for Pongo (orangutans) and Hominina for Gorilla and Homo. Homo itself divides into the subgenera H. (Homo) for humans and H. (Pan) for common and pygmy chimpanzees. Even on disbanding Australopithecus and Ardipithecus by placing their species into Homo (Homo), the presumed genealogical relationships of these extinct species to each other and to living humans can be depicted by how the species are listed and indented under the subgenus rank.
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Functional analysis of fossil great apes and humans indicate that no known fossil taxon was a habitual knuckle-walker. However, the phylogenetic relations among hominoids suggests that the last common ancestor of the African apes and humans was in fact a knuckle-walker. Anatomical, fossil and molecular evidence of relations among the Hominoidea strongly suggest than Pan and Homo share a common ancestor not shared by any other living taxon. If this is correct, then knuckle-walking must have evolved once in the common ancestor of Pan, Gorilla and Homo (in which it was lost), or twice, independently in each African ape lineage. In addition to being less parsimonious, most multiple origins hypotheses for knuckle-walking also fail to account for characters shared by African apes and humans that are plausibly functionally related to increased terrestriality. These include vertebral, limb and intra-limb proportions, and limb long bone, carpal, tarsal and metapodial, and phalangeal morphology. In theory, knuckle-walking and obligate bipedalism could have evolved from an unknown type of terrestrial quadrupedalism, possibly associated with high frequencies of facultative bipedality. This would also account for characters and positional behavior shared by African apes and humans, the differences between Pan and Gorilla, and the apparent retention of primitive features of the trunk in humans. However, it implies a substantial increase in homoplasy as well as a hypothetical ancestral morphotype unkown in any group or out group. Functional anatomy and phylogeny together continue to suggest that humans are most likely to have evolved from a knuckle-walker. However, a functionally plausible, though less parsimonious facultative bipedality hypothesis is also possible. In this regard, hints of the unique functional morphology of Ardipithecus ramidus suggest that this taxon would serve to test these two alternatives.
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Jeder Mensch und jedes Tier hat Eltern. Von einer zur nächsten Generation gibt es kein neues Leben, sondern es gibt lediglich das neu vermischte Leben eines Spermiums, also einer lebenden Zelle des Vaters, mit dem einer Eizelle, die einen Teil des Lebens der Mutter weiterträgt. In der Kette der Generationen ist das Leben gleichsam eine Flamme, die nie verlöscht, und die daher auch nicht neu entfacht zu werden braucht.
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Taxonomy is defined by Ernst Mayr (1969) as “The theory and practice of classifying organisms”; as a shorthand, it is used (“a taxonomy”) for an actual classification itself. Phylogeny was defined by Haeckel, who coined the term, as “the entire science of the changes in form through which the phyla or organic lineages pass through the entire time of their discrete existence”. As in the case of the term “taxonomy”, we commonly use “a phylogeny” to mean a given group’s own evolutionary history.
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Cognitive Evolution provides an in-depth exploration of the history and development of cognition, from the beginning of life on Earth to present-day humans. Drawing together evolutionary and comparative research, this book presents a unique perspective on the evolution of human cognition. Adopting an information processing perspective – that is, from inputs to outputs – with all the mental processes in between, Boles provides a systematic overview of the evolutionary development of cognition and of its sensation, movement, and perception components. The book is supported by long-established evolutionary theories and backed up by a wealth of recent research from the growing field of cognitive evolution and cognitive neuroscience to provide a comprehensive text on the subject. Cognitive Evolution is an essential read for advanced undergraduates and postgraduate students of cognitive and evolutionary psychology. David B. Boles is Emeritus Professor of Psychology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa. [For more information, or to order, please see https://www.routledge.com/Cognitive-Evolution-1st-Edition/Boles/p/book/9780367028558. A Facebook page for the book is at https://www.facebook.com/DavidBBoles/?modal=admin_todo_tour.]
