Article
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

Codependence has been held to be a product of living in a household with an alcoholic parent or, more generally, an outcome of childhood abuse. Codependent traits also have been proposed to have a complementary developmental relationship with narcissism. Australian adults (N = 190) were administered the Codependency Inventory, the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, the Narcissistic Personality Disorder scale, the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test, and the Survey of Traumatic Childhood Events. Results indicated that codependence is not predictable by childhood trauma, and although a relationship between codependence and narcissism was established, it was rather more complex than that anticipated by the literature. These findings substantially weaken the theoretical underpinnings of the concept of codependency, and due caution should be exercised in psychotherapeutic applications of the concept.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... In their works M. Crothers and L.W. Warren studied parental chemical dependency and didn't find significantly related to college students' codependency. The results of their study indicate that parental chemical dependency, maternal and paternal codependency as well as maternal coercion are significant predictors of codependency 16 . The group of high codependency did not include more individuals whose parents were alcoholics or drug addicts, or had a higher level of childhood physical or sexual abuse. ...
... Tkach T. The security of social system. Seminar Societal Development through International Academic Cooperation, University of Nordland (Bodø, Norway), 2014.16 Crothers, M., & Warren, L. W. Parental antecedents of adult codependency. ...
... However, recent empirical investigations examining the link between family-of-origin substance abuse and codependency in adulthood have found little or no relationship (Carson & Baker, 1994;Cullen & Carr, 1999;Gotham & Sher, 1995;Irwin, 1995). Some researchers have found that mental health issues in the family of origin are more important than actual substance use and abuse for predicting codependency in adulthood (Fuller & Warner, 2000). ...
... Similarly, codependency and self-silencing have been linked with various internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and self-system difficulties. Codependency is directly associated with low self-esteem and self-confidence (Cullen & Carr, 1999;Lindley, Giordano, & Hammer, 1999;Springer, Britt, & Schlenker, 1998;Wells, Glickauf-Hughes, & Jones, 1999), depression (Cullen & Carr, 1999;Fischer, Spann, & Crawford, 1991;Hughes-Hammer, Martsolf, & Zeller, 1998), anxiety (Cullen & Carr, 1999;Fischer et al., 1991;Springer et al., 1998), negative affectivity (Gotham & Sher, 1995), shameproneness (Wells et al., 1999), self-defeating personality characteristics (Wells, Glickauf-Hughes, & Bruss, 1998;Wells, Hill, Brack, Brack, & Firestone, 2006), borderline and dependent personality characteristics (Hoenigmann-Lion & Whitehead, 2006;Wells et al., 1998), and narcissistic personality disorder and covert narcissism (Irwin, 1995;Wells et al., 2006). Although not as much research has been conducted on the psychological correlates of self-silencing, it has been discovered that self-silencing is related to low self-esteem (Haemmerlie, Montgomery, Williams, & Winborn, 2001), depression (Cramer, Gallant, & Langlois, 2005;Flett, Besser, Hewitt, & Davis, 2007;Haemmerlie et al., 2001;Jack & Dill, 1992;Page, Stevens, & Galvin, 1996;Thompson, 1995), anxiety (Haemmerlie et al., 2001), selfblame and self-criticism (Ali et al., 2000;Besser, Flett, & Davis, 2003), perfectionism (Flett et al., 2007), and neuroticism (Witte, Sherman, & Flynn, 2001). ...
... However, recent empirical investigations examining the link between family-of-origin substance abuse and codependency in adulthood have found little or no relationship (Carson & Baker, 1994;Cullen & Carr, 1999;Gotham & Sher, 1995;Irwin, 1995). Some researchers have found that mental health issues in the family of origin are more important than actual substance use and abuse for predicting codependency in adulthood (Fuller & Warner, 2000). ...
... Similarly, codependency and self-silencing have been linked with various internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and self-system difficulties. Codependency is directly associated with low self-esteem and self-confidence (Cullen & Carr, 1999;Lindley, Giordano, & Hammer, 1999;Springer, Britt, & Schlenker, 1998;Wells, Glickauf-Hughes, & Jones, 1999), depression (Cullen & Carr, 1999;Fischer, Spann, & Crawford, 1991;Hughes-Hammer, Martsolf, & Zeller, 1998), anxiety (Cullen & Carr, 1999;Fischer et al., 1991;Springer et al., 1998), negative affectivity (Gotham & Sher, 1995), shameproneness (Wells et al., 1999), self-defeating personality characteristics (Wells, Glickauf-Hughes, & Bruss, 1998;Wells, Hill, Brack, Brack, & Firestone, 2006), borderline and dependent personality characteristics (Hoenigmann-Lion & Whitehead, 2006;Wells et al., 1998), and narcissistic personality disorder and covert narcissism (Irwin, 1995;Wells et al., 2006). Although not as much research has been conducted on the psychological correlates of self-silencing, it has been discovered that self-silencing is related to low self-esteem (Haemmerlie, Montgomery, Williams, & Winborn, 2001), depression (Cramer, Gallant, & Langlois, 2005;Flett, Besser, Hewitt, & Davis, 2007;Haemmerlie et al., 2001;Jack & Dill, 1992;Page, Stevens, & Galvin, 1996;Thompson, 1995), anxiety (Haemmerlie et al., 2001), selfblame and self-criticism (Ali et al., 2000;Besser, Flett, & Davis, 2003), perfectionism (Flett et al., 2007), and neuroticism (Witte, Sherman, & Flynn, 2001). ...
Article
This study investigated the role of psychosocial variables as mediators of the relationship between a childhood history of emotional maltreatment and codependency and a childhood history of emotional maltreatment and self-silencing in a sample of upper division female nursing students. Depression, self-esteem, self-differentiation, and self-concealment were considered as possible mediators of the relationship. Multiple regression analyses revealed that each psychosocial variable partially mediated the relationship between a history of emotional maltreatmentand codependency, and emotional maltreatment and self-silencing.
... Other researchers have challenged this view, arguing that the concept of codependency does not include female stereotyped traits but negative traits that are generally considered to be feminine but are actually devalued in both genders (Cowan and Warren 1994). The results of studies that found no significant effect of gender on the levels of co-dependency support the latter perspective (Chmielewska 2012;Cullen and Carr 1999;Gotham and Sher 1996;Irwin 1995;Prest et al. 1998). Our study was not specifically designed to assess the influence of gender differences on codependency, thus our research project did not include an appropriate methodology for evaluating this aspect. ...
Article
Full-text available
Working within the framework of the Bowen’s Family Systems Theory and using data from 318 non-clinical participants, the present study assessed a model in which codependent behaviors were predicted by dyadic adjustment in couple relationships and differentiation of self. Results indicated that the dimensions of differentiation of self (I-position, emotional reactivity, emotional cutoff, fusion with others) were more important in explaining the codependent behavior compared to the dimensions of dyadic adjustment (dyadic satisfaction, cohesion, consensus, affective expression). These results suggest the importance of considering the dynamics and outcomes of the process of differentiation of self both in research and in counselling and clinical practice with individuals, couples, and families.
