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Garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa) have been evaluated as possible antithrombotic agents. Rats were given aqueous extracts of garlic and onion, orally or intraperitoneally, daily for a period of 4 weeks after which the rats were sacrificed. The blood was collected from the heart without anticoagulant and the serum was prepared. The level of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) in the serum was measured by radioimmunoassay. TXB2 levels in serum of rats treated with the low dose of aqueous extract of garlic (50 mg/kg) was significantly inhibited regardless of the mode of administration (orally or intraperitoneally). At the high dose of garlic and onion (500 mg/kg), a further decrease of TXB2 levels in the serum of the rats was observed. Boiled garlic and onion at high concentration (500 mg/ kg) had very little effect on TXB2 synthesis. This shows that garlic and onion should be consumed in a raw rather than cooked form in order to achieve a beneficial effect. Boiling of these plants may cause the decomposition of the potential antithrombotic ingredient present in these herbs. Garlic was found to be more potent than onion in lowering the TXB2 levels. A high dose of garlic and onion produces toxicity in the rats (unpublished observation). These results show that garlic and onion can be taken frequently in low doses without any side effects, and can still produce a significant antithrombotic effect.

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... Its biological properties may be associated with its alkyl cysteine sulfoxide content as well as its collection of phenolic compounds, especially quercetin and its derivatives. Onions themselves and their preparations have demonstrated therapeutic activity against cardiovascular disease associated with hyperactivation of blood platelets in a number of studies, and are known to offer beneficial effects in preventing coronary thrombosis, atherosclerosis, and stroke (14)(15)(16)(17). Onions have also been found to inhibit blood platelet aggregation stimulated by different agonists in vivo and in vitro (16,18). ...
... Onions themselves and their preparations have demonstrated therapeutic activity against cardiovascular disease associated with hyperactivation of blood platelets in a number of studies, and are known to offer beneficial effects in preventing coronary thrombosis, atherosclerosis, and stroke (14)(15)(16)(17). Onions have also been found to inhibit blood platelet aggregation stimulated by different agonists in vivo and in vitro (16,18). For example, Briggs et al. (19) reported that onion juice reduces platelet aggregation induced by collagen in an in vitro study of dog whole blood. ...
... Both in vitro studies and in vivo experiments have demonstrated that the consumption of onions and onion juice has beneficial effects on platelet aggregation (16,19,35). For example, rats treated with this aqueous extract of onion (500 mg/kg body weight) for 4 wk demonstrated lowered thromboxane B 2 synthesis (16). ...
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Increased blood platelet activation, especially platelet aggregation, plays an important function in cardiovascular disease; however, various dietary components may inhibit platelet activation. Recent clinical and epidemiologic studies indicate that both fruits and vegetables, and their products, contain various phytoprotective substances possessing biological properties such as antiplatelet and antioxidant effects that may work synergistically to ameliorate the effect of cardiovascular disease. In addition, the consumption of vegetables and their products may also play an important role in prevention. However, the mechanisms involved have not been clearly defined. Various studies clearly indicate that certain vegetables (e.g., onions, garlic, and tomatoes) have beneficial effects on blood platelet hyperactivity, an important cardiovascular risk factor, and hence may offer new prophylactic and therapeutic possibilities for the treatment of blood platelet hyperactivation and cardiovascular disease. This mini-review evaluates the current literature on the relationship between the consumption of onion (Allium cepa L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.), and blood platelet activation, which may have important implications for the prophylaxis and treatment of cardiovascular disease.
... Reduction of TXB2 biosynthesis via inhibition of COX-1 Rat and human platelets [79,81] Reduction of platelet aggregation induced by collagen Rat [82] Inhibition of TXA2 biosynthesis via inhibition of thromboxane synthase [58,90] Reduction of platelet aggregation induced by collagen Rabbit and human platelets [91] Reduction of platelet aggregation induced by epinephrine ...
... Reduction of the 12-HETE biosynthesis via inhibition of 12-LOX Human platelets [82] activity induced by ADP, AA, epinephrine and calcium ionophore A23187, in a dose-dependent manner, to a mechanism that involves the metabolism of AA by the COX pathway, and also to the inhibition of thromboxane A2 synthase activity, with consequent reduction in the generation of TXB 2 and PGD 2 [68,69]. However, other authors have suggested that antiplatelet activity performed by green tea catechins may be related to modulation of more than one course of action, probably also involving blockade of phospholipase Cγ2 (PLCγ2) stimulated by collagen, leading to a dose-dependent decrease in the mobilization of cytosolic Ca 2+ , with consequent release of AA and serotonin secretion [70]. ...
... The Allium cepa extract, original from Asia and Middle East, has shown great protective role in CVD, such as atherosclerosis. Its antiplatelet potential is directly related to the sulfur content in the bulb of this plant, and this action was first evaluated by Bordia et al. [82], which showed that the aqueous extract of Allium cepa was able to significantly reduce the TXA 2 level in the serum of female rats. More specifically, the hydroalcoholic extract of this plant showed inhibitory effect on platelet adhesion and aggregation, reducing the synthesis of thromboxane by means of noncompetitive inhibition of COX, but this effect was 13 times lower than that presented by Allium sativum [86]. ...