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Over the last decade, research on primate phylogeny has been of increasing interest to the scientific community. From the perspective of molecular evolution, this is mainly due to the fact that the mass generation of molecular sequences has become easy and cost effective. With the generation of complete sequences for several eutherian organisms including humans and the mouse, a well-accepted phylogenetic interpretation for all members of the Euarchontoglires and all major groups of the primate order is feasible and would represent a new starting point for meaningful comparative research. Such a phylogenetic framework would link humans with the mouse, which is generally regarded as the main eutherian model organism. Thus, our knowledge of primate origins and the evolution of primates is a prerequisite for a postgenomic era in which aspects of functional genetics and character evolution will form a focal point of genetic research. Despite the pace at which primate sequences can be generated in whole genome shotgun (WGS)-sequencing projects, primate origins as well as several branching events in primate divergence remain far from settled. First, complete primate genome sequences are currently available for two representatives of the Old World monkeys and hominoids and humans only. Information is lacking on the deeper primate splits and comparative data are restricted to parts of primate genomes (ENCODE project). Second, it is obvious that the peculiar mode of sequence evolution (including gene-, lineage-, and position-specific evolutionary rates), combined with deep splitting events that often occurred during small time intervals may possibly lead to incongruence between gene and species trees. To avoid this, it will be necessary to have enormous amounts of sequence data and the implementation of more realistic assumptions about sequence evolution models in sequence-based phylogenetic tree reconstructions. Moreover, alternative molecular approaches, including both the incorporation of data of so-called “rare genomic changes” (RGCs) and a combination of both neontological and paleontological morphological data in total evidence approaches, are likely to contribute considerably to a firm interpretation on the origin and evolution of primates. Below I summarize and discuss molecular evidence obtained for the origin and evolution of primates, stressing the potential of the inclusion of “RGCs,” mainly retropositions of short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) in this context.
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Bu değerlendirme, Paleoantropoloji’nin en önemli tartışma konularından biri olan Hominid - Hominin ayrımını, bu farklı kavramların zaman içinde nasıl değiştiğini ve neleri kapsadığını anlatmak amacıyla yapılmıştır. Kuyruksuz büyük maymunların sınıflandırılması, hem insanın hem de en yakın primat akrabalarının doğadaki yerini anlayabilmek için önemlidir. Bu sınıflandırmanın taksonomideki ve günlük dildeki terimlerinin neler olduğunun anlaşılabilmesi, ileride meydana gelebilecek kavram karmaşalarının da önüne geçecektir.
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Durante los últimos veinte años, algunos científicos han sugerido que los grandes monos africanos y los linajes humanos surgieron en Europa, un escenario conocido como la “ Hipótesis de la vuelta a Africa”. A pesar de que los homínidos se extendieron en Eurasia durante el Mioceno Medio y Superior debido a las condiciones tropicales que prevalecian en esta region, no podemos descartar el hecho de que ellos estuvieron presentes en Africa (contra algunos autores). En realidad, ellos tuvieron una alta diversidad al mismo tiempo (al menos 10 líneas representadas), incluso si el registro fosil es menos completo que el de Eurasia. Elementos postcraneales de especies africanas sugieren que en algunos carácteres los homínidos modernos estaban ya presentes en el Mioceno Inferior y Medio de Africa, no sólo restringidos a las formas europeas. Teniendo en cuenta las evidencias disponibles, no es posible, en el estado actual de conocimiento, favorecer más un origen europeo que otro africano. Los homínidos vivieron en áreas tropicales del Norte de África y del Sur de Eurasia, cambios faunísticos se sucedieron entre los dos continents a lo largo del Mioceno Medio y Superior, sin que el Tetis actuase como una barrera efectiva a los intercambios entre Europa y Asia.
