ArticleLiterature Review

Cheese: Physical, Biochemical, and Nutritional Aspects

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Abstract

This chapter discusses the physical, biochemical, and nutritional aspects of cheese. Cheese is the most diverse, most scientifically interesting, and most challenging group of dairy products. While most dairy products, if properly manufactured and stored, are biologically, biochemically, and chemically very stable, cheeses are biologically and biochemically dynamic and, consequently, inherently unstable. Cheese manufacture and ripening involves a complex series of consecutive and concomitant microbiological, biochemical, and chemical events, which, if synchronized and balanced, lead to products with highly desirable flavors, but when unbalanced, result in off-flavors. Considering that a basically similar raw material (milks from a very limited number of species) is subjected to a generally common manufacturing protocol, it is fascinating that such a diverse range of products can be produced.

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... The coagulant that has been traditionally used in cheese manufacture is rennet which is derived from the abomasum of young milk fed calves [25,50]. Rennet is primarily made up of the enzyme chymosin [73] but also contains other enzymes such as pepsin in smaller quantities. Chymosin has an isoelectric point of between 4.5 and 4.7 [74]. ...
... The addition of coagulants to milk has a dramatic effect on the structure of the system. The conversion that milk undergoes during coagulation can be classified as a two stage process [73]. The primary stage of the rennet action is the production of para-κ-casein and soluble glycomacropeptides. ...
... These chain-like structures continue to aggregate forming clumps, clusters and eventually a gel like network [28]. The strength of the gel, curd tension, is an important factor in terms of the cheese yield [73]. The curd tension is affected by the same variables as the coagulation. ...
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From its journey from milk through to its end use, Mozzarella cheese undergoes significant transformations in its makeup of components and their structural arrangement. The typical Mozzarella processing steps each alter the structural configuration of the system. The colloidal dispersion of proteins, fat, lactose and minerals that is milk experiences physical, thermal, chemical, biological and ionic induced changes to its composition and structure throughout the manufacturing process and storage. This review critically evaluates the literature related to the structural changes occurring as a result of each step in Mozzarella cheese production process. Emphasis is placed on the role of each step and the induced transformations at the micro and macro scale in the system. Additionally, the review also looks at the changes that occur as a result of storage. This evolution in structure culminates in the creation of an end product with a bi-continuous gel structure that has a desired functionality in its end use.
... Bovine pepsin is less substrate-specific; it hydrolyzes bonds with Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, Leucine or Valine residues and is more proteolytic than the corresponding chymosins (Agudelo et al., 2004;Fox & McSweeney, 1996). Excessive and nonspecific proteolysis may lead to yield loss and defects in cheese, such as weak gel structure and bitterness (Horne & Lucey, 2017). ...
... Most milk-clotting enzymes added to milk are lost in the whey, but some of them remain in the curd and account for primary proteolysis (Tavano, 2013). Secondary proteolysis takes place throughout the ripening process (Fox et al., 1996). As seen in Figure 5, proteolysis takes place during cheese ripening based on the following steps: 1) casein is hydrolyzed into large peptides, mainly by the action of the enzymatic coagulant and some indigenous enzymes found in milk; 2) these large peptides are hydrolyzed into small peptides by microbial peptidases deriving from starter and non-starter microorganisms; 3) small peptides are hydrolyzed into amino acids by microbial peptidases, which generate flavor and aroma compounds. ...
... As seen in Figure 5, proteolysis takes place during cheese ripening based on the following steps: 1) casein is hydrolyzed into large peptides, mainly by the action of the enzymatic coagulant and some indigenous enzymes found in milk; 2) these large peptides are hydrolyzed into small peptides by microbial peptidases deriving from starter and non-starter microorganisms; 3) small peptides are hydrolyzed into amino acids by microbial peptidases, which generate flavor and aroma compounds. Proteolysis level during the ripening process depends on several factors, such as endogenous composition of milk, exogenous enzymes, enzymes found in coagulant, and enzymes produced by different microorganisms added in cheese milk (Fox et al., 1996). Adjunct cultures and non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB), mainly lactobacilli, are supplemented in cheesemaking processes due to their potential to release proteolytic enzymes capable of enhancing cheese flavor and texture, as well as of speeding up the ripening process (Soda & Awad, 2011). ...
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The dairy sector is one of the most important industrial segments in peptidase applications These enzymes can hydrolyze milk proteins into medium/short peptides and amino acids, as well as modulate their nutritional and functional properties, which comprise sensory changes (e.g., texture and flavor), digestibility and solubility improved, as well as the release of bioactive compounds. Therefore, they have been applied to develop different dairy products, such as cheese and a wide range of products deriving from caseins and whey proteins. However, it is important to understand the structure of milk proteins at the time to select the best peptidase to achieve the desired hydrolyzed products. In addition, peptidases have different specificities, such as catalytic sites and optimal pH, which must be taken into account before their application in the dairy matrix. The present review aims to address important aspects associated with peptidase features and their current biotechnological applications in the dairy industry.
... Other authors as well reported a low correlation of arginine with ripening time in different cheeses [25,26]. Fox et al. [27] reported on changes in the proteolytic processes occurring during ripening of Emmental cheese, peptides released in cheese aqueous phase analysed by reversed phase HPLC and identified by tandem mass spectrometry sequencing. Among the 91 peptides identified, most of them arose from αs 1 -(51) and β-caseins (28), and a few arose from αs 2 -(9) and κ-caseins (1) [27]. ...
... Fox et al. [27] reported on changes in the proteolytic processes occurring during ripening of Emmental cheese, peptides released in cheese aqueous phase analysed by reversed phase HPLC and identified by tandem mass spectrometry sequencing. Among the 91 peptides identified, most of them arose from αs 1 -(51) and β-caseins (28), and a few arose from αs 2 -(9) and κ-caseins (1) [27]. Fig. 3 Localization of identified peptides from α-S1 casein, α-S2 casein and β-casein residues in Bulgarian cow white brined cheese during ripening The biological activities of the peptides encrypted in major milk proteins are latent until released and activated (e.g. by enzymatic proteolysis, during digestion or food production). ...
... Recorded peptides were released from proteolysis of αand β-casein and were found in all brined cheese during day 30 of ripening process, which points that these bioactive peptides can be considered as standard compost for the white brined cheeses. Cheese and other dairy products can be considered as rich source of bioactive peptides [27,35,36] as results of proteolytic activity of starter cultures used in fermentation and ripening processes of dairy products. During the ripening of Bulgarian white brined cheeses, we have recorded the presence of large number of peptides of different lengths of the chains. ...
