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Life with 6000 Genes

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Life with 6000 Genes

Abstract

The genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been completely sequenced through a worldwide collaboration. The sequence of 12,068 kilobases defines 5885 potential protein-encoding genes, approximately 140 genes specifying ribosomal RNA, 40 genes for small nuclear RNA molecules, and 275 transfer RNA genes. In addition, the complete sequence provides information about the higher order organization of yeast's 16 chromosomes and allows some insight into their evolutionary history. The genome shows a considerable amount of apparent genetic redundancy, and one of the major problems to be tackled during the next stage of the yeast genome project is to elucidate the biological functions of all of these genes.
... Saccharomyces cerevisiae, aus dem Latein saccharum für Zucker und griechisch mykes für Pilz, also der Zuckerpilz, gehört zu den Eukaryoten. Die Hefe ist ein unizellulärer Organismus und besitzt, im Gegensatz zu den Prokaryoten, einen Zellkern, in dem die Erbinformation von 12 Mega-Basenpaare auf 16 Chromosomen gespeichert ist (Goffeau et al. 1996;Hittinger 2013). Das erste eukaryotische Genom, das vollständig sequenziert und publiziert wurde, war das der Hefe im Jahr 1996. ...
... Das erste eukaryotische Genom, das vollständig sequenziert und publiziert wurde, war das der Hefe im Jahr 1996. Dabei wurden knapp 6000 Gene annotiert (Goffeau et al. 1996). Die ...
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Synthetische Transkriptionsfaktoren bestehen wie natürliche Transkriptionsfaktoren aus einer DNA-Bindedomäne, die sich spezifisch an die Bindestellensequenz vor dem Ziel-Gen anlagert, und einer Aktivierungsdomäne, die die Transkriptionsmaschinerie rekrutiert, sodass das Zielgen exprimiert wird. Der Unterschied zu den natürlichen Transkriptionsfaktoren ist, sowohl dass die DNA-Bindedomäne als auch die Aktivierungsdomäne wirtsfremd sein können und dadurch künstliche Stoffwechselwege im Wirt, größtenteils chemisch, induziert werden können. Optogenetische synthetische Transkriptionsfaktoren, die hier entwickelt wurden, gehen einen Schritt weiter. Dabei ist die DNA-Bindedomäne nicht mehr an die Aktivierungsdomäne, sondern mit dem Blaulicht-Photorezeptor CRY2 gekoppelt. Die Aktivierungsdomäne wurde mit dem Interaktionspartner CIB1 fusioniert. Unter Blaulichtbestrahlung dimerisieren CRY2 und CIB1 und damit einhergehend die beiden Domänen, sodass ein funktionsfähiger Transkriptionsfaktor entsteht. Dieses System wurde in die Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomisch integriert. Verifiziert wurde das konstruierte System mit Hilfe des Reporters yEGFP, welcher durchflusszytometrisch detektiert werden konnte. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass die yEGFP Expression variabel gestaltet werden kann, indem unterschiedlich lange Blaulichtimpulse ausgesendet wurden, die DNA-Bindedomäne, die Aktivierungsdomäne oder die Anzahl der Bindestellen, an dem sich die DNA-Bindedomäne anlagert, verändert wurden. Um das System für industrielle Anwendungen attraktiv zu gestalten, wurde das System vom Deepwell-Maßstab auf Photobioreaktor-Maßstab hochskaliert. Außerdem erwies sich das Blaulichtsystem sowohl im Laborstamm YPH500 als auch im industriell oft verwendeten Hefestamm CEN.PK als funktional. Des Weiteren konnte ein industrierelevante Protein ebenso mit Hilfe des verifizierten Systems exprimiert werden. Schlussendlich konnte in dieser Arbeit das etablierte Blaulicht-System erfolgreich mit einem Rotlichtsystem kombiniert werden, was zuvor noch nicht beschrieben wurde.
... A sejtciklus kutatásáért 2001-ben megítélt Nobel-díj három díjazottja közül kettő e két élesztőmodell-szervezettel végezte kutatásait. A pékélesztő az első eukarióta szervezet, melynek teljes genomját 1996-ban megszekvenálták (Goffeau et al., 1996). ...
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Kutatásunk során egyrészt arra kerestük a választ, hogy a főiskolai hallgatóknak milyen a szubjektív jóllétszintje. Másrészről arra is szerettünk volna választ kapni, hogy utatkozik-e valamilyen különbség a szubjektív jóllét tekintetében az alacsony és magas spirituális tudatossággal rendelkező hallgatók között, valamint mutatkoznak-e nemi eltérések gyanezen a területen a magas spirituális tudatossággal rendelkező hallgatók között. A vizsgálatokhoz a Diener-féle Élettel való elégedettség skálát, a Berni szubjektív jóllét kérdőívet, valamint a Spirituális tudatosság kérdőívet használtuk. A vizsgálatban 712 főiskolai hallgató vett részt (545 nő, 167 férfi). A kutatásunk eredményei azt mutatják, hogy a spirituális tudatosság magasabb szintjével rendelkező hallgatók a szubjektív jóllét szignifikáns mértékben magasabb szintjéről, valamint szignifikáns mértékben kevesebb szomatikus panaszról és tünetről és kevesebb személyes problémáról számoltak be, mint azok a hallgatók, akik a spirituális tudatosság alacsonyabb szintjével rendelkeznek. Az Ego működésének a csökkenése és az éber tudatosság megjelenése növeli a személy szubjektív jóllétét és ellenállóbbá teszi az Ego túlélési üzemmódjából származó személyes problémákkal és az azokra adott testi reakciókkal szemben.
... A sejtciklus kutatásáért 2001-ben megítélt Nobel-díj három díjazottja közül kettő e két élesztőmodell-szervezettel végezte kutatásait. A pékélesztő az első eukarióta szervezet, melynek teljes genomját 1996-ban megszekvenálták (Goffeau et al., 1996). ...
