Article

Effects of sexual intercourse on maximal aerobic power, oxygen pulse, and double product in male sedentary subjects

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Abstract

It is well known that athletes in the United States are told to abstain from sexual intercourse prior to athletic competition. The rationale for such a policy appears to be related to the hypothesis that sexual intercourse decreases the athletes' ability to perform efficiently and/or maximally. But the effect that sexual intercourse may have on exercise performance has not been examined widely. Very likely, the restrictions placed on athletes have little to do with the athletes' physiological ability to substain a particular exercise intensity and/or perform maximally. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sexual intercourse 12 hours prior to maximal treadmill exercise on aerobic power, oxygen pulse, and double product (i.e., an index of relative cardiac work). Eleven male subjects were tested on the treadmill with and without prior sexual intercourse. The results from the maximal exercise tests showed that aerobic power, oxygen pulse, and double product were not different. Therefore, the data suggest that it is justified to dismiss the point of view that sexual intercourse decreases maximal exercise performance.

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... Muscle strength was tested using dynamometry: no influence of sexual intercourse on muscle strength was found (Johnson, 1968). Similar data regarding the effects of coitus on muscle strength were confirmed in 1995 in another study despite involving a population of male sedentary subjects (Boone and Gilmore, 1995). In this study, aerobic performance was studied, and the possible impact of sexual intercourse was evaluated using cyclo-ergometry: sexual intercourse does not impact negatively when it takes place at least 10 h before the competition. ...
... In this study, aerobic performance was studied, and the possible impact of sexual intercourse was evaluated using cyclo-ergometry: sexual intercourse does not impact negatively when it takes place at least 10 h before the competition. A negative effect, however, occurs if there is an interval of less than 2 h between sexual intercourse and the test (Boone and Gilmore, 1995). The effects of sexual intercourse were studied in terms of possible modifications of the cardiovascular variables such as maximal aerobic power and oxygen pulse (Boone and Gilmore, 1995). ...
... A negative effect, however, occurs if there is an interval of less than 2 h between sexual intercourse and the test (Boone and Gilmore, 1995). The effects of sexual intercourse were studied in terms of possible modifications of the cardiovascular variables such as maximal aerobic power and oxygen pulse (Boone and Gilmore, 1995). All the variables considered were not influenced by sexual intercourse, which did not decrease maximal exercise performance. ...
Article
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Sexual activity before competition has been considered as a possible cause for reduced performance since ancient Greece and Rome. Recently, the hypothesis that optimal sport performance could be influenced by a variety of factors including sexual activity before competition has been investigated. However, few scientific data are available, with the exception of anecdotal reports of individual experiences. The present systematic review focused on the current scientific evidence on the effects of sexual activity on sport performance regardless of sport type. Data were obtained following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, using PubMed/MEDLINE, ISI/Web of Science, the Cochrane Collaboration Database, Cochrane Library, Evidence Database (PEDro), Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) Search review, National Guidelines, ProQuest, and Scopus, all searched from inception Further, to broaden the search, no time filter nor language restriction have been applied. Also, the gray literature was mined using Google Scholar. Only relevant scientific articles reporting outcomes of athletic performance after sexual activity were considered. The impact of sexual activity before a sport competition is still unclear, but most studies generally seem to exclude a direct impact of sexual activity on athletic aerobic and strength performance. The most important aspect seems to be the interval from the time of the sports competition that affects negatively the performance if it is shorter than two hours. There are possible negative effects from some possible concurrent wrong behaviors such as smoking or alcohol abuse. There are no investigations about the effect of masturbation in this context. There is a need to clarify the effects of sexual activity on competition performance. The present evidence suggests that sexual activity the day before competition does not exert any negative impact on performance, even though high-quality, randomized controlled studies are urgently needed.
