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Is Homophobia Associated with Homosexual Arousal

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Abstract

The authors investigated the role of homosexual arousal in exclusively heterosexual men who admitted negative affect toward homosexual individuals. Participants consisted of a group of homophobic men (n = 35) and a group of nonhomophobic men (n = 29); they were assigned to groups on the basis of their scores on the Index of Homophobia (W. W. Hudson & W. A. Ricketts, 1980). The men were exposed to sexually explicit erotic stimuli consisting of heterosexual, male homosexual, and lesbian videotapes, and changes in penile circumference were monitored. They also completed an Aggression Questionnaire (A. H. Buss & M. Perry, 1992). Both groups exhibited increases in penile circumference to the heterosexual and female homosexual videos. Only the homophobic men showed an increase in penile erection to male homosexual stimuli. The groups did not differ in aggression. Homophobia is apparently associated with homosexual arousal that the homophobic individual is either unaware of or denies.
... Desde la perspectiva psicoanalítica tradicional habría una homofobia presente en la mayoría de las personas, procedente de la represión de la libido homosexual al asumirse una identidad heterosexual, y una homofobia patológica de carácter paranoide, que es consecuencia de la proyección del deseo homosexual y conlleva evitación y ataque ante la amenaza del deseo proyectado (Adams, Wright & Lohr, 1996;Gómez, 2007). Desde la perspectiva social, la homofobia es una actitud aprendida en la familia y grupos primarios de pertenencia e identidad, la cual puede cambiar con la experiencia e inclusión en grupales posteriores (Barra-Almagiá, 2002;Herek & González, 2006). ...
... Por otra parte, los datos tienen una naturaleza de autoinforme. Los resultados de validez pueden diferir con instrumentos de naturaleza proyectiva (Hegarty, 2003), de respuestas automáticas vegetativas (Adams, et al., 1996) y tiempos de reacción en situaciones de coherencia semántica (Cárdenas & Barrientos, 2008b). ...
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Este artículo tiene como objetivos contrastar la estructura unidimensional con seis indicadores de la escala de homofobia (EHF), propuesta por Moral y Martínez (2010), calcular la consistencia interna de la escala, describir su distribución y estimar su validez convergente. Se levantó una muestra incidental de 356 estudiantes. La escala reducida a seis ítems tuvo una consistencia interna adecuada (α = .69). La estructura unidimensional mostró buen ajuste a los datos e invarianza entre hombres y mujeres por Máxima Verosimilitud. Su distribución fue asimétrica positiva. Su correlación con la Escala de Actitudes hacia Lesbianas y Hombres homosexuales (ATLG; Herek, 1984) fue .76. Se recomienda su uso en México.
... For example, some early studies found that a subset of bisexual-identified men do not show bisexual arousal patterns (Rieger et al., 2005;Tollison et al., 1979;see, e.g., Jabbour et al., 2020 for more recent counterevidence). In another study, heterosexual men who expressed more negative attitudes toward gay people were nonetheless physiologically sexually aroused by male erotic stimuli (Adams et al., 1996). It seems that experienced attraction and sexual arousal do not always conform to a static set of self-attributed preferences. ...
... Indeed, our strongest and most consistent findings were that White heterosexual and gay men's racial preferences in sexual attraction to White versus Black people of their preferred gender were generally reflected in their subjective and genital arousal patterns. These results are inconsistent with prior research indicating that self-attributed preferences for partners tend not to align with actual patterns of attraction (Eastwick et al., 2014;Joel et al., 2014Joel et al., , 2017 and subjective or physiological arousal (Adams et al., 1996;Brotto & Yule, 2011;Chivers et al., 2004Chivers et al., , 2007Chivers et al., , 2010Rieger et al., 2005;Tollison et al., 1979). The present research differs, however, in examining self-attributed preferences with respect to race rather than gender. ...
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Racial preferences in sexual attraction are highly visible and controversial. They may also negatively impact those who are excluded. It is unclear whether these preferences are merely self-attributed or extend to patterns of experienced sexual arousal. Furthermore, some argue that racial preferences in sexual attraction reflect idiosyncratic personal preferences, while others argue that they are more systematically motivated and reflect broader negative attitudes toward particular races. In two studies, we examined these issues by measuring the sexual arousal patterns and negative racial attitudes of 78 White men in relation to their racial preferences in sexual attraction to White versus Black people. For both White heterosexual men (n = 40; Study 1) and White gay men (n = 38; Study 2), greater racial preferences in sexual attraction to White versus Black people of their preferred gender were associated with more subjective and genital arousal by erotic stimuli featuring White versus Black people of their preferred gender, and with more explicit and implicit negative attitudes toward Black people. Findings suggest that racial preferences in sexual attraction are reflected in patterns of sexual arousal, and they might also be systematically motivated by negative attitudes toward particular races.
... Andreassen et al. (2016) diskutieren Arbeitssucht (workaholicism) als Bewältigungsstrategie von Ängsten, und Kim et al. (2013), wie die Sublimierung von Angst kreative Praktiken anzustoßen vermag. Ebenso kann Interesse zur Phobie transformiert werden, wie Adams et al. (1996) in psychoanalytischer Tradition anhand empirischer Untersuchungen für das Beispiel latenter Homosexualität und manifester Homophobie aufzeigen. Solche Beispiele veranschaulichen, dass Angst nicht schlicht eine formallogische Inversion des Interesses zum Ausdruck bringt, sondern immer schon mit dem Interesse in vielfacher Beziehung steht (Bedingung, Bedingtsein, Gefühlsambivalenz, Erscheinen in Gestalt des Anderen, Kompensation etc.). ...
... Ageism is widespread in North American culture (Nosek, 2005), and a common ageist attitude toward older adults is that they are incompetent, physically weak, and slow (Greenberg, Schimel, & Martens, 2002) reported that their erections indicated arousal for the straight and lesbian clips, the homophobic men indicated that they were not sexually aroused (despite their erections) to the gay clips. Adams et al. (1996) suggest that these findings may indicate that homophobia is related to gay arousal that the homophobic individuals either deny or are unaware. ...
... Os pais citam também a dificuldade de inclusão no mercado de trabalho. O medo dos pais não é fictício diante da realidade vivida em nosso país, em relação às pessoas LGBT, para quem as atitudes dirigidas, geralmente, são de desconforto, desprezo, repulsa e hostilidade (Adams et al., 1996). Pessoas não heterossexuais sofrem desde a não aceitação da orientação sexual no âmbito familiar, passando pela ausência de mercado de trabalho, além da exclusão e o afastamento das comunidades e escolas (Gomes et al., 2013;Sousa, 2016). ...
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