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Bioactive peptides and free amino acids obtained from Bulgarian goat, sheep and cow white brined cheeses, produced with same starter culture, during ripening were evaluated. The concentration of total free amino acids was increasing in all tested cheeses in the first 30 days of ripening. In the next 30 days in sheep cheeses, the concentration increased as recorded for most of the amino acids. Amino acids with highest levels detected throughout the whole ripening period in goat, sheep and cow cheese types were leucine, phenylalanine, arginine, valine and lysine. MALDI-TOF analysis of evaluated cheeses resulted in detection of production of bioactive peptide derivates from milk proteins: 51 peptides in cow, 31 peptides in sheep and 22 peptides in goat cheeses. Peptide αs1-CN (f35-40) was found only in cow cheese. In cow cheese, higher intensity was detected for αs1-CN (f1-9) and β-CN (f194-203 and f203-219) peptides. In goat cheese was recorded αs1-CN peptides, and there was a tendency to increase the peptides released from β-CN, with the highest intensity of fragments αs1-CN (f1-9 and f24-30) and β-CN (f194-209 and f203-219). In sheep cheese, the recorded primarily peptides were αs1-CN and peptides released from β-CN. Different bioactive peptides, derivate from casein, were detected as follows: 6 peptides were ACE inhibitory peptides, 3 peptides were αS1-casokinins, 1 peptide was caseinophopeptide, 1 peptide was immunopeptide. Twelve bioactive peptides were recorded to be derivates from β-casein: 1 peptide was ACE peptide, 4 peptides were caseino-phosphopeptides, 1 peptide was immunopeptide, 1 peptide β-casokinin, 1 antibacterial peptide and 4 multifunctional peptides. Of peptides released by proteolysis of αS2-CN was found 1 bioactive peptide with antimicrobial activity. On our best knowledge, this paper contributes new data about free amino acids and bioactive peptides in the connection between type of milk and period for cheese ripening in the Bulgarian goat, sheep and cow white brined cheeses.
... Proteolysis during ripening of Emmental cheese resulted in reduction of allergenic peptides and release of bioactive peptides [91][92][93]. Peptides derived from β-casein, α-casein, and α-lactalbumin have shown to have immunostimulatory activity, which can influence the phagocytic activity [94] and modulate lymphocyte functions [95]. Proteolytic enzymes have been extensively studied for their technological applications in the development of fermented dairy and meat products. ...
... Proteolysis during ripening of Emmental cheese resulted in reduction of allergenic peptides and release of bioactive peptides [91][92][93]. Peptides derived from β-casein, α-casein, and α-lactalbumin have shown to have immunostimulatory activity, which can influence the phagocytic activity [94] and modulate lymphocyte functions [95]. ...
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Food allergy is an IgE-mediated abnormal response to otherwise harmless food proteins, affecting between 5% and 10% of the world preschool children population and 1% to 5% adults. Several physical, chemical, and biotechnological approaches have been used to reduce the allergenicity of food allergens. Fermentation processes that contribute to technological and desirable changes in taste, flavor, digestibility, and texture of food products constitute one of these approaches. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), used as starter cultures in dairy products, are a subject of increasing interest in fermentation of plant proteins. However, the studies designed to assess the impact of LAB on reduction of allergenicity of seed proteins are at an early stage. This review presents the current knowledge on food fermentation, with a focus on seed proteins that are increasingly used as ingredients, and its impacts on food potential allergenicity.
... Homogenization of milk is practiced in the manufacture of some cheese varieties where lipolysis is important for flavor development, for example, Blue cheese, to increase the accessibility of the fat to mold lipases and thereby increase the formation of fatty acids and derivatives (e.g., methyl ketones) (Fox et al., 1996). Moreover, homogenization is an essential step in the manufacture of cheeses from recombined milk and some acid curd varieties with a high fat content (e.g., Cream cheese; see Chapter 44). ...
... Emulsification of the substrate optimizes enzyme activity, in particular, lipolysis, which is significantly more important in EMC production than in most natural cheese varieties (Kilcawley, 2002;Kilcawley et al., 2001). Lipolysis directly generates key volatile flavor compounds with a low flavor threshold, such as fatty acids, and indirectly generates esters, alcohols, lactones and ketones through various chemical and metabolic processes (Curioni and Bosset, 2002;Fox et al., 1996;Wallace and Fox, 1998) which contribute significantly to both the aroma and flavor of cheese and are therefore directly related to its perceived "intensity" of flavor. A highly emulsified substrate is generally achieved by homogenization and increases the surface area available for lipolysis. ...
Chapter
There are a total of 500 (IDF, 1981) to 800 varieties of cheese. Although most cheese is consumed as “table cheese,” which may be arbitrarily defined as cheese eaten on its own or as an accompaniment to bread or crackers during meals, significant quantities of cheese are also consumed as an ingredient in cheese-based dishes/snacks in the home, food service, and prepared consumer foods. Notable examples of natural cheeses used in these applications include Cheddar, Mozzarella, and Emmental, with typical dishes including toasted sandwiches, quiche, omelettes, pasta, pizza, and lasagne. As an ingredient, pertinent attributes or functionalities of the unheated cheese include crumbliness, sliceability, spreadability, shreddability or grateability, and those of a heated cheese include overall appearance, flavor, extent of flow, stringiness, fluidity, and oiling-off. The type and level of functionality required depends upon the application. Hence, Feta cheese which is crumbly is ideal for tossed salad; Parmesan, which grates very well into small particles, for sprinkling onto lasagne or pasta dishes; and heated Mozzarella, which exhibits moderate flow and the ability to form fibrous strings when extended, for pizza. Nevertheless, the functional attributes, and, hence, suitability of any specific cheese type as an ingredient can vary due to age and degree of maturity, slight differences in make procedure and composition (such as calcium content and pH).
... De outra forma, a ação enzimática resultante da elevada contaminação microbiana do leite pode agir sobre a κ-caseína e contribuir para a menor estabilidade do leite (Santos e Fonseca, 2007). A hidrólise enzimática da κ-caseína reduz a estabilização esférica das micelas de caseína, bem como a repulsão eletrostática intermicelar, o que resulta em coagulação do leite (Fox et al., 1996). Adicionalmente, microrganismos psicrotróficos, que se multiplicam no leite sob baixas temperaturas, produzem proteases termoestáveis que agem sobre a κ-caseína, o que reduz o tempo de prateleira do leite pela formação de coágulos proteicos (Fairbairn e Law, 1986). ...
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A realização do VIII Simpósio de Pós-Graduação e Pesquisa do Departamento de Nutrição e Produção Animal-VNP é uma iniciativa do VNP e do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Nutrição e Produção Animal (PPGNPA). O evento tem como objetivos divulgar e discutir os principais projetos de pesquisa desenvolvidos pelos orientadores e colaboradores do programa, e integrar os orientadores, alunos de graduação, pós-graduação e funcionários com as diversas atividades de pesquisas desenvolvidas VNP. Esta é uma oportunidade ímpar para o intercâmbio e a discussão de ideias e para ampliação dos horizontes da pesquisa e do ensino entre docentes, alunos e colaboradores.
... Generally, peptides eluted in the early retention times are characterized with low molecular and hydrophilic nature. However, peptides eluted in the late retention times are hydrophobic and hydrolyzed to micro peptides and amino acids represented by decrease in peak height (Fox, O'Connor, McSweeney, Guinee, & O'Brien, 1996;Sahingil et al., 2014). ...
Article
A mixed commercial starter culture containing Lactococcus lactis subps lactis and Lactococcus lactis subsp cremoris (Cheese A, control) was combined with three adjunct cultures including Lactobacillus casei (Cheese B), Lactobacillus plantarum (Cheese C) and Lactobacillus bulgaricus (Cheese D) in the manufacture of white brined cheese using goat's milk. Use of adjunct culture was not significantly affected pH and gross chemical composition except for nitrogenous compounds; however, use of adjunct cultures in cheese manufacture showed a potential increase in ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activity parallel to the increase in water-soluble nitrogenous compounds until the 60th day of ripening. The highest antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activity was detected in cheese D (62.55%) and cheese B (51.95%), respectively. All cheese samples showed almost similar peptide profile; however, quantitative differences were observed. In conclusion, use of adjunct cultures in white-brined goat-milk cheese manufacturing contribute to increase in ACE-inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity.