... Aunque la inmensa mayoría de los estudios se ha realizado en los EE.UU., la revisión bibliográfica realizada indicó que la investigación sobre el narcisismo ya ha traspasado las fronteras de ese país. Se han realizado estudios empíricos en países como: Japón (Miyashita, 1991; Ohtani y Sakurai, 1995); Canadá Inglaterra y Francia (Mercier, 1991; Patrick, 1990); Australia (Irwin, 1995 ); en los países escandinavos se han realizado diversos estudios (Anderson, 1990; Benjaminsen, Krarup y Lauritsen, 1990; Kalliopuska, 1992); en España (Trechera, 1997); y en México (García, 1991; García y Cortés, 1998). En todos estas investigaciones se ha empleado el Inventario de Personalidad Narcisista (NPI) como instrumento para medir el narcisismo. ...
Article
Full-text available
A pesar de la notable y creciente atención que ha recibido la investigación sobre el narcisismo, no existen trabajos en el idioma español que resuman y analicen la investigación empírica producida a partir de su inclusión como trastorno de la per- sonalidad en el DSM-III. El propósito de este trabajo fue realizar una revisión biblio- gráfica sobre la investigación relacionada con las características psicométricas de los instrumentos más importantes para medir narcisismo y analizar la relación de éste con rasgos y teorías de la personalidad. Dichos temas han sido de los más estudiados dentro de la investigación empírica sobre narcisismo. El trabajo analiza los instrumentos más empleados; la investigación producida sobre narcisismo y su relación con los rasgos de personalidad; la grandiosidad y el narcisismo, y la expre- sión sana versus la patológica del narcisismo. Las aportaciones teóricas de mayor influencia en el desarrollo de los instrumentos y la investigación han sido los traba- jos de Kohut, Kernberg y Miller
... On a cautionary statement, Irwin proposes to investigate the general profile of relatives of pathological gamblers, rather than prematurely endorsing generalizing theories. 22 Indeed, current models of co-dependence focus too much on individual vulnerabilities disregarding the probable dysfunctional consequences of living with a dependent relative. For instance, Hudson compared wives of substance abusers to women from the community using the Social Adjustment Scale self-report form and found that the overall adjustment score was compromised, as well as all sub-scales ranging from the more proximal domains of family to the more distal domains of work, and leisure. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Wives of pathological gamblers tend to endure long marriages despite financial and emotional burden. Difficulties in social adjustment, personality disorders, and comorbidity with psychiatric disorders are pointed as reasons for remaining on such overwhelming relationships. The goal was to examine the social adjustment, personality and negative emotions of wives of pathological gamblers. Method: The sample consisted of 25 wives of pathological gamblers, mean age 40.6, SD = 9.1 from a Gambling Outpatient Unit and at GAM-ANON, and 25 wives of non-gamblers, mean age 40.8, SD = 9.1, who answered advertisements placed at the Universidade de São Paulo hospital and medical school complex. They were selected in order to approximately match demographic characteristics of the wives of pathological gamblers. Subjects were assessed by the Social Adjustment Scale, Temperament and Character Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results: Three variables remained in the final Multiple Logistic Regression model. Wives of pathological gamblers presented greater dissatisfaction with their marital bond, and higher scores on Reward Dependence and Persistence temperament factors. Both wives of pathological gamblers and wives of non-gamblers presented well-structured character factors excluding personality disorders. Conclusion: This personality profile may explain wives of pathological gamblers emotional resilience and their marriage longevity. Co-dependence and other labels previously used to describe them may work as a double edged sword, legitimating wives of pathological gamblers problems, while stigmatizing them as inapt and needy. Descriptors: Pathological gambling; Spouses; Social adjustment; Personality; Depression
... On a cautionary statement, Irwin proposes to investigate the general profile of relatives of pathological gamblers, rather than prematurely endorsing generalizing theories. 22 Indeed, current models of co-dependence focus too much on individual vulnerabilities disregarding the probable dysfunctional consequences of living with a dependent relative. For instance, Hudson compared wives of substance abusers to women from the community using the Social Adjustment Scale self-report form and found that the overall adjustment score was compromised, as well as all sub-scales ranging from the more proximal domains of family to the more distal domains of work, and leisure. ...
Article
Full-text available
Wives of pathological gamblers tend to endure long marriages despite financial and emotional burden. Difficulties in social adjustment, personality psychopathology, and comorbidity with psychiatric disorders are pointed as reasons for remaining on such overwhelming relationships. The goal was to examine the social adjustment, personality and negative emotionality of wives of pathological gamblers. The sample consisted of 25 wives of pathological gamblers, mean age 40.6, SD = 9.1 from a Gambling Outpatient Unit and at GAM-ANON, and 25 wives of non-gamblers, mean age 40.8, SD = 9.1, who answered advertisements placed at the Universidade de São Paulo hospital and medical school complex. They were selected in order to approximately match demographic characteristics of the wives of pathological gamblers. Subjects were assessed by the Social Adjustment Scale, Temperament and Character Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Three variables remained in the final Multiple Logistic Regression model, wives of pathological gamblers presented greater dissatisfaction with their marital bond, and higher scores on Reward Dependence and Persistence temperament factors. Both, Wives of pathological gamblers and wives of non-gamblers presented well-structured character factors excluding personality disorders. This personality profile may explain wives of pathological gamblers emotional resilience and their marriage longevity. Co-dependence and other labels previously used to describe them may work as a double edged sword, legitimating wives of pathological gamblers problems, while stigmatizing them as inapt and needy.
... De term medeafhankelijkheid (co-dependency) is voor het eerst ontwikkeld in het gebied van de behandeling van middelengebruik. Er werd specifiek gerefereerd aan de vrouwen van mannen die alcohol misbruikten (Irwin, 1995). Medeafhankelijkheid wordt nu bij partners, familie, vrienden en kinderen van verslaafde ouders gebruikt. ...
... Like the other instruments employed in this study, the NPI is a well-established scale and has been used extensively in past studies (see Lamboum & Day, 1995;McHoskey, 1996;Irwin, 1995;Cramer, 1996;Rhodewalt & Morf, 1995;Gabriel, Critelli & Ee, 1994;W atson & Biderman, 1993;Shulman & Ferguson, 1988;Mullins & Kopelman, 1988). The scale items are paired statements, to which the respondent Gable and Dangello (1994) also reported an alpha o f .79 for the Mach IV; other authors report that the Mach IV reliability has consistently been found to be at least .70 in various test-retest and split half tests (Watson, Biderman & Sawrie, 1994). ...
Article
Full-text available
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Indiana University of Pennsylvania. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 168-187).
... In contrast to vanity, narcissism has received much attention, particularly from investigators interested in interpersonal functioning (e.g., Brunell et al., 2011;Campbell et al., 2002;Emmons, 1987;Grijalva et al., 2015;Morf & Rhodewalt, 2001;Wetzel et al., 2017;Wink, 1991) and psychopathology (e.g., Irwin, 1995;Pincus & Lukowitsky, 2010;Zeigler-Hill et al., 2011). Arguably, narcissism is a broader and more complex concept than vanity, as it describes both grandiose and vulnerable aspects of self-concept (Gore & Widiger, 2016) and is characterized by traits such as attention-seeking, arrogance, low anxiety, entitlement, a lack of empathy, and exploitation of others (e.g., Cain et al., 2008;Kenneth et al., 2012). ...