... Although empirical studies show sexual activity has minimal or no effect on athletic performance. This result was showed in studies where the sexual activity was carried out a day before the testing session (Boone & Gilmore, 1995;Johnson, 1968;Sztajzel, Périat, Marti, Krall, & Rutishauser, 2000). A little effect was observed in short time after sexual activity (within two hours), however, that disappeared with a sufficient recovery time (Boone & Gilmore, 1995;Pupiš, Raković, Stanković, & Savanović, 2010). ...
... This result was showed in studies where the sexual activity was carried out a day before the testing session (Boone & Gilmore, 1995;Johnson, 1968;Sztajzel, Périat, Marti, Krall, & Rutishauser, 2000). A little effect was observed in short time after sexual activity (within two hours), however, that disappeared with a sufficient recovery time (Boone & Gilmore, 1995;Pupiš, Raković, Stanković, & Savanović, 2010). There is another point of view which claims that sexual activity could be often associated with dangerous behaviour for the performance (night time activities, lack of sleep, alcohol intake) (Anshel, 1981). ...
Article
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Sexual activity is often associated with a negative influence on physical performance. Likewise, sexual abstinence before a sport activity is not only a recent trend. Although scientific data points to none or small effect. On the other hand, testosterone levels could be positive affected by sexual restraint. This pilot study aims to test a complex research approach to measuring effect of sexual abstinence on sport performance in combative sports. Sample consists of two athletes aged 26 years. The length of the relationships with their partners was 4±1.4 years. Both were tested three times in the ten days. Testing protocol included blood sample (testosterone level), hand dynamometry, Wingate test, YMCA bench press test, reactometry and determination test. Supplementing qualitative data was collected through daily record form and closing interview. Period of sexual restraint lasted one week. Although there is no united trend, results show some changes in physical and psychical abilities in both cases. Also changes in sexual fantasy, spontaneous arousal and appetence, moods or concentration were reported by participants. This pilot study uses a comprehensive design and suggest new ways for future research, which is needed due to lack of empirical data in this issue.
... Compared with the abstinence condition, sexual intercourse did not affect measures of cardiorespiratory exercise performance or mental acuity. 12,13 Another study was published in a very obscure online electronic journal (which ceased publication in 2015) that reported no significant association between marathon running performance and the number of sexual events participated in 48 hours before running a marathon. 14 No information on marathon times was provided. ...
... 11 Later, in 1995, Boone and Gilmore reported similar findings as Johnson's, in that at 12 hours after sexual activity, 11 male participants showed no statistical differences in cardiorespiratory exercise performance compared with a control condition. 13 Another study published in 2000 examined the effect of sexual intercourse on cardiorespiratory exercise performance. In that study, neither variables of cardiorespiratory exercise performance or mental concentration were statistically affected at 2 hours after sexual intercourse or 10 hours after sexual intercourse (intercourse lasting 15e30 minutes), compared with a control condition. ...
Article
Introduction: The idea that sexual activity can affect athletic performance has been a matter of conjecture for the past several decades. Aim: To provide preliminary data on whether sexual activity the evening before several physical exercise performance tests affects performance the next day. Methods: Eight participants (mean age, 28 ± 5 years) underwent several physical exercise performance tests on 3 different mornings, under 3 conditions: (i) no sexual intercourse the night before the tests (control), (ii) sexual intercourse the night before the tests, and (iii) yoga the night before the tests (randomized, single-blinded). Main Outcome Measures: Physical work capacity, lower body muscular power (standing vertical jump), upper body strength (handgrip strength), reaction time, and upper body musculoskeletal endurance (number of push-ups completed). Results: All participants experienced orgasm through intercourse. The more pleasurable the orgasm, the lower the systolic blood pressure (SBP) on the day after intercourse (Spearman's rho = -0.86; P =.007). For every 2% increase in the total orgasm score, SBP decreased by 1 mmHg. Intercourse lasted 13 minutes; mean heart rate (HR) and caloric expenditure ranged from 88 to 145 beats/minute and from 53 to 190 kcal, respectively. There were no significant differences in the physical working capacity that elicited an HR of 170 beats/minute, number of push-ups completed, vertical jump height, grip strength, or reaction time across the 3 conditions. Conclusion: Orgasm through sexual activity on the night before physical exercise may reduce SBP; however, we were unable to demonstrate a statistically significant difference in physical exercise performance in any of the 3 conditions. Zavorsky GS, Vouyoukas E, Pfaus JG. Sexual Activity the Night Before Exercise Does Not Affect Various Measures of Physical Exercise Performance. Sex Med 2019;XX:XXX–XXX.