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The cranial foramina and the blood vessels and nerves passing through them are described in detail for the sciurid genus Marmota; these data serve as the basis for understanding structures seen tin the fossils. The cranial foramina are described and compared in North American specimens of the protrogomorphous rodent families Paramyidae, Sciuravidae, Ischyromyidae, Cylindrodontidae, Prosciuridae, Aplodontidae, and Mylagaulidae. The least variable foramina the those that transmit nerves; the most variable, veins. Presence or absence, relative position, number, and relative size of foramina re useful characters in determining relationships. Within the Paramyidae differences indicate early radiation of lineages. Paramyids an sciuravids have many primitive features in common, but differ in several details; of especial interest in these families are the pathways of the internal carotid artery and its branches. Peculiarities common to the foramina of ischyromyids and cylindrodontids suggest that the two groups can be made subfamilies of the family Ischyromyidae. The Prosciuridae are included likewise with the Aplodontidae and Mylagaulidae in the Aplodontoidea.
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The populations of the southeast Asian Tarsius are the only living representatives of a group of primates that once flourished in dazzling variety and abundance. The heyday of these small primates, as far as we know, was the Eocene. They were clearly differentiated from a lemuriform ancestry somewhere in the Paleocene and survived into the Miocene. Unlike their contemporaries, the lumuriform adapids which produced species as large as Leptadapis magnus, or the several species of Pelycodus or Notharctus, no known tarsiiform is larger than a South American capuchin or uakari (Fig. 1). What the known tarsiiforms lacked in size, however, they apparently made up in the diversity of their known structural adaptations. This is particularly true of the dentition, hitherto their best known aspect. As inferred from the dental differences, their feeding regimes were probably highly diversified, and, one may suspect, this was also true of the locomotor habits of the various species, although, admittedly, the postcranial morphology is not very well known.
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Mohanamico hershkovitzi was about the size of the living squirrel monkey Saimiri sciureus. Its molars are low-crowned and the molar crests are not pronounced suggesting a frugivorous diet like Aotus. The lateral incisor is large and high-crowned, which foreshadows living Pitheciinae. The canines and P2 were large and sharp like Callimico. Our analysis of the mandible and teeth suggest that Mohanamico is a primitive member of the Pitheciinae. Some similarities with Callimico and Saguinus are also noted raising the possibility that pithecines and callitrichids are monophyletic. (Introduction in French but main article in English).-from Authors
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The Parapithecidae are a group of primitive anthropoid primates known only from the early Oligocene Jebel Qatrani Formation of Fayum, Egypt. Since the initial discovery of the group early in the century, their phyletic position relative to other higher primates has been ambiguous and the subject of considerable debate. Various authors have considered the parapithecids as the sister taxon of (1) Old World monkeys, (2) all other Old World anthropoids; (3) platyrrhines; or (4) all other higher primates. Although there are anatomical features that can be advanced to support each of these views, parapithecids lack a number of anatomical features that characterize all other anthropoids and are best considered the most primitive higher primates. Such a phyletic position for parapithecids involves fewer evolutionary parallelisms and reversals in anthropoid evolution than does any other phylogeny. This suggests that the origin of anthropoids from prosimians was most probably in Africa.
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Several recently discovered fossil specimens add to our knowledge of plesiadapiform primates. Micromomys willwoodensis, new species, is a diminutive microsyopid from the early Eocene (early Wasatchian) Willwood Formation of the Clark's Fork Basin, Wyoming. It is larger and more specialized than late Paleocene M. vossae and M. silvercouleei. Elwynella oreas is a new genus and species of paromomyid from the middle Eocene (early Bridgerian) Aycross Formation of northwestern Wyoming. It is most closely related to Phenacolemur, but differs from all other post-Tiffanian paromomyids in retention of P3 and in details of incisor morphology and molar trigonid structure. New specimens of the microsyopid Tinimomys graybulliensis are described, including a nearly complete dentary from the Wasatchian of the Bighorn Basin and the first record from probable Clarkforkian (latest Paleocene–earliest Eocene) beds of the Powder River Basin. The first Wasatchian specimen of Plesiadapis is described and illustrated.