... Processed cheese, in particular, represents an extremely complex system. The underlying principles of processed cheese manufacture have been already extensively reviewed (Fox et al. 2000;Ennis et al. 1998;Fox et al. 1996;Caric and Kalab 1993). During processing, the presence of Bemulsifying( calcium chelating) salts and the application of temperature and shear at certain pH result in a number of physical-chemical changes. ...
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Selected influencing factors in processed cheese making (protein and fat content, fat globule size, and rework addition) affecting the physical changes known as “creaming” were investigated for their effect on this multistage structure formation reaction. The creaming curve (viscosity vs. time) shows four typical stages: an initiation phase, a first exponential stage, a plateau, and a second exponential phase. Increasing the protein content from 10 to 17% (w/w) accelerated the reaction. Light microscopy showed that the fat content (0–20%) affected the shape of the creaming curve as well and it was shown that a fat level of 15–20% is required for the characteristic creaming curve to occur. Moreover, modifications in the initial milkfat globule size (3.7 μm down to 1.1 μm) by means of upstream homogenization (0–250/50 bar) accelerated the exponential phase and modified the shape of the creaming curve, shortening the initiation and plateau phases. The reaction started earlier with decreasing incoming fat globule size, and the slope was steeper. When fat was present in the system, it was not only the content, but the milkfat globule size which dictates the viscosity change and shape of the curve. The addition of rework dramatically affects the structure formation process, rework probably acting as a catalyst accelerating the reaction. However, protein polymerization was found to be constant during the entire course of the reaction suggesting that weaker physical bonds are responsible for the structuring of the matrix.
... It is an excellent dietary source of protein, vitamins, and minerals such as calcium. The variety of cheese depends on the type of milk, the animal's diet, the butter fat content, bacteria and mold, and the processing and aging conditions of cheese (Fox et al., 1996;Miller et al., 2007). The use of the rennet enzyme in cheese production is one of the major applications of enzymes in food processing. ...
... The clotting time was recorded once the first clot was seen on the wall of the flask. Based on the clotting time, the strength of rennet value was calculated using the following formula [22]: ...
Article
Milk-clotting enzymes used in the dairy industry can be obtained from different sources such as plants, animals, and microorganisms. Recombinant chymosin is the best alternative for the dairy industry due to the differences in physicochemical properties of coagulating enzymes and scarcity of chymosin from animal sources. In this study, glycosylated and non-glycosylated forms of yak chymosin were extracellularly produced in a methylotrophic yeast, Komagataella phaffii (Pichia pastoris). Synthetic yak prochymosin genes were cloned into the pPICZαA vector, expressed in P. pastoris GS115 (PDI) strain. Active chymosin expression was achieved into supernatant with Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-mating factor under the control of methanol-inducible AOXI promoter. The glycosylation of yak chymosin did not have a significant effect on yield and activity at shake flask level. In a 5L fermentor, production of native yak-chymosin was achieved and the enzyme activity was found as 214 IMCU/ml. pH of 6–7 and temperature of 40 °C values were optimum for the enzyme. The laboratory scale white cheese production yield with recombinant yak chymosin was very similar to a commercial bovine chymosin. These results indicate that P. pastoris expression system is very suitable for recombinant yak chymosin production to meet the needs of the cheese industry.
... It is an excellent dietary source of high-quality protein, vitamins and minerals such as absorbable dietary calcium. Their styles, textures and flavors depend on the origin of milk, animal's diet, butterfat content, bacteria and mold, the processing, and aging condition (Fox, et al., 1996;Miller et al., 2007). The ripening process is one factor that determines the type of cheese that exists. ...
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Keywords Dangke, duration of ripened, Lactococcus lactis, physicochemical properties, micro-structural properties. Abstract quality tDhaatn gisk e swtilhl icohf teisn av tarraieddit ioannadl lcehsese sgeo Eodn.r eDkaanngg kSeo uqtuha lSituyl acwaens i bhea sim spelrfo vliefed ownliyth a tfheew rdipaeynsi nagn dp hroacvees sa. cLhaecetsoec oocfc uInsd loancteissi ai)s. uTshuea lplyu rupsoesde aosf ath sitsa srttuerd yin i st hteo mimanpurofavcet uthree oqfu achlieteys eo fr idpaennginkeg ,b iyn crliupdeniningg D aanndg kine o(cturaladtiitoionn oafl scthaermteirc aclu plrtuopree rbtiaecst earnida mtoi corbotsatirnu cfteurmree onft eDda dnagnkge kceh eaess eo tmhaerd et yfrpoems ocfo wfe rfmreesnh tmatiilokn, ccohaegeusela. tTedh ew cithha npgaepsa yina spahpy asnicd- isntaotciustliactaeldly b py rLocaecstsoecdo cbcyu sa nlaaclytissi sw oefr ev airnivanesctei gfaotlelodw deudr ibnyg t h0e -l e6a sdt asyisg nriifpicenanint gd ipffeerrieondc. eP theysts,i cwochhileem tihcea l mdiactrao wdaetrae tpor occoenstsiendu de etsoc rbiep taicvteilvye. oTnh ec arrebsuohltysd srhaotew mede ttahbaotl itshme ,r irpeesnuilntign gti mine ai nddeiccraetaesse tihna tla pcrtoosvei,d ea nadn poHpp. oRrteusunlittsy aflosro Ls.h loawcteids itnhdatic athtee tmhoaits ttuhree faant dg lfoabtu cleosn tveanrty idnegcr emasaegdn,i tluacdtei ca nacdi dm aantrdi xt optarol tpeirnoste ianr ei nncorte aesveedn. lyM dicirsotrsitbruutcetdu rbe uotb sloeorvk amtioonres compact in dangke with the maturation of six days.
... Cheese consists of a protein matrix, with fat and water components as an emulsion (Dickinson and Miller, 2001;Green, 1997). Essentially the matrix is composed of overlapping and cross-linked strands, mainly composed of casein aggregates; the integrity of the matrix is maintained by various intra-and inter-aggregate hydrophobic and electrostatic attractions (Fox et al., 1996). ...
Article
The salting process involves complex phenomena that affect the overall quality of cheese due to its effect on water activity and induced biochemical changes. The permittivity of cheese was analysed throughout the cheese salting treatment in order to relate it to water and salt transport. The salting treatment was carried out using 25% (w/w) sodium chloride brine at 4 °C. The samples were immersed in a vessel containing the osmotic solution with continuous stirring, for 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 360, 480, 720, 900 and 1440 min. Samples were subsequently equilibrated in an isothermal chamber at 4 °C for 24 h. Mass, volume, surface water activity, moisture, ion content and permittivity were determined in fresh and salted samples. Permittivity was measured from 500 MHz to 20 GHz, using an open-ended coaxial probe connected to a Vector Network Analyser. The results showed that measurements at 20 GHz explain the water loss and water flux in the overall product. The state of the electrolytes in cheese can be followed using the ionic conductivity at 500 MHz. A coupled measurement of permittivity at 20 GHz and 500 MHz can predict the chemical species involved in the cheese salting process, and its structural changes. In conclusion, the measurement of permittivity in the microwave range can be used to monitor the salting cheese process.