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Background: Complex hemostatic mechanisms are involved in the pathophysiology of various diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. Among them, dysregulation of platelet activity is linked to the progression of atherosclerosis and mainly involves platelet aggregation and a decrease in blood flow in the vascular endothelium. The major platelet activation pathways mediated by agonists involve the arachidonic acid pathway, adenosine diphosphate pathway, serotonin pathway, nitric oxide pathway, and action of free radicals on molecules involved in platelet aggregation. These mechanisms have been widely studied and discussed because they are inhibited by the use of medicinal plants in complementary and alternative medicine, thus reducing platelet aggregation. Results: Of the main plants discussed in this review, which have antiplatelet activity, some include saffron, garlic, green tea, St. John's wort, ginger, ginkgo biloba, ginseng, and guavirova. These herbal medicines have phytochemical components, which are directly related to the antiplatelet activity of the plant, such as flavonoids, curcumins, catechins, terpenoids, polyphenols, and saponins. While the majority of the medicinal plants mentioned here were native to the Asian continents, some are distributed worldwide, and found to a smaller extent throughout the American continent, European continent, Mediterranean, African continent, and the Middle East. Conclusion: This review showed that several plants and/or compounds exhibit anti-platelet activity, and are therefore potential research targets for developing drugs to treat diseases related to aggregation disorders.
... The control is considered as 100 % the aggregation or 0% the inhibition for each agonist. Table 1 shows agonists concentrations prepared as described Bordia et al. (1996); Soloviev et al. (1999); Rahman and Billington, (2000). Based on previous results a concentration of 7 mg of aqueous garlic extract per mL of blood was chosen for platelet aggregations reactions (15). ...
... For that reason, antiplatelet therapy is used as a strategy to prevent vascular thrombosis and vascular disorders. Several researchers have shown that garlic and their sub products have in vivo (1,2,8,44) and in vitro (7,28,35) antiplatelet activity. These studies have involved the use of collagen, ADP, AA or epinephrine as agonists, but not their combinations. ...
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Platelets are essential elements of human blood. In addition to their normal role, platelets are involved in causing myocardial infarction, stroke and other thrombotic disorders. Platelet activation in vivo, probably involves a combination of agonists. Garlic has beneficial effects due to its ability to inhibit platelet aggregation and thromboxane formation. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of garlic extracts to inhibit platelet aggregation induced by different agonists and their mixtures in different donors. Significant differences were found in platelet aggregation in response to each agonist (P ≤ 0.05). The highest antiaggregatory effect was observed with arachidonic acid and the lowest effect with collagen-arachidonic acid mixture. Interaction effects between donor and agonist (or mixtures) were detected. The study showed the potential of aqueous garlic extracts to prevent platelet aggregation induced by different agonist. Highlights Platelets play a central role in the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Blood from nine non-smoker healthy donors was used for in vitro platelet aggregation study. Significant differences were found in platelet aggregation in response to each agonist. Aqueous garlic extracts could prevent platelet aggregation induced by different agonist.
... Onion acts through its active chemical constituents these are S-methyl cysteine sulphoxide and allyl propyl disulphide. [2,4] Research on animal and clinical trials support the use of Allium cepa as anti asthmatic [88,89] , anti diabetic [90,91,92] , anti viral [93,94] anti thrombotic [95] , hypo cholestremic [96] , anti inflammatory, anti oxidant, aphrodisiacs, cardiotonic, diueretic [97] , expectorant [97] , stimulant [97] , anti cancer [94] , platelet aggregation inhibitor, insecticidal properties, and in osteoporosis treatment [94] . ...
... Allium cepa Bulb s-methyl cysteine sulphoxide anti thrombotic, hypo cholestremic, anti inflammatory, anti oxidant, aphrodisiacs, cardiotonic, diueretic, anti diabetic, stimulant [2], [4], [95], [96], [91], [97] [7], [8], [144], [145], [146], [149], [148], [151], [152], [153] phenethylamine, nmethylphenethylamine, sinapine, dglucuronic acid 5-vinyl-2 oxazolidinethione, ...
Article
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Alkaloids are known as low molecular weight heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds naturally derived from amino acid metabolism. Most familiar alkaloids are morphine, strychnine, quinine, ephedrine, nicotine, have a wide distribution in higher plants belonging to Ranunculaceae, Leguminosae, Papaveraceae, Menispermaceae and Loganiaceae families, involved in plant defense against herbivores and pathogens and pronounced bioactivities through the interaction of plants with their environments. At present, medicinal plants and remedies are widely used for various ailments. Many of these plants contain different types of alkaloids are always neurotoxic, pneumotoxic, genotoxic, hepatotoxic and cytotoxic. Alkaloids also have remarkable physiological effects on humans and used to treat Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Bangladesh is endowed with a very rich flora, and the ancient Bangladesh system of medicine is largely based on plant remedies. For dug designing alkaloids act as a rich reservoir, anti-proliferation, anti-cancer and anti-metastasis both in vivo and in vitro condition. Principal approach with this comprehensive review is to find out various kinds of alkaloids are extracted from plant species and their metabolic activities.
... Onion acts through its active chemical constituents these are S-methyl cysteine sulphoxide and allyl propyl disulphide. [2,4] Research on animal and clinical trials support the use of Allium cepa as anti asthmatic [88,89] , anti diabetic [90,91,92] , anti viral [93,94] anti thrombotic [95] , hypo cholestremic [96] , anti inflammatory, anti oxidant, aphrodisiacs, cardiotonic, diueretic [97] , expectorant [97] , stimulant [97] , anti cancer [94] , platelet aggregation inhibitor, insecticidal properties, and in osteoporosis treatment [94] . ...