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SYNOPSIS. The reliability of a phylogenetic hypothesis is largely dependent on the diversity and abundance of characters. The meaning and complexity of these is furthermore a significant factor in choosing some characters over others to reflect the relative recency of taxa. Studying mechanical function and biological roles of character complexes yields new characters anda more profound appreciation of the "known" ones. This growth in available information invariably results in more convincing assembly of morphocline polarities or more clearly established homologies. This procedure of character analysis permits the construction of phylogenies whichare more probable and based more securely on the foundations of any phylogeny: biologically researched homologies. When ontogenetic, functional and adaptational studies result in equivocalveiws, as to the polarity of a character cline, often the fossil record offers a clear and testable hypothesis on character cline polarity.
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The order Rodentia is the most abundant and successful group of mammals, and it has been a focal point of attention for compar­ ative and evolutionary biologists for many years. In addition, rodents are the most commonly used experimental mammals for bio­ medical research, and they have played a central role in investi­ gations of the genetic and molecular mechanisms of speciation in mammals. During recent decades, a tremendous amount of new data from various aspects of the biology of living and fossil rodents has been accumulated by specialists from different disciplines, ranging from molecular biology to paleontology. Paradoxically, our understanding of the possible evolutionary relationships among different rodent families, as well as the possible affinities of rodents with other eutherian mammals, has not kept pace with this information "explosion. " This abundance of new biological data has not been incorporated into a broad synthesis of rodent phylo­ geny, in part because of the difficulty for any single student of rodent evolution to evaluate the phylogenetic significance of new findings from such diverse disciplines as paleontology, embryology, comparative anatomy, molecular biology, and cytogenetics. The origin and subsequent radiation of the order Rodentia were based primarily on the acquisition of a key character complex: specializations of the incisors, cheek teeth, and associated mus­ culoskeletal features of the jaws and skull for gnawing and chewing.
Article
A new adapine Cryptadapis tertius n.gen.n.sp., from Sainte-Neboule (Upper Eocene, Quercy) is described. Comparisons are made with other species of this group. The whole shows that the adapine have undergone a small radiation in the same ecological niche as living cercopithecids.-English summary
Article
Avenius n. gen., n. sp. is described from the Ypresian (early Eocene) of the Paris Basin in France. It is the first time that a microsyopid primate(?) is recognized in the Eocene of Europe. Its resemblance to Niptomomys, a contemporary form from North America, confirms the existence of a terrestrial passage between the two continents at this epoch. There is an abridged English version. -English summary
Article
The Lower Miocene locality of Li (Northwestern Thailand) yielded a fresh lower molar of the small primate genus Tarsius. It differs from living species by some small features of the trigonid, allowing assignation to a new species, T. thailandica nov. sp. It is the first time a fossil tarsid is known. Discussion about Afrotarsius leads to consider it not as a Tarsiidae, but as being already engaged in Simiiforms' line. -English summary
Chapter
Allusions to the flexible sociosexual behavior of the pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus) have been incorporated into the “bonobo model” of human evolution (Zihlman, 1979; Zihlman and Cramer, 1978; Zihlman et al., 1978), although data to substantiate pygmy chimpanzee sexuality is scant due to the limited number of subjects available for study in captivity and the recency of field studies of free-ranging animals. However, all laboratory and field studies to date that have examined aspects of sexual behavior (Jordan in Neugebauer, 1980; Kano, 1980; Kuroda, 1980; Patterson, 1979; Savage and Bakeman, 1978; Savage-Rumbaugh and Wilkerson, 1978; Savage-Rumbaugh et al., 1977; Tratz and Heck, 1954) have noted that the species is characterized by a high frequency of ventroventral copulation, a prolonged period of female sexual responsivity and homosexual behavior, especially between females in the form of genitogenital rubbing. Behavioral data coupled with a number of paedomorphic characters, including small size, gracile build, low degree of sexual dimorphism, reduced dentition and facial prognathism, have led some (Coolidge, 1933; Lowenstein and Zihlman, 1980; Zihlman and Cramer, 1978; Zihlman, 1979; Zihlman et al., 1978) to suggest that this “generalized” species might provide the best model for the last common ancestor of Pan, Gorilla, and Homo.