... De outra forma, a ação enzimática resultante da elevada contaminação microbiana do leite pode agir sobre a κ-caseína e contribuir para a menor estabilidade do leite (Santos e Fonseca, 2007). A hidrólise enzimática da κ-caseína reduz a estabilização esférica das micelas de caseína, bem como a repulsão eletrostática intermicelar, o que resulta em coagulação do leite (Fox et al., 1996). Adicionalmente, microrganismos psicrotróficos, que se multiplicam no leite sob baixas temperaturas, produzem proteases termoestáveis que agem sobre a κ-caseína, o que reduz o tempo de prateleira do leite pela formação de coágulos proteicos (Fairbairn e Law, 1986). ...
... Zinc is one of the fundamental trace elements which are associated with thyroid hormone metabolism [1]. Zinc has numerous biological functions [2]. ...
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This study aims at examining the effects of zinc and CoQ10 supplementation applied with 8 w trainings on the thyroid hormone metabolism. The study was conducted on 60 voluntary male football players whose average of age is 20.60 ± 3.15 y and average of weight is 66.20 ± 4.74 kg. The participants were divided equally into 4 groups. The groups were constituted in the following way: 1st group: group which is supplied with zinc (Z), 2nd group: group which is supplied with coenzyme Q10 (Q), 3rd group: control group which does only physical exercises (C) and 4th Group: Group which is supplied with zinc and coenzyme Q10 (ZQ). At the first week of the study, TSH, T3 and T4 levels of the participants were measured from the samples which were drawn from the participants at Pre-exercise resting period (PreRP), post-exercise pre-test fatigue (PreTF), and pre-exercise post-test rested (PostTR) and post-exercise posttest fatigue (PostTF) after 8 w supplementation period. As a consequence, it was discovered that 8 w trainings led to increases in both rested and post-exercise fatigue TSH levels of only the group supplied with zinc (p<0.05). Considering T3 values, it was discovered that statistically significant differences between the PreTF values and PreTR and PostTR values of the control group and the PreTF values were found to be lower than these two measurements (p<0.05). When CoQ10 supplementation was applied with exercises, differences were observed between the PostTF and PostTR T3 values (p<0.05). As zinc and CoQ10 supplementation were given, post 8 w training T3 values decreased when compared to the pre 8 w training values (p<0.05). Regarding T4 values, it was discovered that PostTF values were lower than the PreTR values of only the group supplied with zinc. The result of this being that, the zinc and CoQ10 supplementation applied with 8 w football trainings were found to be effective on the thyroid hormone metabolism. It is believed that antioxidant supplementation may make significant contributions to the thyroid metabolism functions.
... The biochemical changes that take place during ripening are very complex. Starter cultures and enzymes of starter cultures, non starter lactic acid bacteria and their enzymes also participate in the ripening process [19]. In this study, differences between the acidity of cheese samples were observed. ...
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In this research, some properties of 16 Tomas cheese samples, collected from different areas in the Elazig province in Turkey, were investigated. The dry matter, fat, salt, ash, protein, titratable acidity, ripening index and pH changed between 39.70-46.01%; 16.20-21.56%; 3.31-4.95%; 4.41-6.90%;11.80-23.83%; 0.9-1.8%; 13.18-42.04%; 4.5-6.03, respectively. The total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeast-mould and lactic acid bacteria(on MRS and M17 agar) count changed between 6.67-9.01 log cfu/g; 5.30-8.39 log cfu/g; 6.25-8.91 log cfu/g; 6.56-9.01 log cfu/g, respectively. Coliforms were determined as <1 in all the samples. In the classification was 6 isolates(30%) Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, 5 isolates(25%) Lactobacillus brevis, 4 isolates(20%) Lactobacillus plantarum, 2 isolates(10%) Lactobacillus collinoides, 2 isolates(10%) Lactobacillus curvatus subsp. curvatus and one of the isolates(5%) Lactobacillus salivarius. According to the results of the identification of coccal isolates, 16 of the isolates(66.6%) were identified as Enterococcus faecium and 8 of isolates(33.3%) were identified as Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis.
... As no gene for proline synthesis was induced at 3d post-inoculation, this suggests that proline was released due to the degradation of proteins and peptides in the medium. This was consistent with the action of a proline iminopeptidase (Pip) which cleaves aminoterminal proline residues from peptides and has previously been described in cheese [26]. ...
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Background Propionibacterium freudenreichii is an Actinobacterium widely used in the dairy industry as a ripening culture for Swiss-type cheeses, for vitamin B12 production and some strains display probiotic properties. It is reportedly a hardy bacterium, able to survive the cheese-making process and digestive stresses. ResultsDuring this study, P. freudenreichii CIRM-BIA 138 (alias ITG P9), which has a generation time of five hours in Yeast Extract Lactate medium at 30 °C under microaerophilic conditions, was incubated for 11 days (9 days after entry into stationary phase) in a culture medium, without any adjunct during the incubation. The carbon and free amino acids sources available in the medium, and the organic acids produced by the strain, were monitored throughout growth and survival. Although lactate (the preferred carbon source for P. freudenreichii) was exhausted three days after inoculation, the strain sustained a high population level of 9.3 log10 CFU/mL. Its physiological adaptation was investigated by RNA-seq analysis and revealed a complete disruption of metabolism at the entry into stationary phase as compared to exponential phase. ConclusionsP. freudenreichii adapts its metabolism during entry into stationary phase by down-regulating oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, and the Wood-Werkman cycle by exploiting new nitrogen (glutamate, glycine, alanine) sources, by down-regulating the transcription, translation and secretion of protein. Utilization of polyphosphates was suggested.
... Cheese is one of the most ancient forms of manufactured food (Fox et al., 1995). Nowadays, cheese consumption is widely spread throughout the world. ...
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p>However Kilka is a valuable fish in nutritional point of view, but a large part of it used in poultry feed. The main reason is the undesirable odor. In this study Kilka oil was blended with milk at 1% and 2% level and then the mixture spray dried. These encapsulated Kilka oil were added to cheese as a fortificant materials at 5% level. Cheese without encapsulated Kilka oil was as a control treatment. Results showed that there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between color of fortificated cheese with control cheese. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between odor of cheese with 5% encapsulated Kilka oil that contain 1% Kilka oil (A) with control cheese. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between flavor of cheese with 5% encapsulated Kilka oil that contain 1% Kilka oil (A) with cheese with 5% encapsulated Kilka oil that contain 2% Kilka oil (B) but there was significant difference (p<0.05) between these two treatments with control cheese. Also, the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content of fortified cheeses had significant difference (p<0.05) with control cheese.</p
... Its production consists of blending, heating and texturing dairy products (cheese, butter and milk powder) and non-dairy products (agents, emulsifiers and salt). Processed cheese melts at 70 to 95°C for 4 to 15 min (Richonnet, 2016), depending on stirring capacities, final product texture and qualities preservation (Fox et al., 1996). In Algeria, the process consists of mixture of several raw materials such as: cheddar cheese, milk powder, fat, milk proteins, modified starch and chemical conservatives (salts of cast iron, citrate and poly phosphates). ...