... Allium cepa Bulb s-methyl cysteine sulphoxide anti thrombotic, hypo cholestremic, anti inflammatory, anti oxidant, aphrodisiacs, cardiotonic, diueretic, anti diabetic, stimulant [2], [4], [95], [96], [91], [97] [7], [8], [144], [145], [146], [149], [148], [151], [152], [153] phenethylamine, nmethylphenethylamine, sinapine, dglucuronic acid 5-vinyl-2 oxazolidinethione, ...
Research
Full-text available
Alkaloids are known as low molecular weight heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds naturally derived from amino acid metabolism. Most familiar alkaloids are morphine, strychnine, quinine, ephedrine, nicotine, have a wide distribution in higher plants belonging to Ranunculaceae, Leguminosae, Papaveraceae, Menispermaceae and Loganiaceae families, involved in plant defense against herbivores and pathogens and pronounced bioactivities through the interaction of plants with their environments. At present, medicinal plants and remedies are widely used for various ailments. Many of these plants contain different types of alkaloids are always neurotoxic, pneumotoxic, genotoxic, hepatotoxic and cytotoxic. Alkaloids also have remarkable physiological effects on humans and used to treat Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Bangladesh is endowed with a very rich flora, and the ancient Bangladesh system of medicine is largely based on plant remedies. For dug designing alkaloids act as a rich reservoir, anti-proliferation, anti-cancer and anti-metastasis both in vivo and in vitro condition. Principal approach with this comprehensive review is to find out various kinds of alkaloids are extracted from plant species and their metabolic activities.
... Garlic-treated group (G): received garlic via intragrastric route at a dose of 500 mg/kg b. wt. daily for 6 weeks (Bordia et al., 1996). Curcumin plus garlic-treated group (R+G): received curcumin intragastric at a dose of 200 mg /kg b. wt. ...
... (Park et al., 2000) followed by garlic via intragrastric route at a dose of 500 mg/kg b. wt. daily for 6 weeks Bordia et al., (1996). Curcumin-treated group (R): received curcumin intragastric at a dose of 200 mg /kg b. wt. ...
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The present study was carried out by using garlic (G), curcumin plus garlic (R+G) and curcumin (R). Four groups of rats were used each one consists of 5 rats; control group (C); received distilled water intragastric daily for 6 weeks. Garlic-treated group (G); received garlic intragastric at a dose of 500 mg /kg b. wt. daily for 6 weeks. Curcumin plus garlic-treated group (R+G) received curcumin intragastric at a dose of 200 mg /kg b. wt. with garlic at a dose 500 mg /kg b. wt. daily for 6 weeks. Curcumin-treated group (R); received curcumin intragastric at a dose of 200 mg /kg b. wt. daily for 6 weeks. Garlic-treated group showed normocytic normochromic anemia with non-significant changes in leukogram. Meanwhile, Curcumin plus garlic-treated group showed an improvement in RBCs count that, reduced by garlic. Curcumin-treated group showed monocytosis. Concerning hemostatic markers, there were significant prolongations of PT, APTT and TT, as well as reduction in platelet count and aggregation percentage in both groups and in curcumin-treated group when compared with control. The results of this study demonstrate that curcumin and garlic have antithrombotic and antiplatelet effects and, their combination potentiate each other as inducing agents for haemostatic disorders.
... Strokes and coronary heart disease can be caused by platelets in the blood adhering to the walls of blood vessels in the heart or brain and aggregating to the point of obstruction [40] . Research on in vivo effects of onion consumption in rats showed significant inhibition of serum thromboxane, an inducer of platelet aggregation, levels with high doses (500 mg/kg) [41] . Goldman I et al. [42] found that onions containing higher sulfur levels exhibited a greater antiplatelet effect than genotypes with low sulfur content.Janssen K et al. [43] performed both in vitro and in vivo studies. ...
... Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Inji) 6-dehydrogingerdione [61] antioxidant [59] Bisabolene [61] anticarcinogenic [59] Curcurmene [61] atherosclerotic [59] Galanolactone [61] anti-atherogenicity [59] Geraniol [61] inhibiting thromboxane formation [59] Gingerglycolipids [61] inhibition of platelet aggregability [59] Gingerols [61] anti-inflammatory [62] Gingesulfonic acid [61] antimicrobial [62] Monoacyldigalactosylglycerols [61] anti thrombotic [62] Neral [61] Paradols [61] Sesquiphellandrene [61] Shogaols [61] Zingerone [61] Zingiberene [61] Zingiberol [61] 3. Allium sativum L. (Poondu) 1,2-vinyldithiin (1,2-DT) [63] anti-inflammatory [69] Ajoene [63] anti-atherosclerotic [70] Allicin [63] anti-oxidant [5] Alliin [63] anti-platelet [68] Allixin [63] anti-thrombosis [41] Allyl polysulfides (APS) [63] blood fibrinolytic [66] A-phellandrene [65] inhibit angiotensin -converting enzyme [5] B Phellandrene [65] inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis [67] Citral [65] inhibits platelet Aggregation [5] Diallyl disulfude (DADS) [63] prevent lipid peroxidation of oxidized erythrocytes and LDL [5] 4. ...