Article
For almost 50 years, psychologists have understood that what is beautiful is perceived as good. This simple and intuitively appealing hypothesis has been confirmed in many ways, prompting a wide range of studies documenting the depth and breadth of its truth. Yet, for what is arguably one of the most important forms of "goodness" that there is-moral goodness-research has told a different story. Although greater attractiveness is associated with a host of positive attributes, it has been only inconsistently associated with greater perceived morality (or lesser immorality), and meta-analyses have suggested the total effect of beauty on moral judgment is near zero. The current research documents one plausible reason for this. Across nine experiments employing a variety of methodological and measurement strategies, we show how attractiveness can be perceived as both morally good and bad. We found that attractiveness causally influences beliefs about vanity, which translates into beliefs that more attractive targets are less moral and more immoral. Then, we document a positive association between attractiveness and sociability-the nonmoral component of warmth-and show how sociability exerts a countervailing positive effect on moral judgments. Likewise, we document findings suggesting that vanity and sociability mutually suppress the effects of attractiveness on each other and on moral judgments. Ultimately, this work provides a comprehensive process account of why beauty seems good but can also be perceived as less moral and more immoral, highlighting complex interrelations among different elements of person perception. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... Self-identity is determined by external validation ( Schaef, 1986; Lindley and Giordano, 1999) and an investment in a false self ( Subby, 1984). Interestingly, co-dependence and narcissism are related ( Irwin, 1995), and empirically validated by the Composite Co-dependency Scale and Holyoake Co-dependency Index ( Marks et al., 2012). External organisational threats can awaken dormant paranoia in organisations and leaders as well. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This paper aims to adapt the medical phenomenon of Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP) to an organisational context. Specifically, MSBP serves as a novel metaphor to describe the tendency for the organisation and the leader to perpetuate cycles of illness and therapy. Design/methodology/approach A conceptual metaphor is proposed based on the clinical description of MSBP. A perpetual feedback model emphasises a constant cycle of illness and therapy among leaders and organisations, often fabricated by a narcissist through destructive management. Findings The metaphor presented suggests that the role of deception is important for understanding why therapeutic approaches are often unnecessary, highly disruptive and administered by a destructive leader who possesses the power to alienate or dismiss non-corroborative organisational members. The implications of continuously passing illness between the leader and the organisation are a state of organisational disequilibrium and the manufacture of depersonalised, ill members. Originality/value This conceptual paper adds to the growing body of literature on behavioural strategy and contributes to the fields of organisational psychology, organisational analysis, management and employee relations.
... Some studies have described needle-sharing behaviors in partners who are intravenous drug users (Kim et al. 2015;Noor et al. 2013). The concept of Bcodependency^was developed to describe a dysfunctional style of relating to others (Irwin 1995) and is particularly applicable to couples involved in substance use. Women with high neuroticism, low openness, and low agreeableness tend to display codependency when living with addicted men (Panaghi et al. 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study explores whether an individual’s methadone dose is influenced by the level of another individual’s dose as a function of their relationship. Thirty-four subjects were recruited in this study; 16 subjects were in a partner relationship and 18 subjects were siblings. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the dose of one member of the dyad was a predictor of the dose of the other member of the dyad. Mean difference in dose was negatively associated with the correlation coefficient in sibling dyads but not partner dyads. Analysis of the dose curves showed that all partner dyads demonstrated a “collinearity pattern” or “coexistence pattern,” but a “distinct trend pattern” was only noted in sibling dyads. Our results suggest that there is a relationship between the methadone doses of members of a dyad and that this phenomenon is more remarkable in partnership dyads than sibling dyads.
... INTRODUÇÃO (Irwin, 1995). Gráfico 9 -Salário médio por hora da indústria: Brasil -China (2005-2016 Fonte : Euromonitor Internacional (2017 O que se quer assinalar brevemente por enquanto é que, se a nova forma de dependência tem explicações exteriores à nação, por outra parte a relação interna entre as classes não lhe é alheia; ao contrário, a relação interna entre as classes é que torna possível e dá fisionomia própria à dependência (Cardoso, Faletto, 1979:36 ...
Article
Full-text available
RESUMO Este artigo visa analisar as relações econômicas entre Brasil e China na contemporaneidade. A primeira parte da pesquisa aborda a Teoria da Dependência e sua interpretação das relações entre países periféricos e centrais no complexo sistema internacional. A segunda parte apresenta um breve histórico das relações sino-brasileiras e analisa o seu atual estágio. A pesquisa propõe um novo conceito para interpretar as relações entre países semiperiféricos: codependência. Como procedimento técnico-metodológico, a pesquisa utilizou de fontes primárias e secundárias, como indicadores econômicos, produção bibliográfica e documental. ABSTRACT This article aims to analyze the economic relations between Brazil and China nowadays. The first part of the research presents The Dependency Theory and its interpretation of the relations between peripheral and central countries. The second part presents a brief history of Sino-Brazilian relations and analyzes its current stage. The research proposes a new concept to interpret the relations between semiperipheral countries: codependency. As a technical-methodological procedure, the research used primary and secondary sources, such as economic indicators, bibliographical and documentary production.
... INTRODUÇÃO (Irwin, 1995). Gráfico 9 -Salário médio por hora da indústria: Brasil -China (2005-2016 Fonte : Euromonitor Internacional (2017 O que se quer assinalar brevemente por enquanto é que, se a nova forma de dependência tem explicações exteriores à nação, por outra parte a relação interna entre as classes não lhe é alheia; ao contrário, a relação interna entre as classes é que torna possível e dá fisionomia própria à dependência (Cardoso, Faletto, 1979:36 ...
Article
Full-text available
Este artigo visa analisar as relações econômicas entre Brasil e China na contemporaneidade. A primeira parte da pesquisa aborda a Teoria da Dependência e sua interpretação das relações entre países periféricos e centrais no complexo sistema internacional. A segunda parte apresenta um breve histórico das relações sinobrasileiras e analisa o seu atual estágio. A pesquisa propõe um novo conceito para interpretar as relações entre países semiperiféricos: codependência. Como procedimento técnico-metodológico, a pesquisa utilizou de fontes primárias e secundárias, como indicadores econômicos, produção bibliográfica e documental.
... Las respuestas se contestan según una escala Likert de 6 puntos que se extiende desde Desacuerdo fuertemente hasta Acuerdo fuertemente. La puntuación total oscila de 16 a 96 puntos y, cuanto más alta sea la puntuación, mayor es la CD del entrevistado (Fischer & cols., 2005;Irwin, 1995;Crothers & Warren, 1996). Fischer y colaboradores (1991), al comparar las distribuciones de los percentiles de los grupos investigados, establecieron como parámetros: 67,2 puntos = alta CD y 37,3 puntos = baja CD. ...
Article
The aim of this documental study is to describe a brief history of Codependency, to carry on a review of the psychometric instruments developed up to now and to describe the most cited instruments in the literature. This research is part of a larger study which general objective is to describe the existing state of the art about codependency through an extensive document search in PsycINFO database. Between 2004 and 2008, were selected and reviewed 433 documents about codependency, the first document captured is dated in 1981 and the last in 2008. In a second selection, 81 documents were analyzed, those documents which consider assessment instruments to measure the concept Codependency. The most cited instruments were: Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale (SF CDS), Co-dependency Assessment Questionnaire (CAQ) and Friel Adult Child/Co-dependency Assessment Inventory (CAI).
... The Family-of-Origin Disruptive Checklist (FOODBC) is a 14-item measure developed by the authors to identify severe and disruptive occurrences present in a respondent's family-of-origin. Items on the FOODBC were drawn from the literature review as behaviors that may be present in dysfunctional families (i.e., alcoholic, physically/sexually abusive family systems [Crothers & Warren, 1996;Irwin, 1995;Kitchens, 1991;Woititz, 1983]). Items on the FOODBC address the presence of: (1) alcohol abuse, (2) drug abuse, (3) physical abuse committed against you, (4) physical abuse of someone else (5) sexual abuse committed against you, (6) sexual abuse of someone else, (7) divorce of parents or primary care givers, (8) abandonment by parents or primary care givers, (9) extreme chaos, (10) severe punishment, and (11) extreme absence of parents or primary care givers. ...
