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Infant-directed speech facilitates lexical learning in adults hearing Chinese: Implications for language acquisition

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Experiments 1 and 2 examined the effects of infant-directed (ID) speech on adults' ability to learn an individual target word in sentences in an unfamiliar, non-Western language (Chinese). English-speaking adults heard pairs of sentences read by a female, native Chinese speaker in either ID or adult-directed (AD) speech. The pairs of sentences described slides of 10 common objects. The Chinese name for the object (the target word) was placed in an utterance-final position in experiment 1 (n = 61) and in a medial position in experiment 2 (n = 79). At test, each Chinese target word was presented in isolation in AD speech in a recognition task. Only subjects who heard ID speech with the target word in utterance-final position demonstrated learning of the target words. The results support assertions that ID speech, which tends to put target words in sentence-final position, may assist infants in segmenting and remembering portions of the linguistic stream. In experiment 3 (n = 23), subjects judged whether each of the ID and AD speech samples prepared for experiments 1 and 2 were directed to an adult or to an infant. Judgements were above chance for two types of sentence: ID speech with the target word in the final position and AD speech with the target word in a medial position. In addition to indirectly confirming the results of experiments 1 and 2, these findings suggest that at least some of the prosodic features which comprise ID speech in Chinese and English must overlap.
... Compared to ADS, IDS can facilitate word learning and recognition in infants (Estes & Hurley, 2013;Foursha-Stevenson et al., 2017;Ma et al., 2011;Singh et al., 2009) and adults (Filippi, Gingras, & Fitch, 2014;Golinkoff & Alioto, 1995). At the neural level, compared to ADS, IDS enhances the processing of statistical regularities in speech (Bosseler, Teinonen, Tervaniemi, & Huotilainen, 2016), the brain response to familiarized words in infants (Zangl & Mills, 2007), and cerebral blood flow in infants (Saito et al., 2007). ...
... Furthermore, although developmental research revealed a decline across age in learners' dependence on IDS in word learning (Ma et al., 2011), other evidence shows that IDS facilitated word learning even in adults (e.g., Golinkoff & Alioto, 1995). Thus, it is still unclear whether the benefits of IDS extend beyond child language acquisition, and beyond its capacity to direct attention. ...
... This study investigated whether adult monolingual English-speaking participants learn words in a new language (Chinese) better when the words were presented in song and IDS than when they were presented in ADS. Adult participants were recruited to examine whether the benefits of IDS extend beyond child language acquisition, and beyond its capacity to direct attention (Ma et al., 2011, Golinkoff & Alioto, 1995. No participants had received prior instruction in Mandarin Chinese. ...
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Two separate lines of research have examined the influence of song and infant-directed speech (IDS – a speech register that includes some melodic features) on language learning, suggesting that the use of musical attributes in speech input can enhance language learning. However, the benefits of these two types of stimuli have never been directly compared. In this investigation, we compared the effects of song and IDS for immediate word learning and long-term memory of the learned words. This study examines whether the highly musical stimuli (i.e., song) would facilitate language learning more than the less musical stimuli (i.e., IDS). English-speaking adults were administered a word learning task, with Mandarin Chinese words presented in either adult-directed speech (ADS), IDS, or song. Participants’ word learning performance was assessed immediately after the word learning task (immediate word learning) and then one day later (long-term memory). Results showed that both song and IDS facilitated immediate word learning and long-term memory of the words; however, this facilitative effect did not differ between IDS and song, suggesting that the relationship between the degree of musicality and language learning performance is not linear. In addition, song and IDS were found to facilitate the word association process (mapping a label to its referent) rather than the word recognition process. Finally, participants’ confidence in their answers might not differ among ADS, IDS, and sung words.
... For reviews, see (Pine, 1994;Richards, 1994). Each are thought to bestow distinct learning advantages on the language learner, such as more accurate speech segmentation, and word recognition (Golinkoff & Alioto, 1995) 1 . Given the supporting role of child-directed speech in facilitating various aspects of language acquisition, we considered the possibility that distributional signals in the language environment of younger learners could, by extension, better support the discovery of lexical classes compared to speech to older children. ...