Article
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Health in the conception of the World Health Organization is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being not merely an absence of disease or infirmity. Aviztham (Drug) as per Siddha medicine is a substance, or a procedure or restriction which wipes off the sorrow of the patient and reinstates happiness to him and the society. As per Siddha, thamaragam (Heart) occupies the seat of Pitta i.e: situated between navel and throat. Pranan and Viyanan are the functional vaayus responsible for its motor functions. Ranjaka pitham (Haemoglobin) and Sathaka pittam (Heart beat) are behind its physiological functions. Avalambakam is the kapham responsible for breathing functions and along with Pranan it helps in purification of blood. When there is excessive accumulation of Kapham – i.e. Athermatous plaques (Koluppu) Viyanan is affected, causing loss of blood supply due to which ranjagam i.e.the tissue nourishment deprives causing reduction in Pranan and causes death. In this review the common kitchen culinaries Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), garlic (Allium sativum L.), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), onion (Allium cepa L.), black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J. Presl), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), that are mentioned in the Siddha literature, used for their cardio protective nature are discussed
... Garlic's strong odor is largely due to sulphur-containing compounds (e.g., S-allylcysteine sulfoxide), which are believed to account for most of its medicinal properties [13]. Active compounds in garlic were shown to exhibit anticoagulant (anti-thrombotic) [14][15][16], antioxidant [17,18], hypocholesterolemic [19], hypoglycaemic [5,18,20], antibacterial, antifungal [21], anticarcinogenic [22] as well as hypotensive properties [23]. ...
... Being a large consumer of oxygen, containing high rate of polyunsaturated fatty acids in membranes and being poor in anti-oxidant defense systems [18], the brain is highly susceptible to oxidative stress. Due to the presence of: 1) allicin and S-allyl cystein sulfoxide which trap the aggressive free radicals [60]; and 2) polyphenols and phytosterols, garlic is a good candidate to counteract the diabetes-associated brain damages [13][14][15][16][17][18]. The beneficial effects of garlic can be attributed to scavenging free radicals properties as shown by the DPPH test in vitro and by the presence of polyphenols and flavonoids in the garlic extract as shown by the HPLC analysis (Figures 6-8). ...
Article
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Context: In case of diabetes, persistent and chronic hyperglycaemia may generate free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which trigger an oxidative stress. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a rich source of bioactive compounds and is used in folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases, including diabetes. Besides, α-tocopherol and magnesium have been shown to possess antioxidative properties. Objective: Protective effects of either a garlic aqueous extract or an association of α-tocopherol and magnesium association upon oxidative stress and dysfunctions in kidney and brain of alloxan-diabetic rats were investigated. Results: Both garlic extract and the combination of α-tocopherol and magnesium were found to normalize many parameters which were shifted to pathological values as a consequence of the alloxan-induced diabetes: plasma creatinine and urea levels were decreased, protein leakage in urine was reduced and cortisol level was brought back to control value. In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities, which were lowered in kidney and brain of diabetic animals, were restored by both treatments and, consequently, level of lipids peroxidation was reduced in these organs, as compared to diabetic animals. Conclusion: Both garlic extract and α-tocopherol + magnesium association display beneficial effects upon nephropathy and oxidative stress in alloxan-diabetic rats. The protective effect of garlic is mainly attributed to antioxidant properties and the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids.
... Possible mechanisms for the antithrombotic activity of garlic include: inhibiting the secretion of Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX1), reducing the synthesis of Thromboxane B2 (TXB2), reducing the secretion of Leukotriene C4 (LTC4C4C) and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) (Bordia et al., 1996), reducing the release of arachidonic acid (AA) (Mohammad and Woodward, 1986) from phospholipids, upregulating 5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT) and inhibiting the release of coagulation factor IV from platelets (Makheja and Bailey, 1990). Garlic effectively inhibits platelet aggregation induced by the calcium ion aggregate A23187. ...
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The prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have achieved initial results, but the number of CVDs patients will increase rapidly in the next 10 years. Atherosclerosis (AS) is a significant risk factor for CVDs. The impact of lifestyle and daily diet varies considerably between different countries and continents and has been shown to affect the development of various diseases such as diabetes and CVDs. Primary and secondary prevention using alternative supplements and methods to avoid or reduce the use of traditional pharmacological drugs have also become popular. One of the reasons for this is that pharmacological drugs with lipid-lowering, and blood pressure-lowering effects cause many side effects that may negatively impact the quality of life. Patients are now emphasizing reliance on lifestyle changes to reduce cardiovascular risks. Garlic is a medicinal and edible plant that has been used for a long time. In order to reveal garlic application in the prevention and treatment of AS, reviewing the latest domestic and international studies through searching databases. The result shows that the antiatherogenic role of garlic is eximious. And the mechanisms are mainly related to hypolipidemic, antioxidant, antithrombotic, inhibiting angiogenesis, protecting endothelial cells, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, inhibiting vascular smooth muscle proliferation, and regulating gut microbiota. The main signaling pathways involve AMPK/TLRs, Keap1/Nrf2, PI3K/AKT, PPARγ/LXRα, GEF-H1/RhoA/Rac, etc. The antiatherogenic actions and molecular mechanism of garlic were reviewed in this study to obtain a robust evidence basis for the clinical application and mechanistic study and provide a theoretical basis for further utilization of garlic.
... General Benefits [Jonkers et al., 1999;Durak et al., 2002;Nishino, 1990;Imai, 1994;Kock and Lawson, 1996;Fareed et al., 2007;Rahman, 2001;Reinhart et al., 2008;Bordia, 1996;Harin et al., 2013;Sudarshan et al., 2012;Bordia, 1978;Kumar et al., 2010] Oral benefits [Harini et al., 2013;Sudarshan et al., 2012;Ureghe et al., 2010;Chavana and Nagesh, 2010] Specific actions associated with garlic (Nature's Amazing Nutritional and Medicinal Wonder Food, 1995) Antioxidant Protects cells against damage by free radicals found in environmental pollutants including heavy metals. Garlic contains the highest level of the antioxidant selenium, which affords excellent cellular protection. ...