... The results obtained in this study, which indicate that the values of FCM have a high level of similarity, are coincident with several works which obtained similar results during race exercises. Examples are the work of Millet et al. (2002), Mccolle et al. (2001), Crouter et al. (2001), Heil et al. (1995), Kiss et al. (1996), Lima et al. (1996), Maia -Filho et al. (1996), Olson et al. (1995), in addition to Boone and Gilmore (1995) (table 4.). ...
Article
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The control of some parameters along the periods is an important procedure of physical preparation in order to establish the in- tensity of the correct training. The maximum heart rate is an important variable in the control of the training. The objective of this study was to compare the response of the FCM evidence obtained in the VO 2max of fi eld, with a proof of anaerobic profi le in young practitioners of regular physical activity. They made part of the study of a group of 34 subjects (25 men and 9 women), with an age range between 20 and 29 years. All regular physical activity is done in the last 5 months. There were a total of four racing proofs in a 400 meters athletic track. One of the tests had an anaerobic profi le (T-C 600MTS = Test race of 600 meters), and three other with aerobic characteristics, to determine the VO 2max (TC - C12min = Cooper Test, 12 minutes; TC-C 2400mt s = Cooper Test, 2,400 meters; TC-C 3200mts = Test run of 3,200 meters). The own evaluated selected the order of their tests, and at least two, according to their level of interest, forming this way, different groups. This way, were formed the following groups: (TC-C 12min vs. TC-C 600mt s) (TC-C 2400mts vs. TC-C 600mts ) (TC-C 12min vs. TC-C 2400mts ) and (TC-C 12min vs. TC- C 3200mts ). The statistical proces- sing used in a descriptive analysis was next to the Student "t" test for paired data, with a signifi cance level of P < 0.05. The results obtained from men, indicated in all groups, no signifi cant difference between the responses of the FCM. Even among women, the results were similar, except the group (TC-C 2400mts vs. TC - C 600mts ) where he recorded signifi cant differences (P < 0.05), compared to a FCM of 197 + 4.6 bpm (TC- C 2400mts ), facing the 190 + 5.5 bpm (TC-C 600mt s). As a completion of this work, it is possible to take as a reference, to estimate the FCM, the fi eld tests to determine VO 2max applied in this study, as well as a proof of anaerobic profi le, such as the 600 meters with maximum speed.
... Yurick) but he was unable to find the raw data as the study was conducted over 50 years ago 48 . Thus, nine crossover studies totaling 132 male subjects and one female subject were used in this metaanalysis 16,41,[43][44][45]47,[49][50][51] (Table S2). All studies measured physical fitness outcomes in healthy, physically active men. ...
Article
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Several anecdotal reports suggest that sex before competition can affect performance. Our objective was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether athletic performance or some physical fitness measure is affected by prior sexual activity. Web of Science (all databases) and Google Scholar were used to identify studies from which adult healthy subjects were included. As all studies were crossover trials, an inverse variance statistical method with random effects was used to minimize the uncertainty of the pooled effect estimate. Bias was assessed via the revised Cochrane Risk of Bias tool (RoB 2) with a "per protocol" analysis. Nine crossover studies (133 subjects, 99% male) were used in this meta-analysis. All those studies did not examine athletic performance per se, but all studies assessed one or more physical fitness parameters. The RoB 2 suggested that overall, there were some concerns with bias. As there was moderate heterogeneity amongst the different outcomes (Tau² = 0.02, Chi-square = 17.2, df = 8, p = 0.03, I² = 54%), a random-effects model was used. The results neither favored abstinence nor sexual activity before a physical fitness test [standardized mean difference = 0.03 (− 0.10 to 0.16), Z = 0.47, p = 0.64, where a negative standardized mean difference favors abstinence, and a positive standardized mean difference favors sexual activity]. The results demonstrate that sexual activity within 30 min to 24 h before exercise does not appear to affect aerobic fitness, musculoskeletal endurance, or strength/power.