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Prior work has demonstrated that distributional dependencies between word or morpheme-like entities in artificial and naturalistic language can detect clusters of words which broadly conform to the categories of the adult language (Brent & Siskind, 2001; Mintz, 2002; Redington & Chater, 1998). In this work, we examine the hypothesis that the distributional statistics useful for the discovery of the noun category are more useful in speech to younger children compared to older children (approximately 1-3 vs. 3-6 years of age). First, using a novel method for quantifying the extent that nouns occur in mutually shared contexts, we demonstrate an advantage for speech to younger compared to older children. Second, we develop a theoretical framework for understanding why caregiver speech might be scaffolded in this way, and test its predictions against an array of information theoretic patterns computed on child-directed speech. Our account, based on entropy-maximization, and anchoring originally proposed by (Cameron-Faulkner et al., 2003), clarifies issues in incremental learning from non-stationary input-the problem faced by language learners-and paves the way towards integrating the scaffolded organisation of children's early language environment into computational models of acquisition.
... For instance, speech stimuli with the prosodic properties of IDS have been shown to facilitate infants' neural encoding of speech (Kalashnikova, Peter, et al., 2018;Zangl & Mills, 2007), vowel discrimination (Trainor & Desjardins, 2002), segmentation of continuos speech (Thiessen et al., 2005), and word learning (Graf Estes & Hurley, 2013;Ma et al., 2011). Adults also benefit from these properties as they are more successful at learning novel words when they are produced in IDS than in ADS (Golinkoff & Alioto, 1995;Ma et al., 2020). ...
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This review considers the acoustic features of a clear speech register directed to non-native listeners known as Foreigner Directed Speech (FDS). We identify vowel hyperarticulation and low speech rate as the most representative acoustic features of FDS; other features, including wide pitch range and high intensity, are still under debate. We also discuss factors that may influence the outcomes and characteristics of FDS. We start by examining accommodation theories (Lindblom, 1990), outlining the reasons why FDS is likely to serve a didactic function by helping listeners acquire a second language (L2). We examine how this speech register adapts to listeners’ identities and linguistic needs, suggesting that FDS also takes listeners’ L2 proficiency into account. To confirm the didactic function of FDS, we compare it to other clear speech registers, specifically Infant Directed Speech and Lombard Speech. However, our review reveals that research has not yet established whether FDS, in fact, succeeds as a didactic tool that supports L2 acquisition. Our review reveals a complex set of contextual factors that determine specific realisations of FDS, which need further exploration. We conclude our review by summarising open questions and indicating directions and recommendations for future research.
... Children of both language groups were more likely to accept "pralt" as an object reference than "skik", which was more likely to be paired with an action. The general characteristics of child-directed speech, in terms of varied intonation and emphasised prosody, can facilitate learning novel word-object mappings (Fernald & Mazzie, 1991;Golinkoff & Alioto, 1995). Furthermore, Messer (1981) found that in almost 50% of utterances the word in a sentence with the highest amplitude was the referring word, therefore a potential source of the benefit of child-directed speech for word learning being that prosody provides important cues to the speaker's intended meaning, and can thus constrain the identification of the referring word in a complex utterance. ...
... Il s'agit en quelque sorte pour lui de casser le flot continu de la parole en morceaux et de reconnaître le mot à travers la prosodie, en s'appuyant sur sa fréquence d'utilisation. (Golinkoff et al.,1995), repris en 2011 (Roseberry et al.,2011). Avant six mois, le nourrisson a l'équipement nécessaire pour percevoir tous les contrastes de toutes les langues et les produire. ...