Article
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Garlic is one of the edible plants and of the most extensively researched medicinal plants and its typical odor and antibacterial activity depends on allicin produced by enzymatic activity of allinase (acysteine sulfoxide lyase) on alliin after crushing or cutting garlic clove. provide extraordinary health benefits. and certain kinds of cancer. Taking garlic radicals viral and anti from 1982 to the present (2013) using terms such as garlic, medicinal plant, traditional plant. Here, in this review, we discuss the garlic. Copyright©2016, Dr. Poonam Tomar Rana et al. This unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
... Furthermore, the effect of onion extracts is lipid-reducing. Bordia et al. first assessed their antithrombotic ability for water extracts from onion and garlic [84]. Orally and intraperitoneally extracts were administered to rats. ...
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As Allium cepa is one of the most important condiment plants grown and consumed all over the world, various therapeutic and pharmacological effects of A. cepa were reviewed. Onion (Allium cepa) is a high dietary fiber-rich perennial herb that is placed under the family Amaryllidaceae. It contains high concentration of folic acid, vitamin B6, magnesium, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus as well as vitamins and minerals. It is widely used as an antimicrobial agent, but it showed anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antiplatelet, antihypertensive, and antidepressant effects and neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antiparasitic effects and so on. It is said to have beneficial effects on the digestive, circulatory, and respiratory systems, as well as on the immune system. This review article was devoted to discussing many health benefits and traditional uses of onions in pharmacological perspectives, as well as the safety/toxicological profile. If more detailed research on this perennial herb is conducted, it will open the door to an infinite number of possibilities.
... Garlic and onion can be taken frequently in low doses without any side effects, and can still produce a significant antithrombotic effect. [13] The sulfur compounds having the antiinflammatory action identified from the garlic inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) and the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) proteins and mRNA. [14] Curry leaves ...
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Treating common ailments with ingredients available in the home is known as home remedies. Many of the remedies are having years of history, which might have developed by trial and error method and passed through generations. Even though many home remedies will give ambient relief in emergency situation, the practice is merely taking medicine without knowing the underlying pathology, there is a possibility to cause any harmful effect. In this era it is better to have a knowledge on the scientific explanation regarding the drugs we are using including its effectiveness in the specific condition, side effect and mode of action. In this article three commonly used drugs, ginger, garlic and curry leaves are reviewed to evaluate its scientific basis in usage as home remedies. The drug selection was made on the basis of its availability in every Indian home. All are proved to be effective in the treatment of the specific condition which acts by the virtue of its specific active ingredients in the drugs.
... probiotics or prebiotics is an important means with which to prevent and treat NAFLD and insulin resistance in patients, as well as in rodent models (14,16,19). Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been known as a medicinal food due to its various biological effects, such as antioxidant (20), anti-inflammatory (21), antimicrobial (22), antithrombotic (23) and antitumor effects (24). Aged garlic extract (AGE) is prepared through extraction and aging in a water-ethanol mixture for >10 months at room temperature (25). ...
Article
Aged garlic extract (AGE) produced by the aging process has various beneficial pharmacological effects. In this study, the effects of AGE on fatty liver, insulin resistance and intestinal microbiota were compared between ddY-H mice, an insulin resistance mouse, and ddY-L mice, normal mice. Mice were fed an AGE-supplemented diet (4% w/w) for 7 weeks. The administration of AGE had no effect on the body weight and dietary intake of both types of mice. In the ddY-H mice, the serum levels of glucose and insulin were increased and glucose tolerance was impaired; however, the administration of AGE ameliorated these abnormal conditions. AGE did not have these effects in ddY-L mice. Triglyceride (TG) accumulation in the liver and fat absorption from the digestive tract were increased in the ddY-H mice; however, the administration of AGE reduced this increase. On the other hand, AGE exerted no such effects in the ddY-L mice. In addition, the gut microbiota has been shown to be closely associated with obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in human and animal models. The bacterial composition of the gut microbiota in the feces of the ddY-H mice did not differ from that of the ddY-L mice at 5 weeks of age; however, it was altered in the mice at 9 and 12 weeks of age even when the mice were fed a standard diet. In the ddY-H mice, the relative presence of Lactobacillales was increased, while that of Bifidobacterium, Clostridium cluster XVIII and Prevotella was decreased. The alteration of the bacterial composition in the ddY-H mice was reversed by the administration of AGE; however, this effect of AGE was not observed in the ddY-L mice. On the whole, the findings of this study indicate that AGE improves abnormal fat accumulation and insulin resistance, and also alters the intestinal flora in ddY-H mice, suggesting the possibility that these effects of AGE may be related.