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The main purpose of this study is to characterize the isolated Bacillus cereus spores from processed cheese manufactured and marketed in Algeria. Sixty samples of four brands of processed cheese were analyzed. The panC gene sequencing identified four B. cereus spores belonging to Group III, according to the classification of Guinebretiere et al. (2010). In nutrient broth, values of D for B. cereus spores (LMBCF001, LMBCF002, LMBCF003, LMBCF004) vary between 4.76 min at 120°C and 93.75 min at 110°C and the values of ZT vary from 7.75 to 21.34°C. In processed cheese, D values obtained for the isolated spores vary between 7.12 min at 120°C and 21.53 min at 110°C. The minimum pH obtained from the four isolated B. cereus spores varies between 4.70 and 5.10. Furthermore the minimum aw varies between 0.940 and 0.951. The studied revealed that processed cheese is contaminated by B. cereus spores in spite of the pasteurization or ultra-high temperature (UHT) treatment. The contamination origin can be raw material such as milk powder or starch or cheddar. The study focused on the importance of bringing out the presence of this Bacillus cereus in such products.
... The current results are in line with the findings of Fox and Wallace (1997) supported that flavor development in cheese is the result of complex series of microbiological, biochemical and chemical processes that occur during ripening. The findings of Fox et al. (1996b) and McSweeney and Sousa (2000) also strengthens the proteolysis plays a major role in the development of flavor and texture in most rennet curd cheese varieties. Small peptides, amino acids and especially products of amino acid catabolism, e.g., amines and thiols contribute directly to cheese flavor. ...
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Present exploration was an attempt to investigate the physicochemical and sensory evaluation of the cheddar cheese using different concentrations of starter's cultures at different storage intervals. For this purpose, cheddar cheese was prepared through Streptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus in combination with starter cultures. In ripening, three types of starter cultures are used including Lc. Cremoris and Lc. lactis (95:5) 95% + Str.thermophilus and Lb.bulgaricus 5% (T 1), Lc. Cremoris and Lc. lactis (95:5) 90% + Str. Thermophilus and Lb. bulgaricus10%, Lc. Cremoris and Lc. lactis (95:5) 85% + Str. Thermophilus and Lb. bulgaricus 15% (T 3) and along with T0: Lc. Cremoris and Lc. lactis (95:5)100% @0.0025% were prepared for comparison purpose. During study, storage imparts substantial effect on pH and acidity. In pH, storage caused a significant reduction in pH from 5.20±0.001 to 5.09±0.005% at 0 and 90 th day, correspondingly. Likewise, the recorded acidity values of cheddar cheese i.e.T0, T 1 , T 2 and T 3 were 0.86±0.04, 0.84±0.06, 0.91± and 1.05±0.05 , respectively. However during storage, values for ash contents ranged from 3.92±0.03 to 4.01±0.04 at the initiation till the termination of trial. Similarly, protein contents are decreased from 28.31±0.83 to 26.41±0.72% at 0 and 90th day of storage, correspondingly. Moreover, non protein nitrogen (NPN) values of cheddar cheese for treatments T0, T1, T2 and T3 were 1.51±0.07, 1.60±0.06, 1.81±0.05 and 1.92±0.06, respectively whilst during storage, NPN significantly increased from 1.03±0.54 to 2.28±0.43. Conclusively, storage and treatments imparted the substantial effect on the cheddar cheese. *Corresponding authors: Muhammad Imran: mic_1661@yahoo.com Cite this article as: Gondal, T.A., N. Huma, S. Akhtar, M. Riaz, M. Imran, A. B. Waqar, Ali Imran and M. Atif. 2016. Potential significance of adjunct cultures and raw milk on physicochemical analysis of cheddar cheese.
... Some Lactococcus strains serve as starters for dairy fermentation and have proteolytic activity. Proteolysis is the first biochemical step in the process that determines the flavor and texture of dairy products (Fox et al., 1996;McSweeney and Fox, 1997). Specifically, lactococci possess a proteolytic system that, together with other protein-hydrolyzing enzymes, is responsible for the conversion of casein into peptides and AA. ...
Article
Several enzymes are involved in the process of converting milk to lactic acid and coagulated milk to curd and, therefore, are important in dairy fermented products. Amylase, proteinase, and lipase are enzymes that play an important role in degrading milk into monomeric molecules such as oligosaccharides, amino acids, and fatty acids, which are the main molecules responsible for flavors in cheese. In the current study, we determined the amylase, proteinase, and lipase activities of Lactococcus chungangensis CAU 28(T), a bacterial strain of nondairy origin, and compared them with those of the reference strain, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis KCTC 3769(T), which is commonly used in the dairy industry. Lactococcus chungangensis CAU 28(T) and L. lactis ssp. lactis KCTC 3769(T) were both found to have amylase, proteinase, and lipase activities in broth culture, cream cheese, and yogurt. Notably, the proteinase and lipase activities of L. chungangensis CAU 28(T) were higher than those of L. lactis ssp. lactis KCTC 3769(T), with proteinase activity of 10.50 U/mL per gram in tryptic soy broth and 8.64 U/mL per gram in cream cheese, and lipase activity of 100 U/mL per gram of tryptic soy broth, and 100 U/mL per gram of cream cheese. In contrast, the amylase activity was low, with 5.28 U/mL per gram in tryptic soy broth and 8.86 U/mL per gram in cream cheese. These enzyme activities in L. chungangensis CAU 28(T) suggest that this strain has potential to be used for manufacturing dairy fermented products, even though the strain is of nondairy origin.
... On the other hand, ( Table 6). These obtained results are in the same line with Solowiej [55] observed that hardness of the processed the results obtained by Fradique et al. [41], who found cheese analogues obtained only on the base of acid that pasta prepared with Chlorella vulgaris and casein was very high at pH 4.5-5.0; however it decreased Spirulina maxima presented a chemical composition significantly with an increase of pH. ...
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Cheese analogue (Ch A) is processed cheese-like product, a nutritious food, can be healthy and attractive when redesigned to be prepared with the addition of a natural ingredient, being Chlorella vulgaris. This microalga is recognized as a rich source of protein, fatty acids, fiber and ash. C. vulgaris also represents a valuable source of essential vitamins and minerals. Chlorella has health benefits, as assisting disorders such as gastric ulcers, wounds, constipation, anemia, hypertension, have immune-modulating and anticancer properties and is a promising ingredient in the food industries. Cheese analogue (Ch A) treatments were enriched with C. vulgaris (1, 2 and 3%) and evaluated for chemical, physical and sensory properties, within three months of cold storage. Chlorella biomass cheeses were richer in the protein, carbohydrates and fiber contents than control samples. On the other hand, addition of Chlorella biomass to the cheese gave products more firmness and gives a stronger network and leads to lower oil separation and meltability values than control. The sensory evaluation indicated that addition of 2% C.vulgaris in Ch A did not have any effect on the overall acceptability of Ch A and in the same time introduced a new healthy alternative Ch A for a healthier lifestyle.
... Proteolysis in a lot of cheese types is the most complex and possibly the most important biochemical process during the ripening step. The lactic acid bacteria along with the milk plasmin and the rennet are the main sources of proteolytic enzymes in a wide variety of cheeses (Fox et al. 1996). Our results showed that the B. coagulans had high proteolytic activity towards casein by releasing its microbial intracellular peptidases. ...