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Les populations d’enfants nés grands prématurés représentent 7% des naissances, soit 15 millions de bébés par an dont 40 % vont présenter des troubles neurodéveloppementaux. Les échecs scolaires sont surreprésentés par rapport à des enfants nés à terme et la lecture est alors constamment atteinte. Nous étudions, au sein d’un travail longitudinal en trois parties, leur langage oral puis leur lecture par les potentiels évoqués. La lecture s’acquiert sur des compétences langagières et visuo-attentionnelles. Nous avons émis l’hypothèse qu’ils présenteraient des troubles moteurs à minima, qui selon la théorie motrice de la perception de la parole, gêneraient le développement de la phonologie. Nous avons, dans une première partie, au sein d’un PHRC national, inclus des enfants nés grands prématurés de 3 ans pour caractériser et stimuler leur langage oral. Nous les avons randomisés en un groupe rééduqué (n=87) et un bras groupe non rééduqué (n= 78) (LAMOPRESCO 1). Les résultats ont montré l’efficacité de la stimulation courte et protocolisée sur des aspects sensorimoteurs du langage à 4 ans. Les enfants rééduqués ont une meilleure progression de leur score en phonologie (p=0.07), et des scores significativement améliorés en lexique de réception (p=0.02) et de production (p<0.01), et en compréhension (p<0.01). Les scores de phonologie étaient corrélés à des scores moteurs, motricité fine et de latéralité (p=0.019). Nous avons développé une méthodologie de PEV en lecture, avec des stimuli mots simples et contrastés dans l’hypothèse de distinguer la voie phonologique motrice de la voie visuelle. Les résultats en Décision Lexicale et en Oddball, de notre population normative adulte (n=19) et enfants normo lecteurs de 12 ans (n=19), questionnent l’onde N170. La population d’enfants appariés dyslexiques (n=16) enregistrée a permis de confirmer les fluctuations maturationnelles de l’onde N170 et de sa co-construction avec l’onde P100 attentionnelle. Le couple P1N1 semble être un marqueur neuro développemental précoce avant l’automatisation de la N170. Le décours temporel positif de P1N1 est corrélé (p=-0.51) pour l’ensemble des populations (n=48) de normo lecteurs et de dyslexiques à notre paramètre de leximétrie (VL). Au décours de cette deuxième partie, la N170, apparait bien être la spécialisation et l’automatisation de la lecture experte, mais le couple P1N1 nous renseigne sur sa construction neurodéveloppementale par le biais d’un probable effet top down maturationnel sur la P100. La position de la N170, est positive chez 56% des enfants nés grands prématurés appariés (n=19) alors qu’on la retrouve chez 39% des enfants dyslexiques. En Oddball, la latence de la P300 mots cibles est corrélée à la leximétrie VL (r=-0.39) dans toutes nos populations étudiées. Pour la troisième partie qui est l’enregistrement par les PEVc de nos enfants de la première partie, maintenant âgés de 8 ans, nous avons simplifié nos stimuli mots. Nous avons enregistré de nouvelles populations normatives : adultes normo lecteurs (n=26), enfants appariés de 8 ans normo lecteurs (n=18) et enfants dyslexiques (n=11). Ils se différencient tous, par les paramètres hétérogènes de la N170. Dans le test de lecture en une minute (LUM), les enfants dyslexiques ont de moindres performances que les enfants nés prématurés (p=.01), eux même différents des normo lecteurs. En DL, le taux de bonnes réponses et le temps de réponse différencient les enfants nés prématurés des enfants dyslexiques (p=.01). En Oddball, les enfants nés grands prématurés rééduqués (n=8) se distinguent des enfants nés grands prématurés non rééduqués (n=9) sur le plan comportemental par de meilleurs TBR et des TR plus longs (p=.01). Les enfants non rééduqués ont une absence d’effet OB. Nous démontrons l’effet d’une rééducation à 4 ans en langage oral à court terme qui modifie les stratégies de lecture à 8 ans. Prématurés. Langage Oral . Pev en lecture . Dyslexie. Rééducation.
... Többféle életkorban bizonyították már a dajkanyelv használatának hasznosságát (Hörnstein et al. 2009;Golinkoff-Alioto 1995), ami igazolhatja a dajkanyelvi beszédmód tanító szerepével kapcsolatos hipotéziseket. Mivel jelen írás a mesemondásra mint a kulturálisan releváns tudás átadásának egy sajátos módjára tekint, a szerző bizonyos dajkanyelvi sajátosságok alkalmazását -kihasználva e beszédmód tanulást segítő jellegét − alkalmasnak tartja az óvodáskorú gyermekek figyelemének felhívására és irányítására. ...
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