... Anti-diabetic effects was also observed following onion intake possibly through inducing weight loss, reducing hyperglycemia, circulating lipid peroxides, and blood cholesterol levels (Babu and Srinivasan, 1997;Sheela et al., 1995). These protective effects of onion have been suggested to be mediated, at least in part, through its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiplatelet properties (Augusti, 1996;Bordia et al., 1996;Chen et al., 1999;Fitzpatrick et al., 1993;Goldman et al., 1996;Hertog et al., 1995;Janssen et al., 1998;Kuhlmann et al., 1998;Tan et al., 2003). ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: The use of nutraceutical-based products has increased in recent years due to their demonstrated efficacy and their good safety profile. Onion is one of the most commonly used plants in the traditional medicine for the management of various conditions including inflammatory and gastrointestinal diseases. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effects of onion particularly in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Aim of the study: To test the anti-inflammatory effects of onion bulb extract (OBE) in an IBD mouse model and the molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects such as modulation of the expression and/or the activity profile of various pro-inflammatory molecules. Materials and methods: Colitis was induced in mice by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) daily administration for 5 days. Animals were sacrificed, colons were removed and the severity of the inflammation was determined by the gross and histological assessments. The colonic level/activity of various cytokines and chemokines were measured using proteome profiling-based assay, western blotting, and immunofluorescence techniques. Results: DSS-induced colitis was significantly reduced by the daily OBE treatment and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA, positive control), particularly at 100-200 mg/kg doses, at both the gross and histological levels. OBE was also shown to reduce colonic expression and activity of several pro-inflammatory molecules and signaling pathways, such as mitogen activated protein kinase family, mammalian target of rapamycin, cyclooxygenase-2, and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases. In addition, OBE reduced the expression of interferon-γ, various C-C and C-X-C chemokines, and molecules involved in the apoptotic machinery such as cytochrome c, caspase-3 and -8, B-cell lymphoma-extra-large and -2. Conclusions: OBE showed anti-inflammatory actions in IBD mouse model, which is attributed, in part, to the modulation of the expression and the activity of important pro-inflammatory molecules and signaling pathways involved in the inflammatory response. These data suggest that OBE may be a promising lead in the therapeutic management of IBD.
... In vitro and animal studies support several mechanisms for garlic's antiplatelet effects. Diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide inhibit thromboxane synthesis (58,73), possibly by inhibiting phospholipase-A and mobilizing arachidonic acid (74). Extract of raw garlic contains compounds that inhibit cyclooxygenase (75) and ajoene, a compound in alcohol extracts of garlic, may inhibit binding of fibrinogen to platelet receptors (76). ...
... Garlic (Allium sativum) has been known as a medicinal food because of various biological effects such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antithrombotic, and antitumor effects [11][12][13][14][15][16]. Recently, aged black garlic extract (ABGE) which is produced through aging procedures at high temperature and humidity over a long time resulting in containing high levels of organosulfur compounds has also antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects [17][18][19]. ...
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The use of colistin in the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections is restricted due to nephrotoxicity. We investigated the effects of aged black garlic extract (ABGE) on colistin-induced kidney injury in rats. Rats were assigned to four groups. Normal saline was intraperitoneally and intragastrically injected for control group. ABGE was intragastrically injected for garlic group. Ten mg/kg of colistin was intraperitoneally injected for 6 consecutive days for colistin group. One percent of ABGE was done 30 min prior to colistin injection for treatment group. Rats were sacrificed on the next day after last colistin injection. Colistin injection increased the serum levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine; however, ABGE prevented deterioration of these serum levels. ABGE also alleviated tubular damage, including vacuolation and necrosis. TUNEL-positive cells were observed less frequently for the ABGE-treated groups. CD68 positive cells were significantly decreased by pretreatment with ABGE. Levels of oxidative stress biomarkers such as 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and malondialdehyde were lower in the ABGE-treated groups. Levels of NF-κB, inducible NO synthase, COX-2, and TGF-β1 were lower in rats that had been treated with ABGE injection. Renal levels of IL-1β and TNF-α were increased by colistin administration whereas renal SOD, catalase, and GSH levels were restored by ABGE administration. These results suggest that ABGE, which has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, might be a potential therapeutic agent to prevent renal toxicity of colistin.
... Although garlic has been suggested for many years by epidemiology and laboratory experiments to have cardiovascular benefits, these health effects are lost in heat-treated garlic. In a recent study (80), a dose-dependent inhibition of serum thromboxane B2 (TXB2) concentration was observed in rats treated with aqueous extracts of raw garlic. However, boiled garlic extracts had little effect on TXB2 synthesis, even at a high concentration. ...
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Garlic (Allium satium) belongs to family Liliaceae, contains various chemical compounds which are helpful in prevention and treatment of different types of cancer. Both oil and water-soluble allyl sulfur compounds from garlic have been found to possess antitumorigenic properties. Generally, oil-soluble allyl sulfur compounds are more effective antiproliferative agents than their water-soluble counterparts. The ability of these compounds to suppress proliferation is associated with a depression in cell cycle progression and the induction of apoptosis. This depression in cell division coincides with an increase in the percentage of cells blocked in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. A depression in p34cdc2 kinase may account for this blockage in cell division. Preclinical and clinical studies suggested that allicin- a compound responsible for the antitumour and antitumorigenic effect. Part of the protection from these compounds probably inhibit the enzyme cytochrome P450 2E1. This enzyme activates a number of xenobiotic substances, including carcinogens such as nitrosamines, hydrazines and halogenated hydrocarbons. This review will focus on evidence that garlic is anticarcinogenic and antitumorigenic and identify some dietary components that should be considered as important variables when assessing the true anticancer potential of garlic and the factor affecting its activity
... The bioactive constitu ents from alliums, such as methiin and S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide (SACS), exert their antidiabetic action by stim ulating insulin production and secretion by the pancreas, interfering with dietary glucose absorption, and favoring insulin saving (Srinivasan, 2005). Bordia et al., 1996Ali et al., 1999Debaene et al., 1999Goldman et al., 1996Goldman, 1996Makheja and Bailey, 1990 Kumari et al., 1995 ...
... The bioactive constitu ents from alliums, such as methiin and S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide (SACS), exert their antidiabetic action by stim ulating insulin production and secretion by the pancreas, interfering with dietary glucose absorption, and favoring insulin saving (Srinivasan, 2005). Bordia et al., 1996Ali et al., 1999Debaene et al., 1999Goldman et al., 1996Goldman, 1996Makheja and Bailey, 1990 Kumari et al., 1995 ...
