Repetition Priming for Newly Formed and Preexisting Associations: Perceptual and Conceptual Influences

Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Journal of Experimental Psychology Learning Memory and Cognition (Impact Factor: 2.86). 10/1995; 21(5):1229-48. DOI: 10.1037/0278-7393.21.5.1229
Source: PubMed


Three experiments demonstrate that association-specific repetition effects can be obtained for both newly formed and preexisting associations and that these effects are sensitive to modality of presentation. After studying a list of word pairs, participants were shown the original intact pairs and pairs formed by recombining the original pairs. In a lexical-decision task in which participants were asked to indicate whether both items were words, responses were faster to newly formed associations in the intact than in the recombined condition. This association-specific repetition priming effect was also observed for preexisting associations when a speeded relatedness judgment task was used. Both effects were found to be attenuated under cross-modal presentation. Finally, an explicit speeded recognition task revealed an associative effect that was not attenuated when modality was crossed for newly formed associations and was actually exaggerated for preexisting associations, suggesting that the repetition priming effects were not produced by conscious recollection. Results are discussed in terms of frameworks that are based either on perceptual representation systems or on a transfer-appropriate processing model.

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Available from: Yonatan Goshen-Gottstein, Feb 10, 2015
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    • "The purpose of the present study was to evaluate further the status of implicit memory for new conceptual associations in amnesia, using tasks that lead to robust associative priming in normal individuals. We evaluated priming in two tasks, a category exemplar generation task that was adapted to assess associative priming by incorporating contextual information on each trial, and a relatedness judgment task in which participants judged whether pairs of words were related in meaning (Goshen-Gottstein & Moscovitch, 1995a). Both of these tasks require analysis of stimulus meaning and are therefore considered to be conceptual in nature; yet, they also differ in their response demands (generation versus classification). "
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    ABSTRACT: In two experiments, we evaluated the status of implicit memory for novel associations in amnesia. Experiment 1 assessed priming in a category exemplar generation task in which contextual information associated with a target could increase the likelihood of target generation. Control participants, but not amnesic patients, showed associative priming. Amnesics' impairment was not due to the use of explicit memory by control subjects but reflected a genuine impairment in implicit memory for novel conceptual associations. Experiment 2 assessed priming in a relatednessjudgment task, in which associative priming was manifest as longer latencies for old than for recombined pairs of unrelated words. Amnesic patients showed intact associative priming in this task. We discuss differences in the status of implicit memory for novel conceptual associations in amnesia, with reference to the nature of the representation that supports priming in the two tasks and the type of processing that is required at test.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2006 · Cognitive Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
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    • "McKoon and Ratcliff obtained consistent evidence for associative repetition priming. Several researchers (Carrol & Kirsner, 1982; Durgunoglu & Neely, 1987; Goshen-Gottstein & Moscovitch, 1995b) have, however, argued that interpretation of the results is problematic because of methodological problems and that therefore the results do not unambiguously support the hypothesis that automatic associative repetition priming can be obtained. One problem mentioned by those who criticized the McKoon and Ratcliff study is that the SOA was relatively long and that therefore the effect could be due to strategic recollective processes (i.e., predictive strategies). "
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    ABSTRACT: This chapter argues that associative repetition priming is of interest not only from an empirical perspective, but also from a more theoretical perspective. The second part of this chapter discusses some examples of how the finding of associative repetition priming can be used to answer some fundamental questions concerning the representation of knowledge in memory and the retrieval of knowledge from memory. More specifically, it addresses three issues that have been raised in the literature. The first issue is whether or not the findings from the associative priming literature provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that there are separate episodic and semantic memory systems. The second issue is whether associative priming is subject to interference. A final issue concerns the question whether priming in the standard associative priming paradigm depends on associative or on semantic relations between words.
    Full-text · Chapter · Nov 2002
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    • "This basic method for examining the representation of "context" by looking at the effects of repairing co-presented information has been used by a number of researchers to examine adult implicit memory for new associations between words in both the visual (e.g. Gabrieli, Keane, Zarella, & Poldrack, 1997; Graf & Schacter, 1987, 1989; Goshen-Gottstein & Moscovitch, 1995a,1995b; Light et al., 1995; Moscovitch, Winocur, & McLachlan, 1986; Musen, Shimamura, & Squire, 1990; Schacter & Graf, 1986,1989) and auditory domains (e.g. Poldrack & Church, 1997). "
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    ABSTRACT: Four experiments explored long-term auditory priming for novel words (nonwords) in preschoolers. In Experiment 1, 2.5-year-olds more accurately identified novel words that had been presented just twice in an initial study phase than nonwords that had not been presented, showing auditory priming for nonwords. Experiments 2, 3, and 4 revealed that the sound representations underlying auditory priming in young children, as in adults, include both abstract and token-specific information about the sounds of new words. In Experiment 2, 3-year-olds showed priming for studied nonsense syllables that changed both token and recorded context from study to test, compared to entirely new test syllables. In Experiment 3, 3-year-olds more accurately identified nonsense syllables that were the same tokens in the same context at study and test than syllables that changed token and context from study to test. In Experiment 4, 3-year-olds more accurately identified the same-token syllables from Experiment 3, even when those syllables were presented in isolation, spliced out of their original contexts. Thus children's rapidly formed representations of new spoken words include both components abstract enough to identify the same sound sequence across changes in word token and changes in phonetic context and components specific to the originally presented token. We argue that the powerful perceptual learning mechanism underlying auditory word priming has the right properties to play a central role in the development of the auditory lexicon.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2001 · Journal of Memory and Language
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