Article
Two groups of women (one group married to sexually addicted men and the other group married to nonsexually addicted men) were compared to examine differences in family-of-origin characteristics. It was found that women married to sexually addicted men were significantly more likely to come from families-of-origin where they experienced abuse, abandonment, chaos, physical punishment, crisis, and depression. Further, these women were more likely to have families-of-origin that were rigidly disengaged. Women married to men who were not sexually addicted were more likely to come from cohesively connected families-of-origin. Implications for counseling practice are discussed.
... Codependency; addiction; family therapy; comparative effectiveness research When the term "chemical dependent" emerged as the new label for both alcoholics and drug addicts, the word "codependent" was used to describe their partners (Gordon & Barrett, 1993;Hawkins & Hawkins, 2005;Wright & Wright, 1991). Definitions of codependency are not universally accepted and codependency concept was criticized due to poor operationalization and application (Cullen & Carr, 1999;Dear & Roberts, 2002;Irwin, 1995). However, recent studies continue to find the concept useful and have attempted to operationalize it (Harkness, Manhire, Blanchard, & Darling, 2007;Panaghi, Ahmadabadi, Khosravi, Sadeghi, & Madanipour, 2016;Sarkar, Mattoo, Basu, & Gupta, 2015;Wegshcheider-Cruse & Cruse, 2012). ...
Article
Purpose: Social workers in substance abuse treatment settings are responsible for involving families in treatment program to improve family functioning. The effectiveness of available interventions in treating codependency of family members of drug users in Iran is not well explored. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Satir communication family therapy (CFT) in healing codependency of drug dependents' family members in Tehran, Iran. Methods: The intervention group participants (n = 27) received a seven-session social work intervention with CFT approach and the control group (n = 26) received treatment as usual. We used the Holyoake Codependency Index to measure participants' codependency at baselines, end of intervention, and 90 days post intervention. Results: Codependents enrolled in the intervention had a significantly lower codependency score than controls at the end of intervention and 90 days post intervention. Discussion: CFT is an effective strategy to reduce codependency in Iranian population and can be explored as a population-based strategy.
Article
Allzu oft begegnet man defizitorientierten Untersuchungen, deren Ergebnisse Störungsbilder im sozialen und psychischen Bereich beschreiben, und die erwachsene Kinder alkoholismusbelasteter Elternteile als auffällige und gefährdete Gruppe deklarieren. Die klinische Literatur schließt häufig von auffälligen Kindern jener Familien auf die übrigen Zugehörigen dieser Personengruppe. Die Möglichkeit einer weitgehend gesunden psychischen Entwicklung wird dort zu wenig in Betracht gezogen. Die folgenden Ausführungen wollen die vorhandene Problematik weniger herunterspielen oder leugnen, als vielmehr eine positivere Sichtweise der thematisierten Personengruppe in die Diskussion einbringen: Es ist zu untersuchen, ob die in der Forschung vermehrt als belastet beschriebenen erwachsenen Kinder von alkoholabhängigen Elternteilen in der Tat so defizitbelastet sind, oder ob nicht vielmehr eine größere Bandbreite des Verhaltens und Erlebens besteht. Außerdem wird die Hypothese aufgestellt, dass diese Kinder besondere Kompetenzen aufweisen können und dass auf der einen Seite bei diesen Menschen in der Kindheit Probleme und Auffälligkeiten vorhanden waren, diese aber auf der anderen Seite im Erwachsenenalter zu Kompetenzen modifiziert werden konnten. Die Bearbeitung des Themas vollzieht sich anhand des folgenden Aufbaus der Arbeit: Das erste Kapitel befasst sich mit der Familienstruktur, die sich bei Alkoholabhängigkeit eines Elternteils oder beider Eltern ergibt. Dazu wird der Krankheitsbegriff der Alkoholabhängigkeit untersucht, der daraufhin auf die Situation innerhalb der Familie bezogen wird. Dabei wird insbesondere die Partnersituation des nichtabhängigen Elternteils und der Begriff der Co- Abhängigkeit in den Fokus gestellt. Schließlich wird erschlossen, wie sich Alkoholsucht auf das Stressverhalten der Gesamtfamilie auswirkt. Die so gewonnenen Erkenntnisse führen im zweiten Kapitel zur expliziten Beschäftigung mit dem Thema „Kinder aus alkoholismusbelasteten Familien“. Dort werden zunächst Symptome und Risikofaktoren beleuchtet, bevor in Anlehnung an die Stressbewältigung auch Resilienzen und Schutzfaktoren dieser Kinder geprüft werden. Darauf aufbauend werden die Familienatmosphäre und Kommunikationsstrukturen in Suchtfamilien erörtert, bevor das Augenmerk auf Bewältigungsstrategien gerichtet wird: An dieser Stelle wird besonders die Identitätsentwicklung und die Übernahme bestimmter Rollen diskutiert. Daran knüpft die Beschäftigung mit dem Thema der Geschwister in alkoholismusbelasteten Familien an, welche ebenfalls auf besonders Rollenmuster und weiter auf das Konkurrenzverhalten und die Geschwisterabfolge abzielt. Schließlich wird die entscheidende Frage erörtert, ob erwachsene Kinder von Alkoholikern eher als kompetent oder eher als defizitär zu betrachten sind. Mit dem dritten Kapitel beginnt der Praxisteil der Arbeit, hier wird eine von KLEIN & ZOBEL durchgeführte Modellstudie über erwachsene Kinder aus alkoholismusbelasteten Familie erläutert und eine Re-Analyse des dort erhobenen Datenmaterials durchgeführt und interpretiert. Das vierte Kapitel beschäftigt sich mit den eigens durchgeführten Interviews mit erwachsenen Kindern alkoholismusbelasteter Familien. Zunächst wird das Untersuchungsdesign beschrieben, bevor die gewonnenen Ergebnisse dargestellt und interpretiert werden. Das fünfte Kapitel fasst die gesamten Ausführungen zusammen und diskutiert die Konsequenzen der Untersuchungsergebnisse. Im Anhang befinden sich alle zur Durchführung und Auswertung der Interviews relevanten Arbeitsmaterialien sowie drei exemplarische Interviews. Die Komplexität des bearbeiteten Themas führt dazu, dass einige Themen bewusst kürzer gehalten werden als andere und damit ein persönlicher Schwerpunkt gesetzt wird. Die angeführten Interpretationen und entwickelten Schlussfolgerungen sind bemüht, die Individualität jedes Menschen zu berücksichtigen.
Article
Full-text available
Codependency has been defined as an extreme focus on relationships, caused by a stressful family background (J. L. Fischer, L. Spann, & D. W. Crawford, 1991). In this study the authors assessed the relationship of the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale (J. L. Fischer et al., 1991) and the Potter-Efron Codependency Assessment (L. A. Potter-Efron & P. S. Potter-Efron, 1989) with self-reported chronic family stress and family background. Students (N = 257) completed 2 existing self-report codependency measures and provided family background information. Results indicated that women had higher codependency scores than men on the Spann-Fischer scale. Students with a history of chronic family stress (with an alcoholic, mentally ill, or physically ill parent) had significantly higher codependency scores on both scales. The findings suggest that other types of family stressors, not solely alcoholism, may be predictors of codependency.
