Racial Differences in a Prostate Cancer Screening Study
Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. The Journal of Urology
(Impact Factor: 4.47).
11/1996; 156(4):1366-9. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-5347(01)65588-5
We attempted to determine whether black men have a higher prostate cancer prevalence and more advanced disease.
We screened 17,157 white and 804 black men 50 years old or older by serum prostate specific antigen measurement and digital rectal examination. We recommended biopsy when either test was suspicious.
Black men had a higher prevalence of elevated prostate specific antigen (13.1 versus 8.9%) and cancer (5.1 versus 3.2%) than white men, and a higher prevalence of clinically but not pathologically advanced cancer. Fewer black men in lower income zip codes complied with recommendations for biopsy.
In our screening study black men had a higher prevalence of detectable cancer. However, unlike in clinical studies there was no striking racial difference in advanced cancer stage at diagnosis.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "However, there are disparities with PSA screening in the United States; African Americans are less likely to undergo PSA screening than are Whites. Researchers previously reported a higher rate of elevated PSA (greater than 4.0 ng/ml) and a higher prostate cancer detection rate in African Americans than in White men in a community-based screening study . Yet little is known about PSA screening behaviors and factors affecting those behaviors. "
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate social and behavioral factors associated with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in men in California, United States, who were over 40 years of age and had ever heard about PSA screening.
This survey was administered as a random-digit-dialing telephone survey to produce reliable estimates of medium-sized counties. It surveyed 42,000 households and interviewed 58,407 people randomly. It considered socioeconomic status and health behavior as affecting PSA screening. Access to health care was measured as having regular health care access. The main outcome measure was self-report of ever having undergone PSA screening at least once in the respondent's lifetime.
Of 8,864 respondents, 82.2% were White, 7.7% were Latin, 4.2% were African American, and 5.9% were Asian. The respondents' mean age was 60.13 years. Age was the significant factor for PSA screening. Respondents aged 50-59 years were 3.5 times as likely to have undergone PSA screening as were those aged 40-49 years (OR=3.49, p</=0.001). Race was not statistically significant after considering other factors. People who had never married had statistically significantly lower screening than did people who were married (OR=0.71, p=0.001). Poverty levels were statistically significant in both the unadjusted and the adjusted analysis. People who had no regular health care access were much less likely to have undergone PSA screening than were people who had regular health care access (OR=0.22, p=0.001).
The likelihood of PSA screening was positively associated with increased age, marital status (married), higher socioeconomic status (higher federal poverty level and higher educational attainment), and health care access. However, there was no statistically significant association of PSA screening with race, employment, exercise, smoking, or drinking status.
Available from: Owen Thomas Hill
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ABSTRACT: In the U.S., the number of prostate biopsies increases annually. This is partly due to elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) values identified during PC screening. This study's goal was improving prostate cancer (PC) detection through developing a clinical decision rule (CDR), based on an elevated PSA and laboratory biomarkers. This decision rule could be used after an elevated PSA, providing the patient and clinician information to consider prior to biopsy. This cross-sectional study evaluated men from the Tampa, Florida, James A. Haley (JH) VA (N=1,378), from January 1, 1998, through April 15, 2005. The study hypothesized that specific lab biomarkers among JH VA PC cases would differ significantly from JH VA patients without PC. The following biomarkers were related to PC: hemoglobin (HGB) (OR=1.42 95%CI 1.27, 1.59); red blood cell count (RBC) (OR=2.52 95%CI 1.67, 3.78); PSA (OR=1.04 95%CI 1.03, 1.05); and, creatinine (OR=1.55 95%CI 1.12, 2.15).
This study attempted to determine whether including specific biomarkers (that are related to systemic diseases associated with advancing PC) could improve PC prediction (versus PSA alone). Comparing all PC stages versus non-cancerous conditions, the Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve area under the curve (AUC) expanded (increasing the probability of correctly classifying PC): PSA (alone) 0.59 (95% CI 0.55, 0.61); CDR model 0.68 (95%CI 0.65, 0.71), and the positive predictive value (PPV) increased: PSA 44.7%; CDR model 61.8%. Comparing PC (stages B, C, D) vs. other, the ROC AUC increased: PSA (alone) 0.63 (95% CI 0.58, 0.66); CDR model 0.68 (95% CI 0.68, 0.75), and the PPV increased: 20.6% (PSA); CDR model 55.3%. These results suggest evaluating certain biomarkers might improve PC prediction prior to biopsy. Moreover, the biomarkers may be more helpful in detecting clinically relevant PC. Follow-up studies should begin with replicating the study on different U.S. VA data-sets involving multiple practices.
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ABSTRACT: Measurement of total serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is widely used as an aid to early detection of prostate cancer. Measurement of the ratio of free to total PSA may increase the specificity of PSA testing. To improve specificity further, other factors that may cause transient increases in PSA, such as ejaculation, have been identified. We prospectively studied the effect of ejaculation on total and free PSA levels and examined whether changes induced by ejaculation would affect recommendations for performing prostatic biopsy.
We measured the baseline total and free serum PSA levels and obtained measurements 1.6, and 24 hours after ejaculation in 20 volunteers (mean age 59 years). All men had baseline PSA levels less than 4.0 ng/mL. We used repeated-measures analysis of variance to test for changes in total, free, and percent free PSA after ejaculation. We also calculated the proportion of men with PSA levels greater than the expected biologic variability at each timepoint.
The mean total, free, and percent free serum PSA increased 1 hour after ejaculation. Mean total PSA levels remained significantly increased 6 and 24 hours after ejaculation. Mean free PSA decreased to baseline levels by 6 hours after ejaculation, and percent free PSA returned to baseline by 6 hours after ejaculation and then decreased below baseline by 24 hours. When normal biologic variation was accounted for, 40% of men, at 24 hours after ejaculation, had total PSA levels above the baseline level. Similarly, 24 hours after ejaculation, the percent free PSA remained above baseline level in 10% and below baseline level in 35% of the men.
Both total and free PSA increase immediately after ejaculation, with differing rates of return to baseline levels. PSA testing within 24 hours after ejaculation may lead to an erroneous interpretation of the results of both total and percent free PSA measurements in a small proportion of men.
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