Article
There is now a substantial body of molecular data on the genetic relationships of man and various primates to one another and to other animals. One of the ways to use these data is to deduce from them a phylogenetic classification or cladogram which describes the genealogical branchings of the order Primates. Such a framework for viewing the process of cladogenesis in primate phylogeny can provide an objective basis for a more detailed analysis of other processes underlying primate and human evolution. Like Emile Zuckerkandl (this volume), I consider anagenesis to be the principal process characterizing the emergence of man. Anagenesis is that form of progressive evolution which increases the level of molecular organization within organisms in such a way that the organisms gain greater independence from, and control over, the environment. Whereas Zuckerkandl emphasizes that aspect of anagenesis which accelerated evolutionary rates, I shall emphasize that aspect which decelerated evolutionary rates in proteins after higher levels of integration of molecular specificities had been achieved.
Article
New subfossil indroid has been recovered from Antsiroandoha, a cave in the Ankarana Range in the northwest of Madagascar. The type specimen (DUPC 7852, FN 88-282) comprises two pieces of the upper jaw belonging to a single individual. Two postcranial fragments may be associated with the type jaw. Babakotia radofilai is larger in body size than any of the living lemurs as well as the smallest of the extinct indroids, Mesopropithecus. It is not as large as any of the other extinct indroids - the archaeolemurids Archaeolemur and Hadropithecus, or the palaeopropithecids Palaeopropithecus and Archaeoindris. -from Authors
Article
The oldest Adapidae of Asia are represented in the Kuldana Fm. of NW Pakistan by 3 taxa: Panobius afridi gen et sp nov, cf Agerinia sp, and an unidentified form. Their affinities lie with adapids described from the early or middle Eocene of Europe. New material perhaps referable to the omomyid Kohatius is also described.- English summary
Article
The theory is developed that the antigenic distance between two lineages of organisms (i.e., average number of non-matching antigenic sites between proteins produced by homologous genes in the separate evolving lines) becomes larger the longer the two have been without a common ancestor. A set theoretical analysis of protein antigen comparisons between contemporary species in trefoil Ouchterlony plates shows that from networks of these immunodiffusion comparisons, developed by antisera to an homologous species and comparing homologous to heterologous and heterologous to heterologous species, the antigenic distances of the homologous to the various heterologous species in the comparison series can be calculated. Computer procedures are described for first estimating these taxonomic distance tables for a species collection with a number of homologuos species in it (i.e., species against which antisera were produced and used to gather Ouchterlony data) and for then generating from the antigenic distance measurements a cladogenetic tree of the species in the collection. On applying this set theory, computer approach to a large mass of Ouchterlony data gathered with monkey, rabbit, and chicken antisera to proteins of various catarrhine species, it is shown that the catarrhine primates are a monophyletic group which subdivide in accordance with the established taxonomic scheme into Cercopithecoidea and Hominoidea. Also the cercopithecoids further subdivide as traditionally represented into Colobinae and Cercopithecinae. However within the Hominoidea the classical Pongidae is found to be polyphyletic. A cladistic classification, based on immunodiffusion systematics, reduces Pongidae to the subfamily Ponginae, containing Pongo as its only living genus; Ponginae is placed in the Hominidae alongside of Homininae, the latter containing Pan, Homo, and Gorilla. The subfamily Hylobatinae containing Symphalangus and Hylobates belongs to Hylobatidae as the only other family of extant Hominoidea.