Article
Microbial quality of low-salt processed cheeses supplemented with Bacillus coagulans spores (107–108 CFU/g) relying on their physicochemical characteristics during 60 day-cold storage was evaluated. A reduction in moisture content, water activity and pH value and a significant enhancement in proteolytic index of control and probiotic samples were obtained by prolonging storage time. Survival rate of the probiotic cells significantly decreased up to day 30, while total count of the viable cells increased by increasing storage time. A 20 and 67 % increase in total counts of coliforms and mold-yeast of the control sample were respectively observed after 60 days of cold storage. A considerable decrease in the total counts of coliforms and mold-yeast was also found in the processed cheeses containing probiotic supplement. According to the macroscopic and sensory assessment, off-odors and off-flavors in the control sample were diagnosed after day 1 of cold-storage. Noticeably, the resistance to spoilage was more prominent in samples containing the probiotic cells.
... That is true in cheeses, pro-duced from pasteurised milk and using starter cultures under aseptic conditions. However, cheese ripening is influenced by different factors, including the microflora of the raw milk, coagulant, starter cultures and by adventitious contamination of the cheese by non-starter bacteria (Fox, OÕConnor, McSweeney, Guinee, & OÕBrien, 1996). ...
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Thirteen samples of commercial Ras cheese made from raw milk at different ripening-times were collected to evaluate the sensory properties and to identify the typical flavour compounds. Cheeses were assessed by sensory evaluation and the rheological properties were determined using a texture analyser. The flavour volatile compounds were identified by the purge-and-trap, thermal desorption cold-trap (TDCT), and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The sensory results indicated that nine samples were typical Ras cheeses and four samples were not typical. Typical Ras cheeses are tasty, piquant and sharp in flavour, not too hard and not soft in texture and the body includes some mechanical opening and gassy opening and the colour is regular. A good correlation was found between the rheological measurements calculated by machine and the texture score evaluated by panellists. GC-MS analysis revealed that, sixty-eight volatile compounds were detected in Ras cheese samples, including 13 alcohols, 11 aldehydes, 17 ketones, 25 esters and four other compounds, which are responsible for the cheese flavour. There were differences in the concentrations of these aroma-compounds, corresponding with the age of the cheeses. GC-MS data showed a good correlation with the organoleptic descriptions.
... Cheese evolved in the ''Fertile Crescent'' between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, about 8000-9000 years ago (Fox, O'Connor, McSweeney, Guinee, & O'Brien, 1996;Kosikowski & Mistry, 1997). This area now forms part of Turkey, Iraq and Iran. ...
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Turkish White cheese is a brined (or a pickled) cheese variety with a soft or semi-hard texture and a salty, acid taste. Some aspects of this cheese are reviewed: e.g., milk supply, use of starters and enzymes, manufacturing technology, chemical composition and microflora, chemical and biochemical changes during ripening in brine. Several characteristics of Turkish White cheese are compared to other White brined cheese varieties such as Feta and Domiati. The findings of this review suggest that future research on Turkish White cheese should characterise the changes in microflora, biochemistry and texture during ripening. Previous studies tended to focus on the chemical composition of Turkish White cheese, and little attention was directed towards the detailed characterisation of nitrogen fractions, flavour compounds, rheological and microbiological properties and their effects on the quality of the end-product. r
... Jin and Park (1998) reported similar results and found a weak relationship between the amounts of a s1 -casein and a s1 -I-casein. In the maturing cheeses, a s1casein (f24-199) and a s1 -casein (f1-23) are hydrolysed into smaller peptides by chymosin and the CEPs of lactococci, respectively (Fox, O'Connor, McSweeney, Guinee, & O'Brien, 1996). Several differences between the electrophoretograms of the pH 4.6-insoluble fractions of the cheeses were evident after 30 days, particularly in cheese D made using SK11. ...
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The effects of defined lactococcal starter strains (UC317, NCDO763, HP or SK11) on proteolysis in Turkish White-brined cheese were studied throughout ripening (1, 15, 30, 60 or 90 days). No significant differences were found in the gross compositions of the cheeses made with different strains, although the pH values were slightly different. Proteolysis was assessed at each ripening time by urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (urea-PAGE) of the pH 4.6-insoluble fractions and by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) of the pH 4.6-soluble, the 70% (v/v) ethanol-soluble or 70% (v/v) ethanol-insoluble fractions of the cheese samples. Only minor differences were apparent during early ripening (at 1 or 15 days) but considerable differences were found in the urea-PAGE patterns after 60 days of ripening. Urea-PAGE of the pH 4.6-insoluble fraction of the cheeses showed that a s1-casein was hydrolysed more rapidly than b-casein. The use of single strains of Lactococcus markedly influenced the peptide profiles obtained by RP-HPLC of the pH 4.6-soluble or 70% (v/v) ethanol-soluble or 70% (v/v) ethanol-insoluble fractions of the cheeses. Significant differences in the level of free amino acids were also observed between the cheeses; the cheeses made with NCDO763 or SK11 had the highest concentrations of free amino acids. The use of different lactococcal strains in the manufacture of Turkish White-brined cheese affected the degradation of a s1-casein, the formation of peptides detectable by RP-HPLC and the level of free amino acids. r
... In a study about Cheddar cheese, ACE-i peptides such as α s1 -casein (f1-6), α s1 -casein, (f1-7), α s1 -casein (f1-9), and α s1 -casein (f193-209) were observed to form (Ong and Shah, 2008). Fox et al. (1996) reported changes in proteolysis (released peptides) in Emmental cheeses during ripening analysed by reversed phase HPLC and 91 peptides were identified by tandem mass spectrometry sequencing. Among these identified peptides, most of them arose from α s1 -(51) and β-caseins (28), and a few were released from α s2 -(9) and κ-caseins (1). ...
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In this study, the effects of five adjunct lactobacilli on the formation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory (ACE-i) peptides in model cheeses were investigated. A total of seven peptide fractions (less than 3 kDa) were obtained by means of a fraction collector coupled with a HPLC system. ACE-i activity and peptide sequence analysis of the seven fractions were determined by RP-HPLC and then MALDI-ToF-MS techniques, respectively. Peptides produced from αs1- and κ-caseins had higher amounts compared to those produced by other caseins. There were considerable differences between the fractions in terms of peptide sequences and ACE-i activities. In general, the peptide fraction containing Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus exhibited a higher level of ACE-i activity (79.56%) than the other samples. The next highest ACE-i activity was determined in the cheese containing L. plantarum and significant differences were observed between the ACE-i activities of the fractions. The highest ACE-i activity was identified in fractions including f1 (51.39%) for L. casei, f6 (33.49%) for L. helveticus, f4 (46.62%) for L. helveticus DPC4571 and f1 (47.96%) for cheese containing non-adjunct culture. In conclusion, use of lactobacilli as an adjunct in model cheese increased the peptide types and amounts and also ACE-i activity.
... It was observed that GDL-induced gels showed shorter gelation time, higher gelation pH and different rheological properties than starterinduced gels, due to a different pH with time profile and structural rearrangements. Lowering the pH of milk causes a decrease of the charge on the micelles and particularly the κ-casein surface, leading to instability and casein micelle aggregation forming a gel network [24]. When the milk is coagulated under a certain low pH conditions, the casein micelles lose stability as colloidal calcium phosphate is solubilised and the net negative charge is reduced [25]. ...
