Identification of haptoglobin as an alternative ligand for CD11b/CD18. J Immunol
Division of Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Leuven, Belguim. The Journal of Immunology
(Impact Factor: 4.92).
Haptoglobin is an acute phase protein with presumed anti-inflammatory activities. We report that purified fluorescein-labeled haptoglobin 1-1 binds to THP1 and U937 promonocytic cell lines, to monocytes, to granulocytes, and to a subset of CD8+ T cells and to NK cells. Studies with radioiodinated haptoglobin on THP1 cells were consistent with specific binding to one class of receptors with a density of 1.7 x 10(5) binding sites per cell and a low affinity of 6.5 x 10(-6) Kd. Binding was increased by Ca2+ and by Ca2+ and ADP. Binding to THP1 and U937 cells could be inhibited by preincubation with nonfluoresceinated haptoglobin and by fibrinogen, but not by albumin, transferrin, or alpha1-acid glycoprotein. Fibrinogen binds to the CD11b/CD18 integrin. We therefore examined whether haptoglobin has the same receptor. The anti-CD11b mAb44 indeed inhibited the binding of fluoresceinated haptoglobin to THP1 and U937 cell lines, and haptoglobin inhibited the binding of the anti-CD11b mAb anti-Leu15 and mAb44 to both cell lines. An anti-CD18 mAb partly inhibited the binding of fluoresceinated haptoglobin to THP1 and U937, indicating that the beta-chain of MAC-1 is also involved in haptoglobin binding. There was no interference between the binding of anti-CD4, anti-CD11a, or anti-CD11c mAb and haptoglobin binding to THP1 cells. Binding of haptoglobin to purified CD11b/CD18 indicates that it binds directly to the receptor. Haptoglobin is an alternative low affinity ligand for the CD11b/CD18 integrin, suggesting that this acute phase protein might regulate MAC-1-dependent cell function in vivo.
Available from: Anna Bassols
- "However, Hp is the most generally increased APP by this viral infection, suggesting that it may play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease and the modulation of the immune response, as suggested by other authors (Gomez-Laguna et al., 2010). In this sense, Hp is able to bind monocytes (El Ghmati et al., 1996) and B-cells (Langlois et al., 1997 ), and has immunomodulatory effects (Arredouani et al., 2003; Huntoon et al., 2008). Furthermore, it interacts with CD163, one of the receptors for PRRSV, increasing expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL- 10 (Van Gorp et al., 2008). "
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ABSTRACT: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (PRRSV) is the etiologic agent of PRRS, one of the most important diseases in swine worldwide. In the present work, the effects of different PRRSV strains were tested on a piglet experimental model to study the induced acute phase response. For this purpose, pigs (n = 15 for each group) were intranasally inoculated with one of five PRRSV strains (isolates EU10, 12, 17, 18 from genotype 1 and isolate JA-142 from genotype 2). The acute phase response was monitored by measuring acute phase proteins (APPs). Specifically, the serum concentration of haptoglobin (Hp), C-reactive protein (CRP) and Pig-Major Acute Protein (Pig-MAP) was determined at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 days p.i. Clinical signs and growth performance were also monitored during the experiment. All animals became viremic after inoculation during the study period. The APP response was heterogeneous and dependent on the strain, being strains EU10, EU 18 and JA-142 those that induced the highest response and the strongest clinical signs. In general, Hp was the most sensitive biomarker for PRRSV infection, CRP behaved as moderate and Pig-MAP was the less responsive during the course of PRRSV experimental infection. Hp and CRP were significantly discriminatory between infected and control pigs, but not Pig-MAP.
Available from: Robert Clive Landis
- "Alternative receptor mechanisms and endotoxin contamination were excluded as confounding sources of intracellular signals. Mac-1 was eliminated as a possible alternative candidate receptor for haptoglobin . Endotoxin levels in all cell cultures were below 5 pg/mL and inhibition of IL-10 secretion by phagocytic inhibitors also ruled out endotoxin as a possible trigger. "
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ABSTRACT: Intraplaque hemorrhage causes adaptive remodelling of macrophages towards a protective phenotype specialized towards handling iron and lipid overload, denoted Mhem. The Mhem phenotype expresses elevated levels of hemoglobin (Hb) scavenger receptor, CD163, capable of endocytosing pro-oxidant free Hb complexed to acute phase protein haptoglobin (Hp). It is notable that individuals homozygous for the Hp 2 allele (a poorer antioxidant) are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease compared to the Hp 1 allele. In this study, we examined whether scavenging of polymorphic Hp:Hb complexes differentially generated downstream anti-inflammatory signals in cultured human macrophages culminating in interleukin (IL)-10 secretion. We describe an anti-inflammatory signalling pathway involving phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase activation upstream of Akt phosphorylation (pSer473Akt) and IL-10 secretion. The pathway is mediated specifically through CD163 and is blocked by anti-CD163 antibody or phagocytosis inhibitor. However, levels of pSer473Akt and IL-10 were significantly diminished when scavenging polymorphic Hp2-2:Hb complexes compared to Hp1-1:Hb complexes
. Impaired anti-inflammatory macrophage signaling through a CD163/pAkt/IL-10 axis may thus represent a possible Hp2-2 disease mechanism in atherosclerosis.
Available from: Shi Zixue
- "Another down-regulated protein, haptoglobin (Hp), is a positive acute phase protein. It strongly binds hemoglobin and has anti-inflammatory activities and binds to CD11b/CD18 integrins representing major receptors on the cell membranes of leukocytes . Haptoglobin also has a role in stimulating angiogenesis and has been identified as an angiogenic factor in sera from patients with systemic vasculitis . "
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ABSTRACT: Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. Virulent strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) cause severe disease in pigs characterized by immunosuppression, thrombocytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation, which causes significant economic losses to the pig industry worldwide.
To reveal proteomic changes in swine serum during the acute stage of lethal CSFV infection, 5 of 10 pigs were inoculated with the virulent CSFV Shimen strain, the remainder serving as uninfected controls. A serum sample was taken at 3 days post-infection from each swine, at a stage when there were no clinical symptoms other than increased rectal temperatures (≥ 40 °C). The samples were treated to remove serum albumin and immunoglobulin (IgG), and then subjected to two-dimension differential gel electrophoresis.
Quantitative intensity analysis revealed 17 protein spots showing at least 1.5-fold quantitative alteration in expression. Ten spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF MS or LTQ MS. Expression of 4 proteins was increased and 6 decreased in CSFV-infected pigs. Functions of these proteins included blood coagulation, anti-inflammatory activity and angiogenesis.
These proteins with altered expression may have important implications in the pathogenesis of classical swine fever and provide a clue for identification of biomarkers for classical swine fever early diagnosis.
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