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A Nyíregyházi Főiskola Pedagógusképző Kara Pszichológia Tanszékén 2006-ban alakult meg az Iskolai Erőszak kutatócsoport. A kutatócsoportunk az iskolai erőszak, zaklatás jelenségvilágát vizsgálja. Előző tanulmányunkban bemutattuk a kutatás kezdeteit és annak első három szakaszát (2006–2010). Jelen tanulmányunkban a kutatás kibővítését és a kutatásnak az ezekben a szakaszaiban elérteredményeit szeretnénk bemutatni. A kutatás negyedik szakaszában (2011) az iskolai erőszak hátterében meghúzódó egyes személyiségjellemzőket vizsgáltuk meg. A következő szakaszban (2012) végeztük el az iskolai erőszak kapcsolatának a vizsgálatát egyes viselkedészavarokkal. Ezt követte a 2013-ban az iskolai erőszak hátterében meghúzódó, a pozitív pszichológiai megközelítés szempontjából jelentősnek ítélt egyes személyiségváltozók vizsgálata. A következő években (2014–2017) a rideg-érzéketlen személyiségvonás és az iskolai erőszak kapcsolatát vizsgáltuk meg. 2018-tól kezdődően napjainkig a cyberbullying vizsgálatával foglalkozunk.
... A sejtciklus kutatásáért 2001-ben megítélt Nobel-díj három díjazottja közül kettő e két élesztőmodell-szervezettel végezte kutatásait. A pékélesztő az első eukarióta szervezet, melynek teljes genomját 1996-ban megszekvenálták (Goffeau et al., 1996). ...
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A Nyíregyházi Főiskola Pedagógusképző Kara Pszichológia Tanszékén 2006-ban alakult meg az Iskolai Erőszak Kutatócsoport. A kutatócsoportunk az iskolai erőszak, zaklatás jelenségvilágát vizsgálja. Jelen tanulmányunkban a kutatás kezdeteit, annak első három szakaszát mutatjuk be. A kutatásunk első szakaszában (2006–2008) kidolgoztuk az Iskolai erőszak kérdőívet. Az Iskolai erőszak kérdőív az iskola mindennapi életében előforduló, a tanulók között megnyilvánuló erőszak és zaklatás jelenségvilágát öt dimenzió mentén tárja fel. Ezek a dimenziók a következők: áldozat, támadó, csatlakozó beavatkozás, segítő beavatkozás, szemlélő. A kutatás második szakaszában (2009) az iskolai erőszak családi szocializációs háttértényezőit tártuk fel. A 2010-ben kezdődő kutatási szakasz célja az iskolai erőszak hátterében meghúzódó temperamentum és karaktervonások vizsgálata volt.
... The main representative of yeast in sherry film is S. cerevisiae, whose genome was completely sequenced in 1996, for which an international consortium of scientists from several countries was created [72]. Over the past 25 years, largely as a result of the application of NGS technology, more than 200 different strains of S. cerevisiae have been completely sequenced [62]. ...
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first_page settings Open AccessReview Sherry Wines: Worldwide Production, Chemical Composition and Screening Conception for Flor Yeasts by Daria Avdanina * and Alexander Zghun * [ORCID] Group of Fungal Genetic Engineering, Federal Research Center “Fundamentals of Biotechnology” of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prosp. 33-2, 119071 Moscow, Russia * Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed. Academic Editor: Agustín Aranda Fermentation 2022, 8(8), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8080381 Received: 22 July 2022 / Revised: 5 August 2022 / Accepted: 7 August 2022 / Published: 10 August 2022 (This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Microbiology) Download PDF Browse Figures Review Reports Citation Export Abstract The manufacturing of sherry wines is a unique, carefully regulated process, from harvesting to quality control of the finished product, involving dynamic biological aging in a “criadera-solera” system or some other techniques. Specialized “flor” strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae play the central role in the sherry manufacturing process. As a result, sherry wines have a characteristic and unique chemical composition that determines their organoleptic properties (such as color, odor, and taste) and distinguishes them from all other types of wine. The use of modern methods of genetics and biotechnology contributes to a deep understanding of the microbiology of sherry production and allows us to define a new methodology for breeding valuable flor strains. This review discusses the main sherry-producing regions and the chemical composition of sherry wines, as well as genetic, oenological, and other selective markers for flor strains that can be used for screening novel candidates that are promising for sherry production among environmental isolates.
... The 'y' or '-' in a column denotes whether or not the metric was used in the protein (AA) or nucleotide (DNA) analyses (metrics incorporating a Markov approach where not applied to protein analyses because the background is ill-defined in these cases), if the metric is suitable for use with sequences of variable length (Len), and finally a reference for the metric is given. Note the Markov methods d2Star and d2S are calculated with the m=0 parameter in KAST, which sets the background k-mer length to 1 bp Saccharomyces cerevisiae or brewer's yeast with 6,713 proteins (36); Caenorhabditis elegans with 28 400 proteins (37); and Drosophila melanogaster with 30,493 proteins (38). See also Table 2. Sets of protein sequences were downloaded for each of these species and the FASTA headers processed so that the identifiers could be mapped to the data stored in DIOPT (DIOPT provides gene identifiers rather than protein identifiers). ...
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