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We report on the properties of analogue cream cheeses prepared using glucono delta-lactone (GDL) acidulant, notably the impact of particular processing and formulation variables, (homogenisation pressure, coagulation pH and temperature, and stabiliser level) on cream cheese physical, material and microstructural properties. Protein–protein and protein-fat interactions were seen to be the primary structural contributors to the physical properties of cream cheese. Cream cheese microstructure and its properties demonstrated well-defined correlations to specific and controllable processing elements within the manufacturing process, showing significance in interactions between parameters in multivariable linear regression analysis ( P < 0.05). Summarising the effect of processing variables on key cheese properties, we observed that a progressive reduction in fat particle size of cheese milk arising from increasing homogenisation pressures was seen to increase the total surface area of fat that could be incorporated into the curd during coagulation. The greater extent of fat-fat and fat-proteins interactions during coagulation provided a reinforcing effect on the microstructure of the final cream cheese, with a corresponding increase in compressive fracture stress, shear storage modulus ( G′ ) and shear loss modulus ( G″ ). In terms of other processing variables, cream cheese firmness was also observed to progressively increase through lowering of coagulation pH from 5.13 to 4.33. Increasing coagulation temperature from 58 °C to 78 °C similarly caused an increase in cheese firmness. Finally, increasing the levels of added stabiliser were shown to correlate with increasing cheese firmness. Similar correlations could be observed in relation to physical properties, notably forced expressible serum separation. This model cream cheese preparation method has provided a useful model system for relating food structure to material and functional properties. In addition, it has the advantage of being able to rapidly screen many formulation and process variables because it is faster than the traditional cheesemaking. This study showed that the adjustment of process and formulation variables, either in isolation or in combination, in the manufacture of cream cheese can significantly influence the final material and textural properties of the product, thereby enabling controllable functional attributes capable of meeting different customer needs.
... The reason for these negative associations are unclear given the low intakes but possible reasons include higher levels of saturated fat in processed cheeses, which has been associated with decreased dietary calcium absorption [44] that may lower bone mineral density [44,45]. Intake of hard cheeses and processed cheese products could be less advantageous to bone [46] due to high sodium content, particularly in processed cheese products and the acid-cured cheeses such as cottage cheese [47]. The sodium content of cheese may vary by region and processing practices (e.g., fermentation), which may influence the association seen between cheese intake and bone. ...
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Previous studies reported that dairy foods are associated with higher areal bone mineral density (BMD) in older adults. However, data on bone strength and bone microarchitecture are lacking. We determined the association of dairy food intake (milk, yogurt, cheese, milk + yogurt, and milk + yogurt + cheese, servings/week) with high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) measures of bone (failure load, cortical BMD, cortical thickness, trabecular BMD, and trabecular number). This cross-sectional study included participants with diet from a food frequency questionnaire (in 2005–2008 and/or 1998–2001) and measurements of cortical and trabecular BMD and microarchitecture at the distal tibia and radius (from HR-pQCT in 2012–2015). Sex-specific multivariable linear regression estimated the association of dairy food intake (energy adjusted) with each bone measure adjusting for covariates. Mean age was 64 (SD 8) years and total milk + yogurt + cheese intake was 10.0 (SD 6.6) and 10.6 (6.4) servings/week in men and women, respectively. No significant associations were observed for any of the dairy foods and bone microarchitecture measures except for cheese intake, which was inversely associated with cortical BMD at the radius (p = 0.001) and tibia (p = 0.002) in women alone. In this cohort of primarily healthy older men and women, dairy intake was not associated with bone microarchitecture. The findings related to cheese intake and bone microarchitecture in women warrant further investigation.
Article
Pickle is considered as an integral part of Indian meal, especially in southern India. There are several varieties of pickles made out of different vegetables across India and mango pickle is predominant among them. The present study validates histamine level and its associated bacterial population in mango pickles. The preliminary microbial analysis on Niven's agar revealed the population of histamine-producing bacteria in mango pickle. Further confirmation of histamine producing bacteria with PCR using HDC specific primers showed two bacterial isolates had HDC gene and they were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Enterobacter cloacae PUFSTP86 and E. cloacae PUFSTP92. Physicochemical analysis and nutritional properties of mango pickle showed pH (5.3 to 6.4), moisture (67.17 to 74.76 %), ash (85.20 to 88.72 %), nitrogen content (3.60 to 7.46 %) and water activity (0.86 to 0.89 aw). Histamine in the mango pickles was quantified using HPLC and noticed a lesser histamine content (3.60 to 7.46 mg kg-1) which makes mango pickle safer for consumption. Nutritional property and histamine content concludes that the mango pickle does not lead to any histamine related toxication and are biologically safer fermented product.
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The main causes of cardiovascular diseases are obesity and hypertension, both of which are associated with high fat intake and high fat and sodium intake, respectively. Requeijao cremosoa type of processed cheese that is an important part of the eating habits of average Brazilians - is a source of fat and salt (sodium chloride), as are most cheeses. In view of the high consumption of this cheese in Brazil, and the current demand for healthier foods, no-fat added reduced-sodium requeijã (NFARSR) would be an alternative to meet the needs of the changing market. The objective of this study was to optimise the use of emulsifying salts (JohaS9+JohaB50) so as to reduce the level of sodium of an existing no-fat added requeijão formulation developed earlier at the Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos-ITAL. In this study, the fat in requeijão was replaced by whey protein concentrate (WPC34), and sodium reduction was achieved by partially (40%) substituting potassium chloride for sodium chloride and by replacing part of the traditional sodium phosphate-based emulsifying salt (JohaS9) by a sodium-and-potassium-based emulsifying salt (JohaB50) containing 85% less sodium compared to S9. To this purpose, a 2 2 factorial design with two factors (JohaS9 and JohaB50) and two levels ( + 1, -1) was used, resulting in 11 experimental trials. The results were evaluated by response surface methodology to assess physical-chemical, sensory and instrumental texture parameters. Analysis of the response surface graphs showed that R5 - made with 1.0% JohaS9 and 1.2% JohaB50 - was the NFARSR formulation that best met the pre-set specifications.
Chapter
Cheese manufacture involves the controlled destabilization of the casein micelle in milk by enzymatic hydrolysis of the surface ê-casein layer, acidifi cation to the isoelectric pH of the casein, or a combination of pH reduction to ~5.6 and high temperature (~90 °C) in rennet-curd, acid-curd and acid heat-curd cheeses, respectively. Under suitable conditions, the destabilized micelles undergo limited aggregation to form a gel, which is dehydrated to a curd with the desired moisture content by a series of unit operations including cutting the gel into pieces (curd particles), in situ acidifi cation, heating and stirring the curd particle/whey mixture, removal of the expressed whey, pressing and/or salting of the curd. Microstructurally, rennet-curd cheese is a matrix comprised of a hydrated calcium phosphate para -casein network that occludes the fat phase which occurs as discrete and coalesced globules or pools. The microstructure is infl uenced by the concentration of para -casein and the degree to which the component para - casein micelles are aggregated and fused, as affected by manufacturing operations. Macrostructurally, rennet-curd cheese is an assembly of curd particles or pieces (e.g., chips) that fuse to varying degrees according to their microstructure, which affects their potential to deform, and curd handling treatments (e.g., pressing) which effect the level of stress applied to the amalgam of curd particles/pieces. The matrix of acid- or acid heat-curd cheese is similar to that of rennet-curd cheese, but the network is formed from casein (with little, or no, bound calcium) or casein complexed with whey protein, denatured by high heat treatment of the milk prior to acidifi cation and gelation. Most acid-curd and acid heat-curd cheeses have a very uniform texture and lack a macrostructure as the curd particles, low in calcium and high in moisture, coalesce easily to form a structuralcontinuum. Heating of rennet-curd cheese to 90-100 °C in culinary applications leads to contraction and shrinkage of the para -casein network and liquefaction and coalescence of fat. These microstructural changes are the basis of the melt properties, including softening, fl ow and stretchability. Owing to their low pH, acid-curd cheeses generally tend to be unstable during heating, as refl ected by protein precipitation and the release of excess free moisture. The micro- and macro-structure of cheese has a major infl uence on various aspects of quality including composition, rheology, texture, cooking properties, opacity/translucence, and behaviour during curd processing operations such as portioning, shredding, slicing, and processed cheese manufacture
Chapter
Cheese has been present in the human diet for many years, and literature is suggesting early cheese making that is dated as far back as 5200 BC. Currently, the world production of cheese represents over 35% of the total milk production, which is annually increasing, during the past decades. Processed cheese can be defined and characterized as a complex, multicomponent dairy system, described as a stable cold-set gelled oil-in-water emulsion. This cheese is not made directly from milk or dehydrated whole or skimmed milk, unlike natural cheeses, but rather from various combinations of dairy and/or nondairy ingredients. In general, processed cheese includes mainly two categories, processed cheese products and analogue cheese products. This chapter, which is representing an introduction to processed cheese, discusses its definition, classification and general principles of manufacture and key ingredients. In a nutshell, the manufacturing protocols involve the application of heat and mechanical shear to the formulated blend, in a reaction container, followed by cooling and cold storage. The main key ingredients are proteins, fats, salts, and sorbic and citric acid. The cheese processing equipment is also outlined. This is followed by the description of cheese properties and ending up with approaches to develop healthy cheese, as well as advantages and applications of processed cheese.