Article
Marshall, L. G. (Department of Geology, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois 60605) 1977. Cladistic analysis of borhyaenoid, dasyuroid, didelphoid, and thylacinid (Marsupialia : Mammalia) affinity. Syst. Zool. 26: 410–425.—A cladistic analysis of the marsupial order Marsupicarnivora is made in an attempt to clarify borhyaenid-thylacinid affinity. This analysis is made in consideration of importance of weights for homologous character states as recognized by Hecht (1976), and Hecht and Edwards (1976). Apomorphies in borhyaenids which separate them from thylacinids include presence of a nasal-lacrimal contact, a solid palate, and reduction or loss of the transverse canal. Apomorphies in thylacinids which separate them from borhyaenids include reduction in size of dP4 and presence of an epitympanic squamosal sinus. The “dog-like” marsupials of Australia (thylacinids) and South America (borhyaenids) appear to represent a classic example of parallelism in evolution; thylacinids having evolved from a common ancestor shared with Australian dasyuroids, and borhyaenoids having evolved from a common ancestor shared with didelphoids. Reduction or loss of the metaconid and stylar shelf, loss of ossified epipubic bones, and reduction of incisors to 4/3 apparently occurred independently and in parallel in borhyaenids and thylacinids. [Borhyaenidae; Thylacinus; Marsupicarnivora; cladism.]
Article
The goal of this paper is to clarify the taxonomic relationship among dryopithecine specimens from central Europe, and in particular, from the Hungarian locality of Rudabánya. To this end, Dryopithecus brancoi, a valid nomen given to a single M3 from Salmendingen (Schlosser, 1901), is compared to all other Dryopithecus M3 specimens (from France, Spain and Hungary). Based on the currently available evidence, D. brancoi is found to share several characters exclusively with specimens from Rudabánya, and to be distinguished from D. fontani, D. laietanus and D. crusafonti. Given this pattern, the hominoid taxa identified at Rudabánya are synonymized here with D. brancoi. Because the Rudabánya material is much more abundant than the Salmendingen material, we propose a redefinition of D. brancoi based primarily on the sample from Rudabánya, which is thus included in the hypodigm of D. brancoi.
Article
New specimens (face and mandible) recovered from late Miocene deposits of Macedonia (northern Greece) are described. They have been found in the localities of Xirochori and Ravin de la Pluie and are identified as Ouranopithecus macedoniensis (Hominidae, Hominoidea). These specimens have some derived characters they share with the Plio-Pleistocene Homininae and O. macedoniensis is considered as the sister group of the latter. Some characters could be possibly shared with Kenyapithecus and would indicate that the origins of the sub-family would be older than the late Miocene.
Article
The species Proconsul africanus from the early Miocene of East Africa has long been recognized from Koru (the type locality), Songhor, Rusinga Island and Mfangano Island. Comparison of the type series from Koru with specimens from Rusinga and Mfangano indicates that this material does not belong to a single species. The material from Koru and from Songhor belongs to a single species that takes the name P. africanus and which is not represented at Rusinga or Mfangano. The Rusinga and Mfangano material exhibits levels of metric variation in the teeth and postcranial skeleton that are incompatible with its recognition as one species. The larger species at Rusinga and Mfangano takes the name Proconsul nyanzae. The smaller species does not have a name available for it and is described here as a new species, Proconsul heseloni.
Article
This paper presents a review of the evolutionary relationships of the early catarrhine primates. The first stage of the analysis involves the reconstruction of the inferred ancestral morphotypes of the major groups of extant anthropoids. The introduction of the fossil taxa into the phylogenetic scheme represents the second and final stage of the analysis. The results of this cladistic analysis suggests that: (1) the parapithecids are a specialized group of basal anthropoids, (2) Oligopithecus savagei may represent the earliest recognizable catarrhine, (3) Propliopithecus (= Aegvptopithecus) and Pliopithecus apparently represent the successive sister taxa to the modern catarrhines, (4) Dendropithecus and Proconsul are best regarded as basal catarrhines of modern aspect, and (5) Victoriapithecus is a primitive cercopithecoid monkey which represents the siter taxon of the extant Old World monkeys.