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... The bioactive constitu ents from alliums, such as methiin and S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide (SACS), exert their antidiabetic action by stim ulating insulin production and secretion by the pancreas, interfering with dietary glucose absorption, and favoring insulin saving (Srinivasan, 2005). Bordia et al., 1996Ali et al., 1999Debaene et al., 1999Goldman et al., 1996Goldman, 1996Makheja and Bailey, 1990 Kumari et al., 1995 ...
... Actually, garlic contains a variety of effective compounds that exhibit anticoagulant (anti-thrombotic) [7,8], antioxidant [9,10], antibiotic [11], hypocholesterolaemic [12] and hypoglycemic as well as hypotensive activities [13,14]. Most of the studies showed that garlic can reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic rats [15]. Augusti and Sheela consistently showed that S-allyl cysteine sulphoxide, (allicin), a sulphurcontaining amino acid in garlic had a potential to reduce the diabetic condition in rats almost to the same extent as glibenclamide and insulin [16,17]. ...
... In addition to its antioxidant activity, garlic has antimicrobial, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, and antiprotozoal properties, as well as beneficial effects for the cardiovascular and the immune systems (8). Microwave heating of garlic cloves for 60 s reduces its anticancer properties (9). Interestingly, when microwave heating was applied 10 min after garlic crushing, the anticancer properties were preserved indicating that allinase activation is necessary to generate anticancer compounds, which are thermostable (10). ...
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To examine the possibility of using thiacremonone isolated from high-temperature-high-pressure treated garlic, this study investigated the physiological activities properties. The IC50 values of hydroxyl, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide radical scavenging activities of thiacremonone were 92.50, 65.05, 12.60, and 81.53 μg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, the activities of vitamin C were 104.93, 99.43, 42.42, and 122.64 μg/mL, and the activities of butylated hydroxyanisole were 37.22, 68.45, 22.47, and 40.54 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of ACE inhibition activities of thiacremonone and captoprill were 0.265 and 0.036 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of xanthine oxidase inhibition activities of thiacremonone and allopurinol were 39.430 and 9.346 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of tyrosinase inhibition activities of thiacremonone and kojic acid were 101.931 and 65.648 μg/mL, respectively.
... [78] Ajoene and thromboxane [79] act as strong platelet inhibitor. [80,81] Morespecifically, orally administered inclusion complex of garlic oil [80] and boiled aqueous extract of garlic affect platelet aggregation in man [ Table 3] [81] Use of garlic in diet causes reduction of platelet-dependent thrombus formation [82,83] and inhibit platelet aggregation in hypercholesterolemic men [84] and provide relief to coronary artery disease patients [85][86][87][88][89] Green garlic cease effect of cerebrovascular risk factors but low dietary dosage has no such effects. [90] Raw garlic causes dose-dependent inhibition of cyclooxygenase in human placenta villi [91] and inhibit platelet cyclooxygenase in vitro. ...
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Garlic (Allium sativum) holds a unique therapeutic potential as it inhibits invasion of carcinoma, provides cardiovascular protection, lowering of cholesterol, blood pressure, anti-platelet activities, and thromboxane formation. It provides protection against atherosclerosis and associated disorders and helps to decrease serum levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and uric acid, as well as insulin resistance, and reduces cytokine levels. It shows hypolipidemic, anti-platelet, and procirculatory effects, and antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties. It prevents cold and flu symptoms through immune enhancement and exhibits anticancer and chemopreventive activities. The main active component of garlic is alliin (S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide), a potent antioxidant which shows cardioprotective and neuroprotective actions. Diallyl trisulfide, major garlic derivatives, could inhibit the cell proliferation by triggering either cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells. Organosulfur compounds from garlic inhibit the growth of transplanted as well as spontaneous cancers in preclinical animal models without any adverse side effects. Garlic is a good source of anti-invasive, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, chemopreventive, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, apoptotic, cardioprotective, antidiabetic agents and shows insecticidal effects against lepidopteran, coleopteran, dipteran and homopteran insect pests. Hence, its constituents could be used to develop alternatives to conventional insecticides for control of serious fruit and vegetable pests. Garlic herbal preparations can reduce non-target exposure to hazardous insecticides and curb resistance development in insects. No doubt garlic based different ailments and concoctions can be used to alleviate a variety of health problems. Its various supplements contain a different concentration of organosulfur compounds are available commercially in market.
... Fresh garlic (Allium sativum L.), a widely used condiment and spice, is well known for its health-promoting properties as reported in numerous human and animal studies [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]. Garlic's health-promoting properties, which are of interest and fall within its antidiabetic potentials, are: hyperinsulinemia, hypoglycemia, hypocholesterolemia, hypotriglyceridemia and anti-glycation and anti-lipid peroxidation actions, in addition to promoting total anti-oxidant level and catalase activity. ...
