A randomized study comparing the effect of GM-CSF and G-CSF on immune reconstitution after autologous bone marrow transplantation
Haemopoietic growth factors (HGFs) have been shown to accelerate recovery from severe neutropenia after autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) but their effect on immune reconstitution is not well defined. The present study compares, through randomized trial, the in vivo effect of GM-CSF and G-CSF administration on the immune recovery of patients who underwent ABMT. For that purpose, we have sequentially analysed 14 different T, B and NK lymphoid cell subsets using appropriate dual staining during the first year following transplant (days +6, +17, +31, +66, +90, +120, +180, +360). 24 patients with lymphoproliferative disorders (20 lymphomas and four multiple myelomas) and who had undergone ABMT were included in the study. The median age was 43 years (range 22-62 years). All lymphoma patients were homogenously conditioned with BEAM. Our results show that both GM-CSF and G-CSF aid T-cell (CD3+/alpha beta) recovery though their contribution varies depending on the T-cell subset analysed. G-CSF contributed to a significantly faster recovery of CD8+ cells (P = 0.03). The CD8+ cell regeneration was produced mainly by activated cells (CD38+/HLA-DR+) which lacked the CD11b antigen. In contrast, GM-CSF favoured the regeneration of CD4+ cells (through both the CD45RO+ and CD45RA+ subset), leading to a higher CD4+:CD8+ ratio (P = 0.007). No statistically significant differences were detected in the three groups of patients as regards both the recovery of NK cells and NK activity. Furthermore, the use of HGF did not seem to exert a significant influence on the recovery of B lymphocytes. This recovery was based on the CD5+ subpopulation that showed a rapid rise after the first month. We suggest that G-CSF and GM-CSF not only influence myeloid recovery, but also regeneration of the immune system after ABMT.
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