Article
Data on New World monkey sulcal patterns are summarized and subjected to the cladistic method of analysis. The problem of allometry is discussed and controlled. Seven derived cortical features are identified and used to construct three alternative cladograms for the bigger brained ceboid taxa. Using Saimiri as an example, it is shown that preconceived ideas of allometric and phylogenetic relationships influence the construction of cladograms. The relationship between brain size, number of sulci and number of derived cortical features is explored for ceboid monkeys. In addition to a greater number of sulci, bigger brained ceboids exhibit a greater number of obviously specialized cortical features than do smaller brained ceboids. It is concluded that cladistic analysis of neurological features must be conducted cautiously since primate brain studies show that parallel evolution should be carefully considered as an alternative to the hypothesis of descent from a common ancestor.
Article
A study of Early Miocene cercopithecids recovered recently from Buluk, northern Kenya, emphasizes the morphological similarities of early monkeys from northern and eastern Africa. The Buluk specimens show close affinities with the North African Prohylobates and the East African Victoriapithecus. The two genera share characters which are not found in the later cercopithecid subfamilies but which define the subfamily Victoriapithecinae.Copyright © 1985 S. Karger AG, Basel
Article
Study of new and previously known specimens of omomyid primates from the early Eocene of Wyoming has resulted in a reevaluation of several genera and the description of new taxa. ‘Omomys’ vespertinus is placed in a new anaptomorphine genus, Steinius, which possesses some characters foreshadowing omomyines. ‘Omomys’ minutus is transferred to Loveina, a genus that likewise shows a combination of anaptomorphine and omomyine features. The new species Chlororhysis incomptus, Anemorhysis wortmani, and Anemorhysis pattersoni are described from the upper part of the Willwood Formation, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming.Copyright © 1984 S. Karger AG, Basel
The interesting question regarding the number and value of the anatomical resem­blances and differences existing between Man and the rest of the Primates, has led to complete and detailed descriptions and comparisons such as those of Professors Owen, Duvernoy, and Gratiolet. But the valuable treatises of these authors yet leave much to be desired, because they relate only to the highest forms of the Order, and some distinctions resulting from such limited comparisons are apt to disappear, and the anatomical value of others to decrease when the survey is considerably extended. The memoir of Professor Vrolik § gives a somewhat more extended view, and Pro­fessor Huxley || has carried his observations and comparisons much further; but for the thorough investigation of the skeleton of the limbs of the Primates, nothing less than the careful examination of every bone throughout the whole series of forms is requisite, while man’s peculiarities can be justly appreciated only after a similarly ex­tensive comparison.
Article
This paper reviews the patterns of sexual dimorphism in the living higher primates and suggests criteria for sex determination in the australopithecines. Using the bimodal distribution for australopithecine canine breadths, sex determination for individual specimens is attempted. The pattern of sexual dimorphism in the australopithecines differs from that in other higher primates: posterior-tooth dimorphism, mandibular-corpus dimorphism, and probably, therefore, body-size dimorphism are at the extreme of the higher-primate range, while canine dimorphism is considerably less than in most living primates, although greater than in living humans. It is suggested that the primary cause of the difference between hominid and pongid trends in the evolution of sexual dimorphism is the increasing importance of tools as a supplement and replacement for the canines in hominid evolution.
Article
The basis of all comparative biology is the determination of phylogenetic relationships and lineages. The most difficult question in the determination of lineage is whether the similarity between two forms is the result of monophyly, parallel evolution, or convergent evolution. The erection of a new phylogeny or the testing of a previously proposed phylogenetic grouping involves several steps: (1) the relation of characters and their homologous character states-the morphocline; (2) determination within the morphocline of its primitive and derived states and their polarities; (3) evaluation of the character states by means of weighting analysis; and (4) construction of the new phylogeny. In this paper we have concentrated on the third step, and we have formalized a method for character state weighting. The criterion for character state importance is the information contained within the character and its states. Character states may be designated in increasing value according to the following groups: (I) lo...