Article
To empirically investigate the construct validity of codependency, differences between young adults on a measure of codependency on theoretically relevant variables were examined. Compared with individuals who scored low on codependency, those who obtained high scores reported significantly more family of origin difficulties and parental mental health problems, problematic intimate relationships including relationships with chemically dependent partners, and personal psychological problems including compulsivity. Contrary to prevailing theoretical predictions the high codependency group did not contain more individuals whose parents had alcohol or drug abuse problems, or a higher level of childhood physical or sexual abuse. These results suggest that co-dependency is one aspect of wider multigenerational family systems problems which are not unique to families where drug and alcohol abuse or physical and sexual abuse are major concerns.
Article
This study examined the relationships between codependency and age, gender, self-confidence, autonomy, and succorance, which is the quality of soliciting emotional support from others. The study also tested the validity of the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale (Fischer, Spann, & Crawford, 1991). Ninety-five undergraduates completed a demographic sheet, the Adjective Check List (Gough & Heilbrun, 1983), the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale, the Co-Dependents Anonymous Checklist (Whitfield, 1991), and a questionnaire developed for this study based on the work of Hemfelt, Minirth, and Meier (1989). As predicted, codependency was negatively related to self-confidence and positively related to succorance. However, contrary to expectation, a negative relationship between codependency and autonomy was not found. In addition, low self-confidence was the strongest predictor of codependency. Finally, all three measures of codependency were strongly related, attesting to the convergent validity of the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale. Future studies should further investigate the role of emotional autonomy and codependency and should begin to utilize an experimental approach, making predictions regarding the behavior of codependent and noncodependent persons in experimental situations. © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Clin Psychol 55: 59–64, 1999.
Article
To create a basis for empirical studies of co-dependence in substance use disorders, Cermak in 1986 suggested a model for diagnostic criteria similar to the DSM type of criteria. In the present study the Cermak criteria were applied to 41 relatives of alcoholics. To validate the co-dependence scale, the following instruments were used: Coping Behavior Scale, Hardship Scale, Symptom Checklist (SCL-90), Trait Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), and The Interview Schedule for Social Interaction (ISSI). The optimal cut-off was 2 of 4 main criteria and 3 of 10 psychiatric symptoms. With this cut-off point, 44% of the relatives met the criteria of co-dependence: 17% males and 83% females. Co-dependence defined in this manner was related to coping style (fear withdrawal) and hardship of the relationship but not to the severity of psychopathology or personality. In conclusion, it was possible to measure the concept of co-dependence and validate it against coping style and hardship.
Article
Full-text available
Codependent behaviors are associated with an unhealthy reliance on others for meeting emotional needs. This over-reliance on others often leads to dysfunctional interpersonal relationships. This article presents emotional stocks and bonds (ESB), a metaphorical model for use with clients who display codependent behaviors. Emotional stocks and bonds incorporates theoretical tenets from Bowen family systems and attachment theory and aids clients in understanding and changing unhealthy relationship behavior patterns. In addition to an overview of the model's key concepts and its use in clinical practice, we provide a case illustration and a discussion of practice implications and limitations.
Article
This study explored the relationship between the concept of codependency, a term originating in the field of addictions, and DSM-IV (APA, 1994) descriptions of dependent and borderline personality disorders. Seventy-five undergraduates (16 men and 59 women) were administered the Potter-Efron Codependency Scale (Potter-Efron & Potter-Efron, 1989), the borderline and the dependent scales of the MCMI-II (Millon, 1987), and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS, Weissman, 1979). Pearson Product Moment correlations were computed and revealed a significant positive correlation between codependent and borderline traits and a significant but weaker correlation between codependent and dependent traits. Codependent and borderline personality traits were also similarly correlated on specific cognitive schema assessed by the DAS. These findings are one of only a few first empirical tests of the relationship between borderline personality disorder, dependent personality disorder and codependency, possibly indicating that codependency may be a combination of disorders already extant in the DSM-IV.
Article
This study examined the relationships between codependency and age, gender, self-confidence, autonomy, and succorance, which is the quality of soliciting emotional support from others. The study also tested the validity of the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale (Fischer, Spann, & Crawford, 1991). Ninety-five undergraduates completed a demographic sheet, the Adjective Check List (Gough & Heilbrun, 1983), the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale, the Co-Dependents Anonymous Checklist (Whitfield, 1991), and a questionnaire developed for this study based on the work of Hemfelt, Minirth, and Meier (1989). As predicted, codependency was negatively related to self-confidence and positively related to succorance. However, contrary to expectation, a negative relationship between codependency and autonomy was not found. In addition, low self-confidence was the strongest predictor of codependency. Finally, all three measures of codependency were strongly related, attesting to the convergent validity of the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale. Future studies should further investigate the role of emotional autonomy and codependency and should begin to utilize an experimental approach, making predictions regarding the behavior of codependent and noncodependent persons in experimental situations.
Article
This investigation examined the reliability and validity of a rating scale for codependency in substance abuse treatment. The investigators developed an example-anchored rating scale to operationalize codependency as substance abuse counselors construe it in practice, and recruited 27 counselors for a counterbalanced multiple-treatment experiment. Counselors were randomly assigned to one of four continuing education workshops for rating-scale training, and asked to evaluate codependency in five videotaped cases. Semistructured case interviews were videotaped with a male and a female from five adult populations to vary the gender and codependency of cases: (1) outpatients in treatment for addiction, (2) outpatient spouses, (3) members of Codependents Anonymous, (4) United States Bureau of Land Management smoke jumpers, and (5) college students majoring in business or economics. To control for gender effects, one workshop presented male cases, one workshop presented female cases, and two workshops presented cases of both genders. To control for order effects, the assignment of videotapes to workshops was randomized to counterbalance the order in which counselors viewed them. The findings suggest that the rating scale yields reliable and valid evaluations of codependency without appreciable gender bias.
Article
Using theoretical sampling, we extended a previous grounded theory study of women's caring through interviews with 16 women currently giving care to parents who had abused them as children to more fully understand daughters' obligation to care in the context of past abuse. Past relationship was characterized by emotional distance, "never being good enough," degradation, control, and unpredictability. Obligation to care was grounded not only in duty to others but also in duty to self. Caregiving was seen as an opportunity for validation and reconciliation. These findings advance knowledge by illuminating how survivors of child maltreatment become caregivers for their abusers.
