Prospective evaluation of the clinical usefulnes of an antigen-specific assay (MAIPA) in ITP and other immune thrombocytopenias

Department of Hematology, Prince of Wales Hospital, University of New South Wales, Randwick, Sydney, Australia.
Blood (Impact Factor: 10.45). 08/1996; 88(1):194-201.
Source: PubMed


The diagnosis of idiopathic immune thrombocytopenia remains a clinical diagnosis based on the exclusion of other causes of immune and nonimmune thrombocytopenia. Measurement of platelet-associated Ig (PAIg), while sensitive, is nonspecific for the diagnosis of immune thrombocytopenia. Published experience of antigen capture assays (including monoclonal antibody immobilization of platelet antigens or MAIPA) suggest a high sensitivity and specificity (70% to 80%) in selected groups of patients. In a prospective evaluation of 158 patients with thrombocytopenia from all causes, we report a sensitivity of 51% and specificity of 80% for direct MAIPA assays. MAIPA was considerably better in discriminating immune from nonimmune thrombocytopenia than two assays of PAIgG. Antiplatelet antibodies detected by MAIPA were more frequently directed against the glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa than the GP Ib/IX complex. Our experience suggests that MAIPA assays are useful in the laboratory assessment of thrombocytopenia, should be performed before therapy, and that some patients with 'nonimmune' thrombocytopenia may have genuine antiplatelet antibodies.

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    • "Antiplatelet autoantibodies are not pathognomonic for ITP and can be associated with other disorders such as viral hepatitis, B-cell lymphomas or myelodysplasia. Detection of platelet-bound antibodies does have an estimated positive predictive value of ∼80% t; a negative test result cannot rule out the diagnosis of ITP.5,6 The predictive values for assays to test free plasma antibodies are even lower. "
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    ABSTRACT: Traditionally, anti-platelet autoantibodies accelerating platelet clearance from the peripheral circulation have been recognized as the primary pathopysiological mechanism in chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Recently, increasing evidence supports the co-existence of insufficient megakaryopoiesis. Inadequate low thrombopoietin (TPO) levels are associated with insufficient proliferation and differentiation of megakaryocytes, decreased proplatelet formation, and subsequent platelet release. Recently two novel activators of TPO receptors have been made available: romiplostim and eltrombopag. In several phase III studies, both agents demonstrated increase of platelet counts in about 80% of chronic ITP patients within 2 to 3 weeks. These agents substantially broaden the therapeutic options for patients with chronic ITP although long-term results are still pending. This review will provide an update on the current conception of underlying mechanisms in ITP and novel, pathophysiologically based treatment options.
    Preview · Article · May 2010 · Biologics: Targets & Therapy
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    • "In the 1980s, several laboratories developed antigen-specific assays that directly measured antibodies specific for several platelet surface proteins, notably glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa and GPIb/ IX (McMillan, 2005). These newer assays demonstrated a higher degree of specificity for patients with immune thrombocytopenia and are positive in about 60% of patients (Brighton et al, 1996; Warner et al, 1999; McMillan et al, 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a haematological disorder in which patients predominantly develop skin and mucosal bleeding. Early studies suggested ITP was primarily due to immune-mediated peripheral platelet destruction. However, increasing evidence indicates that an additional component of this disorder is immune-mediated decreased platelet production that cannot keep pace with platelet destruction. Evidence for increased platelet destruction is thrombocytopenia following ITP plasma infusions in normal subjects, in vitro platelet phagocytosis, and decreased platelet survivals in ITP patients that respond to therapies that prevent in vivo platelet phagocytosis; e.g., intravenous immunoglobulin G, anti-D, corticosteroids, and splenectomy. The cause of platelet destruction in most ITP patients appears to be autoantibody-mediated. However, cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated platelet (and possibly megakaryocyte) lysis, may also be important. Studies supporting suppressed platelet production include: reduced platelet turnover in over 80% of ITP patients, morphological evidence of megakaryocyte damage, autoantibody-induced suppression of in vitro megakaryocytopoiesis, and increased platelet counts in most ITP patients following treatment with thrombopoietin receptor agonists. This review summarizes data that indicates that the pathogenesis of chronic ITP may be due to both immune-mediated platelet destruction and/or suppressed platelet production. The relative importance of these two mechanisms undoubtedly varies among patients.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · British Journal of Haematology
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    • "GP-specific autoantibodies have been detected in varying proportions in autoimmune thrombocytopenia (McMillan, Wang & Tani, 2003). Brighton et al. (1996) reported a positivity rate of 49% in 66 ITP-patients and in 6/15 patients with secondary immune TP. Also, 22% of patients with initial diagnosis of non-immune TP were reported positive. "
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    ABSTRACT: Recent evidence suggests that platelet-associated glycoprotein-specific (GP) antibodies represent true positive autoantibodies and can therefore be taken as the gold standard. Earlier tests, which aimed at detecting platelet-associated IgG (PA-IgG), might have been hampered, e.g. by the variation of platelet size in thrombocytopenic patients. In this study, 206 samples with increased PA-IgG from consecutive thrombocytopenic patients were tested further for GP-specific antibodies with a monoclonal antibody immobilized platelet antigen test (MAIPA) using a combination of a GP IIbIIIa-specific and a GP IbIX-specific antibody for immobilization or, in a separate assay, GP V-specific antibody. Mean platelet size was recorded as forward scatter (FSC) of platelets in flow cytometric analysis of PA-IgG. GP-specific antibodies were detected in 49 (24%) of the 206 patient samples. Their presence correlated well with increased PA-IgG (R = 0.769). The mean platelet size and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of PA-IgG were both significantly increased in patients compared with healthy controls (n = 112; P < 0.0001). Notably, PA-IgG was associated with platelet size within the platelet population of both healthy controls and patients (R = 0.999). Further, the probability of GP IIbIIIa and/or IbIX and GP V-specific PA-IgG tended to increase with the mean platelet size of the patients (P = 0.045). In conclusion, large platelets bound more IgG than platelets of normal size, which may explain at least in part the reported low specificity of total PA-IgG measurement. As the PA-IgG displays low specificity compared with the gold standard, its use as such may be abandoned and replaced by tests for platelet-associated GP-specific autoantibodies.
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