Chapter
It is during ripening that the flavour and texture characteristic of the cheese variety develop. Three major pathways constitute the biochemistry of cheese ripening: (1) metabolism of residual lactose and of lactate and citrate, (2) lipolysis and fatty acid metabolism and (3) proteolysis and amino acid catabolism. Cheese ripening is mediated by metabolically active cells from the starter, non-starter and adjunct starter microbiotas and enzymes that contribute to ripening come from the coagulant (principally chymosin but sometimes other proteinases, and in cheeses made using rennet paste, also pregastric esterase), milk (plasmin, somatic cell enzymes and lipoprotein lipase), starter and non-starter lactic acid bacteria (cell envelope-associated proteinases and a wide range of intracellular peptidases, esterases and amino acid catabolic enzymes) and adjunct starters (proteinases, peptidases and lipases). The primary products of cheese ripening (peptides, amino acids and fatty acids) are metabolized further to volatile flavour compounds through metabolism of fatty acids and amino acid catabolism.
Chapter
The coagulation of milk (by proteolysis or acidification) is the key operation in cheesemaking. The enzymatic (rennet-induced) coagulation of milk can be divided into two phases: (1) hydrolysis of the micelle-stabilizing protein, κ-casein, (2) aggregation and gelation of the rennet-altered micelles, with the development of a particulate gel. The mechanism of the primary (enzymatic) phase has been described in molecular terms and the effects of various environmental factors thereon quantified. Aggregation of the rennet-altered micelles occurs when the zeta potential of the micelles, due mainly to the surface layer of κ-casein, has been reduced to a critical level. The effects of various compositional and environmental factors on the aggregation of the altered micelles have been described. Gelation is usually regarded as a continuation of the secondary (aggregation) phase, but requires a different approach and instrumentation for its study. It is the most complex and, at present, the least well understood aspect of the enzymatic coagulation of milk. Several instruments are available with which to study the rheological properties of the gel and there is particular interest in developing methods that can be used to study/quantify gelation in the cheese vat. An overview of the rennet-induced coagulation of milk will be presented in this chapter.
Article
The research presented had as purpose the study of the variation of some physical-chemical parameters during the maturation of two types of semi-solid cheese. (Holland and Moeciu). For the investigations there have been harvested and analysed four samples for each type.
Chapter
Many consumers are interested in the relationship between food quality and nutritional value when choosing to buy food. Dairy foods include a wide variety of foods such as liquid milk, fermented milks, cheese, cream, butter, and ice cream. Consuming milk and dairy products improves the overall nutritional quality of the diet. The chemical composition of dairy foods influences their nutritive value. Dairy foods provide substantial amounts of essential nutrients including fat, protein, lactose, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, some vitamins (e.g., A, B1, B2, B12, and D), bioactive peptides, and lipids. Nutritional quality assessment is the key for protecting the high nutritional value of milk from farm to marketplace. This chapter deals with evaluating modifications and changes in nutritional components of milk and milk products in the course of processing, including recent processing techniques for minimal nutrient losses.
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The investigations had as aim to study the physical-chemical aspects (salt concentration and temperature) and microbiological aspects (TNG, coliform bacteria, E. coli, Stqfilococcus aureus c.p. and Salmonella spp.) of the steaming brine in the fabrication of the pressed cheeses Dalia, Rucăr, Penteleu. The investigations were made in five milk processing units in cheeses with steamed paste.
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The purpose of this study was to reseach the relationship between the distribution of chemical, microbiologycal qualities and sensory evaluation in kashar cheese stored at the same temperatures throughout storages. Kashar cheeses were produced in Konya. Kashar cheese production was fullfilled with different amount added rennet casein (% 0,5, %1,0, %1,5, %2,0 and control group). All cheese samples were ripened at 8˚C till 90 days and chemical, microbiological and sensory analysis were carried out on certain ripening periods (1., 30., 60. ve 90. day) of Kashar cheese produced. All kashar cheese samples which were produced was analyzed for moisture content, fat, fat in dry material, pH, titratable acidity, salt, salt in dry material and total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, total mould-yeast, staph. aureus, total coliform bacteria, lactic asit bacteria. Furthermore, all Kashar cheeses were evaluated to sensory properties of cheeses from panelist which is constituted from 7 person scientist or laborant. According to the analysis findings, avarage pH value in Kashar cheese was found between 5,56-5,77, acidity between 0,53-0,83 l.a., dry matter between %54,93-59,04, salt between %1,22-1,66, salt in dry matter between %2,21-2,96, fat between %23,67-26,67, fat in dry matter between %40,04- 49,02. Mean values of the enumeration of total aerobic mesophilic microorganisms were determined between 4,67-6,25, lactic acit bacteria between 5,39-7,25, mould-yeast between 3,66-4,88. Additionally, S. aureus and Coliform group microorganisms were analysed, but were not detected. In this study cheese samples were assessed adding rennet casein with different rate (0,5%, 1,0%, 1,5% ve 2,0%), owing to buffering capacity to protein, a differences were determined on effect of pH and titratable acidity (p<0,05),but no differences were determined on dry content, fat and salt rate (p>0,05). While the most desirable cheese was chosen number fifth cheese for first, thirth and nineth days, chosen number fourth cheese for sixth day. Cheese samples, which were considered to out-apparence, just statistical a differences were determined for ripening days for number thirth, to inner-apparence for ripening days for number second (p<0,05).
Article
The aim of the present paper is to study the variation of amino acid content during the ripening of semi-hard cheese (type Holland), after adding in the milk, used for the coagulation, of a proteolytic enzyme - papaina - and the comparison with the data obtained from the analysis of a witness cheese (without enzymes added) obtained and ripen in the same technological conditions. For investigations were collected and analyzed samples at different times during ripening.
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