Article
Full-text available
Se presenta el test autoaplicado informatizado TDS-100 (por tener 100 ítems) que diagnostica no solo los diferentes tipos de dependencia sentimental existentes, sino macrofactores y factores de importancia clínica crucial en el ámbito relacional. A dicho efecto se realizó un estudio de investigación clínica en las ciudades de Madrid y Oviedo entre 2002 y 2006. Elaboramos un pre-test y dos tests ulteriores refinados con los síntomas más significativos (mayores saturaciones de los ítems) después de una doble decantación: clínica y experimental. Como instrumentos de anclaje se emplearon el Inventario de Interdependencia (IDI) (Hirschfield et alls, 1976), EDE (Caldera y Tascón, 2001), CBP (Sirvent y Martínez 2001). La población estudiada fue la siguiente: 1.- Grupo de dependientes sentimentales identificados (d. afectivos, codependientes y bidependientes).2- Grupo control 3.- Grupos de comparación. A las poblaciones afectas y grupos de comparación no control se les adicionaron los siguientes protocolos: Historia Autobiográfica Integradora. Escala Triangular de Sternberg. Protocolos Abiertos e Historia Clínica ad hoc En este estudio el procesamiento y tratamiento estadístico de los datos se ha llevado a cabo mediante el programa SPSS versión 14.0 y se han efectuado análisis de frecuencias y descriptivos, comparación de medias (ANOVAs), factoriales, análisis de fiabilidad y otros pertinentes al objeto de estudio. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos en los análisis del TDS-100 se confirma la elevada fiabilidad hallada en el indicador Alfa de Cronbach con un valor de .956 para 100 ítems y una muestra de 585 sujetos. El test TDS-100 diferencia 4 tipos de dependencia sentimental, 7 macrofactores sindrómicos y 23 factores sintomáticos que, a saber, son: 1º) Discrimina 4 categorías o tipos de dependencia sentimental: relacional, afectiva, codependencia y bidependencia. 2º) Evalúa 7 macrofactores sindrómicos: triada dependiente, acomodación, autoengaño, sentimientos negativos, identidad y fuerza del ego, antecedentes personales, triada codependiente. 3º) Asimismo evalúa 23 factores sintomáticos: dependencia pura vs. antidependencia, búsqueda de sensaciones, cráving/ abstinencia. Acomodación. Autoengaño, manipulación, reiteración, mecanismos de negación y no afrontamiento. Sentimientos de soledad, vacío emocional, culpabilidad/autodestrucción, inescapabilidad/ recreación de sentimientos negativos. Identidad/ identificación, fuerza del ego: límites débiles y/o rígidos, egoísmo/egocentrismo, control y dominio/ juegos de poder. Antecedentes personales. Orientación rescatadora, sobrecontrol y focalización en el otro. Se presentan los perfiles sindrómicos (macrofactoriales) y sintomáticos (factoriales). ABSTRACT: We present the self-administered computerized test TDS-100 (100 items) which not only diagnoses the different types of emotional dependence, but also macro factors and factors of crucial clinical significance in the relational field. For this purpose we conducted a clinical research study in the cities of Madrid and Oviedo between 2002 and 2006. We developed a pre-test and two tests further refined with significant symptoms (highest loadings of the items) after double decanting: clinical and experimental. As anchoring tools we used Interdependence Inventory (IDI) (Hirschfield et alls, 1976), EDE (Caldera and Tascon, 2001), CBP (Sirvent and Martinez 2001). The studied population was the following: 1 .- sentimental dependent identified group (emotional d., codependent and bidependent) .2 – Control group 3 .- Comparison groups. Affected populations and non- control comparison groups were added the following protocols: Integrative Autobiographical History. Sternberg Triangular Scale. Open Protocols and Clinical History ad hoc. In this study processing and statistical treatment of data was performed using SPSS version 14.0 bringing about frequency analysis and descriptive comparison of means (ANOVAs), factorial analysis, reliability analysis and other relevant to the subject matter. According to the results obtained in the analysis of the TDS-100 we confirm the high reliability found in Cronbach alpha indicator with a value of 956 to 100 items and a sample of 585 subjects. The TDS-100 tests 4 different types of emotional dependence, 7 syndromic macro factors and 23 symptomatic factors, namely: 1 º) Discriminates 4 categories or types of dependency: relational, affective, codependence and bidependence. 2 º) Assesses 7 syndromic macrofactors: dependent triad, accommodation, self-deception, negative feelings, identity and ego strength, personal history, codependent triad 3 º) Also evaluates 23 symptomatic factors: pure dependence vs antidependence, sensation seeking, craving / withdrawal. Accommodation. Self-deception, manipulation, repetition, mechanisms of denial and not coping. Feelings of loneliness, emotional emptiness, guilt / self-destruction, inescapability / recreation of negative feelings. Identity / identification, ego strength, weak and / or rigid limits, selfish / self-centeredness, control and domain / power games. Personal history. Rescuer guidance, override and focus on the other. Syndromic profiles (macrofactorial) and symptomatic (factorial) are presented.
Article
The present study investigated the relationship between self-reported history of child abuse, neglect, and codependency in a sample of undergraduate nursing students. One hundred and two upper-division nursing students attending a medium-sized regional public university in the Southeast completed a four-part questionnaire containing the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ), the Psychological Maltreatment Inventory (PMI) and the Codependency Assessment Tool (CODAT). Correlations were computed. All forms of childhood abuse and neglect measured by the CTQ and PMI were significantly related to total codependency score. The strongest relationships overall were found between reported history of emotional neglect, emotional abuse, physical abuse, and codependency.
Article
Within the last three decades, researchers have begun to investigate the long-term consequences of childhood emotional maltreatment on interpersonal and intrapersonal functioning. These investigations have led to the realization that survivors of childhood emotional maltreatment suffer from myriad psychological and social difficulties. These difficulties influence the quality and nature of intimate relationships formed by emotional abuse survivors. The empirical literature looking at the effect of childhood emotional maltreatment on intimate relationships is summarized and discussed. Implications of the current body of research for future research and clinical practice are addressed.
Article
This study examined the experience of relapse and disclosure from the perspective of the partner who is in a committed relationship with a sex addict. Partners (N = 92) answered questions related to the first disclosure of sex addiction, experiences of relapse, the effect of relapse on the self and relationship, and reasons partners decided to stay vs. leave the relationship. In general, relapse was a common experience, and had a wide range of (mostly) negative consequences. Partners often viewed themselves as a victim of interpersonal relational trauma. Honesty and clarity surrounding relapses and disclosures were related to more positive relational outcomes.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Narcissism is characterized by entitlement, grandiose fantasies and the need for admiration. This personality trait has been associated with both traumatic experiences and emotional problems. Most studies have only focused on narcissism in the context of childhood trauma and negative emotional factors. However, dimensions of grandiose narcissism such as authority have been linked to adaptive outcomes. Furthermore, narcissism might not be linked only to negative childhood experiences; it may also be associated with the presence of post-traumatic symptoms. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the associations between narcissism and the frequency and severity of post-traumatic symptoms and emotional factors (resilience capacity, emotional regulation, positive and negative affect, intolerance of uncertainty and perceived stress), as well as the possible mediational role of the latter in the relationship between narcissism and post-traumatic symptoms. Method: A total of 115 healthy young psychology undergraduates and their relatives, aged from 18 to 40 years, were asked to complete a set of questionnaires to evaluate the aforementioned variables. Results: The results showed that most of the grandiose narcissism dimensions were positively related to emotional adaptive outcomes, except exploitativeness and entitlement. The negative associations observed between the frequency and severity of post-traumatic symptoms and narcissism (self-sufficiency) were mediated by affect and resilience, which were in turn positively associated with the majority of the narcissism dimensions. Both positive affect and resilience were important factors mediating the association between grandiose narcissism and post-traumatic symptoms. Conclusions: Our findings reaffirm the need to assess not only desirable personality traits, but also ones that are not initially desirable, before pathologizing them. This consideration may be essential to achieve a personalized approach to the prevention of mental health problems, and promotion of positive emotions, in the general population.
Article
Full-text available
The concept of boundary dissolution has a long history in both the psychodynamic and family systems literatures and is linked to a number of important processes in developmental psychopathology. However, advancements in the empirical study of boundary dissolution have been hindered by the multiplicity of terms and conceptualizations that have been used to capture the construct. The purpose of this paper is to present a multidimensional model of boundary dissolution and to show how the specific dimensions of the construct might be differentially linked to pathological processes in development. Research from a series of studies is presented that lends support to this model.