... johnson (1967) conducted a research on the maximum power output, from which it emerged that coitus night before a sport activity does not affect the maximum strength. Likewise, it was shown that sexual activity 12 hours before the sport activity does not affect the aerobic performance (Boone & Gilmore, 1995). Two hours after sexual activity, showed a minor difference in the heart rate increased on a cyclo-ergometer, however these symptoms disappeared 10 hours after sexual activity, which disproved the possibility of influencing the performance of sexual activity with sufficient recovery time. ...
Conference Paper
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Sexual abstinence before exercise is ingrained. Present knowledge in these fields is inconsistent. This paper aims is to relate combat sport performance and sexual activity. The main goal is to describe the subjective perception of the impact of sexual activity on the sport performance and potential changes in sexual behaviour associated with increased training and competition loads at combative sports athletes and describe the sexual behaviour the athletes have in combative sports. Data was collected through anonymous questionnaires from 67 athletes actively competing in combative sports over 18 years old and older. Competitive level of the athlete covers all levels including regional to national team. The result shows that the frequency modification of sexual habits before and during competitions at the period when the burden rises to a competitive level. Frequently mentioned changes in sexual activity before the competition, was reduced frequency of sexual activity or abstinence. In the research the athletes indicated that in a 47% they feel some changes during the sports performance connected to sexual activity and an 83% perceive changes in the psychological component of their performance. In the psychological component are changes in most cases positive, but in the opposite in physical component are changes more negative. The group of athletes which were part of the research exhibited an increasing appetite for sexual activity and numerous of sexual partners than the average population in Czech Republic. In light of the results it can be presumed that there is some influence of sexual activity or abstinence on combative sports athletes’ performance, even though some research shows the opposite opinion. The knowledge of this influence is incomplete and needs another review. Mainly in research effect of sexual abstinence on sport performance.
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of sexual activity on cycle ergometer stress test parameters, on plasmatic testosterone levels and on concentration capacity in high-level male athletes. Experimental design. Analysis of two days of testing accomplished in a laboratory setting, comparing a day with to a day without sexual activity (control day). Participants. Fifteen high-level male athletes, consisting of 8 team players, 5 endurance athletes and 2 weight-lifters, participated in the study. Measures. Each subject completed the following on each test day: two maximal graded stress tests on a cycle ergometer and a one-hour exercise stress test coupled to an arithmetic mental concentration test. Blood samples of testosterone were obtained and cardiac activity of each athlete was monitored with a 24-hour ECG tape recording over the two test days. Significantly higher differences were achieved for post-effort heart rate (HR) values at 5 minutes (p<0.01) and at 10 minutes (p<0.01) during the recovery phase of the morning stress test 2 hours after sexual activity. These differences disappeared during the recovery phase of the afternoon stress test performed approximately 10 hours after sexual intercourse took place. Our findings show that sexual activity had no detrimental influence on the maximal workload achieved and on the athletes' mental concentration. However, the higher posteffort HR values after the maximal stress test on the morning of sexual intercourse suggest that the recovery capacity of an athlete could be affected if he had sexual intercourse approximately 2 hours before a competition event.