Article
Codependency-typified by extreme reliance on relationships, particularly with exploitive individuals, as a means of personal fulfillment - is a personality syndrome believed to develop, in part, from dysfunctional parenting. Based on this characterization, it was reasoned that codependency would be associated with inadequate parental bonding. It was also reasoned that codependent persons would be more attentive and responsive to an exploitive than to a nurturant other, whereas the opposite was expected for noncodependent persons. Support was found for both of these predictions: Questionnaire data revealed an association between codependency and high maternal control and/or low maternal care. In a laboratory procedure modeled after Lyon and Greenberg (1991), high and low codependents evidenced predicted, markedly different changes in mood as a function of whether they received positive or negative feedback from either an exploitive or a nurturant source. Evaluations of the source differed similarly. Based on these results, a model for understanding codependent persons' persistence in abusive relationships is proposed.
Article
Full-text available
The present study introduces a model explaining what leads stars to crash and assesses risk factors that lead stars to crash in a sample of 18 celebrities who have had a downfall. Downfalls include alcoholism, drug abuse or addiction, mental illness, myriad relationship problems, death, suicide or other life-changing disasters. First, the paper theorizes that individuals' early environments and social forces, such as assortativeness and affiliation, contribute to their narcissistic traits. The model illustrates how these risk factors including narcissistic traits and the adult environments of stars lead them to engage in behaviors that lead to their downfalls. To examine the usefulness of this model, the paper examined the lives of famous celebrities (i.e., “stars”) who had public downfalls 2 (n = 18) using secondary sources. It assessed the risk factors involved in the crashing of stars. In concordance with I the proposed model, results showed that what the majority of these cases had in common were: Atypical early environments, such as abandonment and trauma, over-indulgent or absent wealthy parents, or an early career; and adult environment conditions, such as colluding social groups and entourages. These factors could be linked to stars having extramarital affairs damaging their marriage or careers; bankruptcy; or alcohol and/or drug addiction. In some cases these factors have led to stars having accidents, or deaths. Furthermore, the study shows that there is a positive correlation between the number of risk factors present and the severity of the downfall of the stars.
Article
Children of alcoholics (COAs) are a high risk group for negative outcomes due to complex interactions between: 1) biological effects of ethanol on germ cells and foetus, 2) genetic vulnerability to alcoholism and related disorders and 3) socioenvironmental influences of living with alcoholic parents. This paper reviews the evidence on specific risk and protective markers in COAs, a cornerstone in improving early case detection and preventive strategies. COAs preventive programs must be mainly educational. Small group activities are preferable, in order to facilitate social abilities training, peer identification and development of trust in others. Family and school interventions are essential. An integral intervention plan for COAs should include early identification, risk and protection assessment, family motivation and counselling, psycho-educational groups for parents and children, and different additional psychotherapeutic options if needed. To improve selective preventive programs for COAs far more intensive effort is still needed on: a) identification of specific risk and protective factors, b) screening and assessment instruments, c) evaluation and optimisation of ongoing programmes to increase efficiency and cost-benefit ratio; d) development of specific preventive and self-help materials, e) motivational strategies to engage reluctant families, and f) dissemination strategies (professional training and online support).
Article
Any adolescent confronted with a parent who abuses alcohol may face difficult situations which will impact on his development and health. One important risk is the appearance of co-dependency, a situation in which the adolescent takes care of the parent, try to control the alcohol consumption; this can lead to important relational disturbances within the family. It is important to help these adolescent children to extricate themselves out of such situations, to provide him with strong support and thus assist him in finding his own way and making his own choice, whatever the evolution of the parent's alcohol abuse.
Article
In spite of empirical research on narcissism, especially since its inclusion as disorder in the DSM-III, scant attention has been devoted to summarizing the growing bulk of research. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the current literature on the development of instruments to measure narcissism and the findings on the relationship between narcissism, and traits and theories of personality. This paper reviews those topics on which most research has been conducted: the developing of instruments to measure narcissism; narcissism and its relationship to personality traits and theories, grandiosity and narcissism; and healthy versus pathological expression of narcissism. The paper suggests that the most influential theoretical contributions to development of instruments and research as Well are those by Kohut, Kernberg, and Miller.
Article
Full-text available
Codependency is a complex and debatable concept, which has been used over the years by mental health professionals to inform their practices. Researchers have attempted to identify the main problems associated with codependency; however, their evidence is still inconclusive. This is the first time that interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) has been used to explore the lived experience of codependency from the perspective of self-identified codependents. Eight participants recruited from local support groups for codependency in the UK, offered in-depth information about their subjective experiences, and embedded in their lifeworld. Data was gathered through interviews and a visual method. The shared experience of codependency was portrayed by the participants as a complex but tangible multidimensional psychosocial problem in their lives. It incorporated three interlinked experiences: a lack of clear sense of self, an enduring pattern of extreme, emotional, relational, and occupational imbalance, and an attribution of current problems in terms of parental abandonment and control in childhood.
Article
Full-text available
This study obtained feedback from intimate partner abuse survivors (N = 104) regarding helpful and unhelpful aspects of therapy. The survivors’ narrative accounts and answers to quantitative questions were subjected to quantitative and qualitative analysis. Results suggest that survivors sought therapy to understand themselves and the abuse they endured. Clinicians’ diagnoses of codependency or assertions that survivors chose the relationship weakened the therapeutic alliance and reduced the perceived helpfulness of therapy.
Article
The concept of condependency has achieved a prominent place in the psychiatric, psychological, and addiction literature in a remarkably short period of time. Although the term was first developed in the substance abuse treatment arena, specifically referring to the wives of men who abuse alcohol, codependency has more recently been used almost generically to describe a dysfunctional style of relating to others (Irwin, 1995). The manner in which definitions of codependency have become increasingly inclusive are probably related to continuing input from the both the fashionable self-help movement and from some psychiatric perspectives. The purpose of this article is to review proposed definitions of codependency, discuss issues related to the validity of the codependency construct, and summarize efforts aimed at producing instruments to measure codependency. Additionally, I will address implications of this concept as related to psychiatric nursing education, practice, and research.
Article
Full-text available
A short paper and pencil measure of codependency was developed based on a definition of codependency as a dysfunctional pattern of relating to others with an extreme focus outside of oneself, lack of expression of feelings, and personal meaning derived from relationships with others. The scale demonstrated various forms of reliability and validity. Scores on the codependency scale distinguished known groups; furthermore, scores correlated as expected with intrapersonal measures as well as interpersonal perceptions of parenting in the family of origin.
Article
Full-text available
In recent years there has been growing conceptual interest in narcissism, coupled with the rapid development of several paper and pencil measures. Clearly, construct validation should be performed prior to the adoption of any measure. This study reports on the construct validation of four scales that purport to measure narcissism. A conceptual definition of narcissism is provided, and a number of empirical analyses are performed, including examination of internal consistency reliabilities, intercorrelations among the four narcissism scales, and correlations with related and unrelated measures. Three of the four scales were found to be consistently related to each other, and demonstrated similar patterns of substantive and discriminant validity. A factor analysis, performed to examine the structure of the four narcissism measures, suggests four dimensions: desire for attention, admiration, and authority; feelings of inadequacy, unhappiness, and worry; disturbances in interpersonal relationships (exploitation, sense of entitlement, lack of empathy); and sensitivity to criticism and defeat. Implications of the results are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Three empathy questionnaires were correlated with scores on the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), and the predicted negative relationship was observed in two of the three cases. In addition, the Exploitiveness/Entitlement (E/E) subscale of the NPI was inversely related to all three empathy scales and directly related to another hypothesized measure of narcissism. Unexpected negative correlations between the E/E subscale and social desirability scales were interpreted as evidence of E/E subscale sensitivity to the manipulative dimension of narcissistic relationship styles. These data further support the construct validity of the NPI in general and of the Exploitiveness/Entitlement subscale in particular.