Article
This study was conducted to determine the cardiovascular effects of 15 minutes of hot tub immersion at 39 degrees C. Five college-age subjects (4 males and 1 female) volunteered to participate in this study. Assessments were made while sitting first in a chair for 5 minutes and then in the hot tub for 15 minutes. Oxygen consumption (VO2) and cardiac output (Q) measurements were made using a Medical Graphics CPX/D metabolic analyzer. Cardiac output was determined at minute 15 using the indirect CO2 rebreathing procedure. The data were analyzed using the analysis of variance with repeated measures, which indicated that at minute 15, heart rate (HR) and Q were increased, which increased VO2. The increase in Q was due to the heart rate (HR) response and the decrease in systemic vascular resistance (SVR). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were decreased while double product (DP) was increased. There were no changes in stroke volume (SV) or arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-vO2 diff). These findings indicate that the HR and Q responses are necessary to the increase in metabolism (VO2). Hot tube use within these time and temperature constraints should reduce concern over hot tub safety in college-age subjects.
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This work clarifies problems of the perception of sexual activity by long-distance athletes before physical loading. The group that answered a questionnaire comprised 62 race-walkers and long-distance runners from 6 European countries age of 32 years ± 8 years. Questionnaire was composed of 8 closed questions with extra questions. More than 90% of addressed athletes suppose that having a sex 12 hours before endurance performance does not influence it. Immediately after sexual intercourse 40% of athletes have worse feelings during intensive loading. At the aerobic loading it does not change subjects’ feelings or heart rate. Unambiguously we cannot say that having sex before physical loading influences performance positively or negatively.
Article
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La presente revisión bibliográfica se enfoca en presentar la evidencia científica que contradice el mito de que mantener relaciones sexuales coitales es perjudicial antes de realizar alguna actividad que requiere de un rendimiento físico máximo. Aunque en la actualidad este mito sigue difundiéndose en algunos ambientes deportivos, no existen estudios que indiquen que mantener relaciones sexuales coitales sea perjudicial. Con base en mediciones de parámetros fisiológicos, metabólicos y psicológicos, se ha llegado a determinar que el coito no afecta negativa ni positivamente el rendimiento físico. La escasa evidencia científica hace que este tema cobre importancia y se sugiere que se realicen más investigaciones para brindar consejos y educación apropiada a las poblaciones físicamente activas de diversas edades, como es el caso de los deportistas.
Article
Background: There has been considerable debate as to whether sexual activity prior to an athletic event can affect physical performance. The goal of the study was to determine if sexual activity the evening before several physical performance tests affected the results compared to the same performance tests after five days of abstinence. Methods: Ten, monogamous, married young men (28±7 years old, body mass index = 25.5±2.7 kg/m2) underwent a six-physical performance/balance/agility tests (forearm grip strength, balance, lateral movement, reaction time, anaerobic power, and maximal oxygen uptake) on three different days. The first day was a familiarization session, where the subjects familiarized themselves with the performance tests. Then, two randomized, single-blind mornings sessions occurred there was either no sexual intercourse on the five days prior to the tests (control condition) or sexual intercourse on the night before the tests (experimental condition) in a randomized counterbalanced, fashion. The six performance tests were performed in the same order for each of the three sessions. A paired-t-test was used to compare each fitness test between conditions. Results: The results showed that sexual activity had no effect on any of the six physical performance tests. Conclusions: This suggests that physical performance is unaffected by sexual activity within 24 hours prior to competition in young men.
Article
Background: Sex has been deemed taboo for athletic performance going back to ancient Rome and Greece, as the act of sex was thought to promote ease and a sense of relaxation. Aim: This study examined the effect of sexual intercourse completed 12 hours before a bout of isokinetic dynamometry on muscle force production in strength-trained men. Methods: 12 Healthy physically active men (age = 25.6 ± 3.8 years) who were sexually active participated in this study. After men completed a familiarization session on day 1, muscle force was measured during 5 sets of maximal unilateral knee extension (KE) and knee flexion exercise at 30 deg/s after men engaged in or abstained from sexual intercourse within the previous 12 hours. The order of this treatment was randomized across participants, and time of day was maintained across all sessions. Outcomes: Lower extremity muscle strength and endurance were measured. Results: Data showed no significant effect (P = .34 and P = .39) of sexual intercourse on peak or average KE or knee flexion torque. For example, after sexual intercourse, KE torque was similar in set 1 (198.9 ± 39.1 ft/lb vs 190.2 ± 28.7 ft/lb) and set 5 (163.2 ± 30.8 ft/lb vs 159.4 ± 35.2 ft/lb) compared to when men abstained from sexual intercourse. Clinical translation: Engaging in sexual intercourse on the night before exercise is not detrimental to muscular strength in active men. Conclusions: This study is strengthened by use of a homogeneous sample of active men as well as precise determination of changes in muscle function via isokinetic dynamometry. However, completion of sexual intercourse was confirmed through self-report rather than direct observation, so it is not certain if participants actually met the requirements of each condition. Results demonstrate that sexual intercourse does not significantly impact lower extremity muscle force, which suggests that restricting sexual activity before short-term, high-force activity is unnecessary. Valenti LM, Suchil C, Beltran G, et al. Effect of Sexual Intercourse on Lower Extremity Muscle Force in Strength-Trained Men. J Sex Med 2018;XX:XXX-XXX.
Article
Introduction: If the oxygen pulse (PulmaxO2 = VO(2max)/HR(max), mLO(2 ·beat-1) of Mexican atlhetes practicing diverse sports is caused by sportfit adjustment of different proportion, for both maximal O2 uptake (VO(max)) and maximal heart rate (HR(max)), then we should see significant PulmaxO2 differences among sport speciality groups. Material and methods: Voluntaries were non-athletes (n = 31) and athletes: Karate-Do (n = 8), 400 dash meters (dm) (n = 7), 1,500 dm (n = 13), 5,000 dm (n = 15), 10,000 dm (n = 8), marathon (n = 6), 20 km walking (n = 8), soccer (n = 10) and rowing (n = 8). They all accomplished an increasing ergometric (ramp) test of maximum strength while seated on an electronic cycle-ergometer in an open spirometric system and at 2,240 m of altitude. Results: Both the correlation and the linear regression showed positive relationships between PulmaxO2 and absolute VO(2max) between groups, but they also showed negative relationships between PuimaxO2 and HR(max) in 1,500 dm, 5,000 dm, walking and rowing. The post-hoc (Student-Newman-Keuls) analyses showed similar relative VO(2max) in all sports groups. Non-athletes and marathon runners had the smaller and greater PulmaxO2 respectively. PulmaxO2 differences were found within groups, which were more evident after group rearrangement by absolute VO(max) attributed to different degree of sportier resistance adjustment. Conclusions: PulmaxO2 was more closely related to absolute VO(2max) than to HR(max). PulmaxO2 was a noninvasive indicator of complementary evaluation of the cardiorespiratory function.
Article
Introduction The question of whether sexual intercourse can harm athletic performance is a long-debated topic since first sport competitions were invented. Therefore, due to the lack of solid evidence, we aimed to evaluate the effects of sexual intercourse on muscle training performance. Materials and methods Physically and sexually active, 50 men (age=29.3±1.14 years) were enrolled in the study. Participants completed three weight training sessions and all sessions were at the same time of the day. The maximum weight was adjusted in the first session. In the second and third sessions, they performed five repetitions of the squat with their maximum weight for each set with a total of five sets after participating in and abstaining from sexual intercourse the night before, respectively. The duration of sexual intercourse was measured with a stopwatch. Results The mean duration of sex was measured to be 13.8±3.61 min. Furthermore, the mean lifted weight before sex was calculated to be 109.4±11.41 kg and the mean lifted weight after sex was calculated to be 107±11.05 kg. According to obtained data, sexual intercourse has a significant detrimental effect on maximum weight in squat training (p=0001). Conclusion Results demonstrate that sexual intercourse within 24 hours before exercise have detrimental effect on lower extremity muscle force, which suggests that restricting sexual activity before a short-term activity may be necessary.