Article
According to an increasing number of experts on addictions, untold millions of people in our society are codependent. Yet, the construct of codependence is variously defined, undermining its clinical and research utility. In addition, the relationship between the various symptoms (e.g., addictions), the dynamics of dysfunctional families, and codependence has not been fully developed. This paper offers a critical review and synthesis of the codependency literature, along with an intergenerational family systems framework for conceptualizing the relationship of the dysfunctional family to the construct of codependence. The paper presents a theoretical basis for systemic clinical work and research.
Article
The familiar language of codependency, while it represents an effort to name and articulate pain, has become a mythology in which the leading characters are defined as victims and as sick. This paper describes the historical evolution of the concept of codependency and discusses the dysfunctional dynamics in families that are seen as the origins of codependent behavior. An alternate language for describing such families is offered.
Article
Outlines a framework for co-dependence as a set of personality traits that are the complement of narcissism and are capable of enough intensity and rigidity to create the objective dysfunction necessary for diagnosing an overt personality disorder. This framework simultaneously elucidates the richness of the concept of co-dependence and integrates it into current psychiatric structures. The diagnostic criteria for co-dependence in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-III—Revised (DSM-III—R) are described, and the complementary etiology of narcissism and co-dependence is noted. For either primary or secondary co-dependence, the 2 therapeutic tasks facing the client involve reowning their narcissism and maturing their primitive echoism. These tasks can be accomplished through 12-step programs, psychoeducational approaches, and psychotherapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This article examines the rapidly developing codependency movement and appeals to psychologists to investigate this area systematically. An effort is made to clarify factors that have contributed to confusion about the meaning of codependency, and an argument is made for the use of operationally defined diagnostic criteria. Literature is reviewed on both dependency and codependency, and important differences between these two concepts are discussed. Cermak's (1986) proposition that codependency be added to the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders–revised (DSM-III-R; American Psychiatric Association, 1987) as an Axis II personality disorder also is considered. Research possibilities and clinical applications are explored in the areas of assessment and treatment and in considering the comorbidity of codependency with psychological and physical disorders.
Article
This study examined the relationship between codependency (an excessive preoccupation with the lives, feelings, and problems of others), chemical dependency of a significant other, and depression. The Significant Others' Drug Use Survey (SODS) determined whether the subject was in a relationship with a significant other at risk of being chemically dependent. Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess depression. Two hypotheses were tested: first, that codependency exists independently of chemical dependency and, second, that codependent people tend to be more depressed than non-codependents. Results supported the first hypothesis, but not the second. A significant correlation between depression and having a significant other likely to be chemically dependent was observed. The usefulness of the concept of codependency is discussed with proposals for subsequent research.
Article
This article examines the rapidly developing codependency movement and appeals to psychologists to investigate this area systematically. An effort is made to clarify factors that have contributed to confusion about the meaning of codependency, and an argument is made for the use of operationally defined diagnostic criteria. Literature is reviewed on both dependency and codependency, and important differences between these two concepts are discussed. Cermak's (1986) proposition that codependency be added to the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders--revised (DSM-III-R; American Psychiatric Association, 1987) as an Axis II personality disorder also is considered. Research possibilities and clinical applications are explored in the areas of assessment and treatment and in considering the comorbidity of codependency with psychological and physical disorders.
Article
Co-dependence is a diagnostic term that has gained increasing usage in clinical and self-help settings. While it is used to encompass a broad range of clinical phenomena, it generally refers to an identity, particularly common among women, based on caretaking and excessive responsibility for others. This paper explores the clinical implications of the co-dependence construct from both social-psychological and psychodynamic perspectives.
Article
An examination of the origins and development of the codependency concept finds it rooted in an obsolete disturbed-personality hypothesis. Both the current literature and treatment philosophy in the chemical dependency field reflect this perspective and continue to perpetuate a pathogenic view of wives who have chemically dependent husbands. Methods of treatment and the validity of treatment for what remains an unverified diagnostic entity are challenged on the grounds of professional ethics and therapeutic efficacy.
Article
We examined the internal and external validity of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI). Study 1 explored the internal structure of the NPI responses of 1,018 subjects. Using principal-components analysis, we analyzed the tetrachoric correlations among the NPI item responses and found evidence for a general construct of narcissism as well as seven first-order components, identified as Authority, Exhibitionism, Superiority, Vanity, Exploitativeness, Entitlement, and Self-Sufficiency. Study 2 explored the NPI's construct validity with respect to a variety of indexes derived from observational and self-report data in a sample of 57 subjects. Study 3 investigated the NPI's construct validity with respect to 128 subject's self and ideal self-descriptions, and their congruency, on the Leary Interpersonal Check List. The results from Studies 2 and 3 tend to support the construct validity of the full-scale NPI and its component scales.
Article
Not all alcoholics are the same but most alcoholics share common characteristics, particularly during the active stages of their disease and during early sobriety. It has become equally apparent to many therapists that not all family members of the alcoholic are the same, but most family members share characteristics in common with each other and the alcoholic, particularly during the active stages of the disease and during early sobriety. Definitions of codependency have frequently appeared in competition with each other because each attends more to one level than to the other (interpersonal versus intrapsychic). Only by acknowledging the full sophistication of the concept can one begin to come to terms with codependency. Closer study of projective identification may prove useful in promoting a better understanding of codependency while humbling those who are intent on simplistic explanations.
Article
Lack of a suitable measuring device hampered the empirical study of narcissism until Raskin and Hall (1979) developed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI). The NPI possesses desirable psychometric properties, and in this article I used the scale in a variety of studies. Factor analysis of the scale replicated the four-factor solution found by Emmons (1984): Leadership/Authority, Self-Absorption/Self-Admiration, Superiority/Arrogance, and Exploitiveness/Entitlement. The Exploitiveness/Entitlement subscale was found to correlate with measures of pathological narcissism and affective intensity and variability. The relevance of Linville's (1982) theory of self-complexity-affect intensity for understanding aspects of narcissism is outlined. Implications of the study of narcissism for attribution theory and research are discussed.
Article
The MMPI Narcissistic Personality Disorder Scale, the Tennessee Self-concept Scale, and a Profile Questionnaire were administered to 100 undergraduate students in the Los Angeles area. The MMPI scale significantly differentiated between people on the Tennessee Self-concept Scale, involvement in a satisfying love relationship, and frequency of nightmares. These findings are consistent with the theories of Kohut and Kernberg.
Article
Narcissistic and nonnarcissistic groups of psychiatric patients (n = 35 in each group) were formed on the basis of a criterion comprised of clinical judgment and scores on the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and compared on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) profiles and on six special narcissism scales. Significant profile differences between narcissists and nonnarcissists were obtained on the MMPI and MCMI. Four of the six narcissism scales produced significant differences between the two groups.