Article
The relationships between sport and sexuality in males are of great social and clinical interest, because of sports and motor activities that highly promote social and sexual relationships. Even if few literature exist, two main questions should be taken into account: whether and how physical exercise and sport positively or negatively influence sexual health and behavior and/or whether and how sexual behavior may affect a sub-sequent sport performance. Physical exercise and sport per se can influence, positively or negatively, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function and, consequently, the individual’s reproductive and/or sexual health. This depends on individual factors such as genetic and epigenetic ones and on different variables involved in the practice of sport activities (type of sport, intensity and duration of training, doping and drug use and abuse, nutrition, supplements, psychological stress, allostatic load, etc.). If well conducted, motor and sport activities could have beneficial effects on sexual health in males. Among different lifestyle changes, influencing sexual health, regular physical activity is fundamental to antagonize the onset of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, competitive sport can lead both reproductive and/or sexual tract damages and dysfunctions, transient (genital pain, hypoesthesia of the genitalia, hypogonadism, DE, altered sexual drive, etc.) or permanent (hypogonadism, DE, etc.), by acting directly (traumas of the external genitalia, saddle-related disorders in cyclists, etc.) or indirectly (exercise-related hypogonadism, drug abuse, doping, stress, etc.). Sexual activities shortly performed before a sport competition could differently influence sport performance. Due to the few existing data, it is advisable to avoid an absolute pre-competition sexual abstinence.
Chapter
There is still a huge controversy around this topic! There is a need to find an answer to the question that has vexed generations of soccer players. The received wisdom among soccer coaches is that sex the night before the game is wrong. Is this true? In this chapter we will deal with different testimonies and some evidence in order to clarify this subject.
Article
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Objectives. The purpose of the present study was to systematically evaluate the scientific evidence about the impact of pre-competition sexual activity on athletic performance. Methods. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement, PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library, ProQuest, Physiotherapy Evidence Database(PEDro), and Google Scholar searches were performed with appropriate keywords without time and language restrictions for studies evaluating the impact of sexual activity on athletic performance. The titles and abstracts were reviewed by two independent reviewers. The methodological quality of the studies and the risk of bias were checked using the quality assessment tool of the Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP). Results. We found that most studies on this topic had low methodological quality. Out of the456 articles retrieved in the search, only seven met the inclusion criteria of the review. In four of these studies, sexual activity10–12 hours before competition did not alter short-term physiological testing results including maximum-effort grip strength test, hamstring flexibility, reaction time, aerobic power (stair-climbing exercise), VO2max (treadmill and cycle ergometer test), sub-maximal graded-exercise test, muscular endurance, oxygen pulse, double product, testosterone, cortisol, blood glucose concentrations, and mental concentration. In one study, significantly higher differences were reported for post-maximal stress test heart rate at 5 and 10 minutes during two hours of recovery period after sexual intercourse, which disappeared when a maximal stress test was performed 10 hours after sexual activity. In another study immediately after sexual intercourse, 40% of long-distance athletes had difficulty during intensive loading, while in 90% of the addressed athletes, sexual activity 12 hours before the endurance test did not have an influence on performance. Conclusion. Based on mainly low-quality and heterogeneously designed studies, it can be concluded that having sex at least 10–12 hours before athletic events does not negatively influence physiological test results and possibly athletic performance. However, having sex immediately or a few hours before a competition has negative psychological or physiological effects on athletic performance.
Article
Interest in comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation over the past 25 years spawned a series of small investigations concerning the heart rate, blood pressure, and ischemic response to sexual intercourse. This information was adequate for advising patients about return to sexual activity after a myocardial infarction or cardiac surgery. However, the introduction of medications for erectile dysfunction enabled impotent cardiac patients to engage in sexual activity and has highlighted the need for more detailed information concerning cardiovascular physiology during coitus. Review of the medical literature indicates a remarkable paucity of such data despite dramatic advances in most other aspects of cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology. This brief paper gives an overview of the current knowledge of the cardiovascular response to sexual activity and, within the framework of advances in cardiology, highlights areas where it appears important to fill in the knowledge gap.
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