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Background: Although aged garlic extract (AGE) shares some active components with fresh garlic and in spite of its palatability and milder side effects, the anti-diabetic and related anti-oxidant properties of AGE have not been investigated extensively, and the reported findings are inconsistent. This study investigated the anti-diabetic effects of 3 incremental doses of AGE in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats (fasting blood sugar > 20 mM). Method: Diabetic rats were divided into a control diabetic group (CD) and AGE-treated diabetic group (AGE-D). The AGE-D was divided into 3 groups and accordingly treated with AGE i.p. at 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg daily for 8 weeks. A control normal group (CN) was also included for reference. Results: Compared to the CN group, the CD group showed significant loss of body weight (over 50 %); and decreased serum insulin concentration (10 fold) and total anti-oxidant level and catalase activity (45-70 %) in serum, kidney and liver. Conversely, the CD rats had an elevated blood glucose (nearly 4 fold), serum cholesterol (nearly 2 fold) and triglycerides (>2 fold), erythrocyte glycated hemoglobin (GHb, 3 fold) and kidney and liver lipid peroxidation (MDA levels). Treatment with AGE positively reversed the diabetic changes in the targeted parameters to levels significantly lower than those measured in the CD group and the degrees of attenuation were almost dose dependent especially with the two higher doses. Conclusion: AGE exhibits a dose-dependent ameliorative action on indicators of diabetes in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
... Worldwide most of the garlic is not consumed in these forms, instead it is usually cooked before consumption. Only a few reports have investigated the antithrombotic properties of cooked Allium (21)(22)(23). More recently, Cavagnaro et al. (24,25) have studied the effect of cooking on garlic and onion antiplatelet activity and other related traits. ...
Article
Garlic (Allium sativum) is widely used as a spice and for medicinal purposes because of its antithrombotic, lipid-lowering, cardiovascular and anticancer effects. In the last decade, Argentina has become one of the major exporters of garlic worldwide. The aim of this work was to characterize Argentine garlic cultivars for their allicin content. Red, white and purple-type garlic cultivars were chosen from the Argentine garlic collection INTA La Consulta, Mendoza. The selected materials included ten Allium sativum var. sativum and one A. sativum var. ophioscordoron cultivars. From each cultivar samples were taken when garlic cultivars had broken dormancy, garlic powder was prepared and sampled for HPLC analysis. Calibration was done by the addition to the garlic extract of known amounts of alliin. Bulb allicin content varied between garlic cultivars, mean values ranged from 8.16 to 17.4 mg/g by dry weight. Five statistically different groups were observed. Garlic cultivars 'Sureño INTA', 'Union' and 'Nieve INTA' showed the highest bulb allicin concentration, while 'Fuego INTA' and 'Morado INTA' had the lowest.
... 8,9 Most of the studies showed that garlic can reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic mice, rats and rabbits. 10 Augusti and Sheela consistently showed that S-allyl cysteine sulphoxide, (allicin), a sulphurcontaining amino acid in garlic (200 mg/kg body weight), had a potential to reduce the diabetic condition in rats almost to the same extent as did glibenclamide and insulin. 11,12 Old garlic extract was also effective in preventing adrenal hypertrophy, hyperglycaemia and elevation of corticosterone in mice made hyperglycaemic by immobilization stress. ...
... A daily supplement of garlic may decrease ischaemic cardiac injury Rietz et al., 1993), reduce serum cholesterol & triglycerides and increase HDL-cholesterol (Gebhardt, 1993;Gehardt andBeck, 1996 andSteiner et al, 1996), prevent atherosclerosis (Ide and Lau, 1999), inhibit platelet function and enhance thrombolysis (Apitz-Castro et al,. 1994 and Bordia et al, 1996). ...
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The vasorelaxant effects of water extracts of fresh garlic (FGH) obtained from the whole fresh garlic cloves (FGH-W) as well as the outer storage leaves (FGH-O) and the inner stems (FGH-N) of the cloves were tested on isolated endothelium-intact ring preparations from the rat thoracic aorta. In tissues pre-contracted with phenylephrine (0.1-1.0 M/L), the addition of FGH-W resulted in a dose-dependent slow relaxation reaching a maximum (mean  SEM) of -82  4.2%. Pretreatment with the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, Indomethacin (IND) significantly (P< 0.05) reduced the Emax by 20%, while preincubation of the tissues with the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-NAME significantly (P< 0.05) decreased the Emax by 35%. Pretreatment with a combination of IND and L-NAME further significantly (P< 0.05) reduced the Emax by 55%. FGH-O produced a significantly greater relaxation response (Emax: 87.2  4.1) than that obtained with FGH-N (Emax: 77.3  3.2). Pre-exposure to a maximum concentration of 500 g/ml of FGH-O but not FGH-N significantly (P< 0.05) decreased maximum PE-induced contractile response by 17%. Boiling of FGH-O and FGH-N, obtained following crushing and homogenization of cloves, at 100ºC for 30 minutes decreased the maximal relaxant effects on RTA by 16% and 23%, respectively for FGH-O and FGHN. The results of the study indicate that: 1) fresh garlic extract-induced vasorelaxation in RTA is mostly endothelium-dependent via enhancing the synthesis and/or release of endothelium-derived prostacyclin and NO, 2) The outer storage leaf of the fresh garlic clove contains more active ingredients responsible for vasorelaxation response than the inner stem of the cloves, 3) Boiling garlic extracts following crushing of garlic cloves decreases the relaxation response by only a small fraction most probably because the crushing process itself allows for the very rapid activation of the alliinase enzyme in the clove with subsequent formation of the active ingredient allicin, 4) Allicin formation is absolutely necessary for induction of the vasorelaxant effect of garlic extracts and may be the most responsible ingredient for the observed beneficial cardiovascular effects of garlic, 5) Attenuation of PE induced contractile responses following pre-exposure to garlic extracts is difficult to explain but mostly might be due to modification of synthesis and release of endothelium-derived relaxing and contracting factors.
... What is more garlic improves the elasticity of blood vessels. Additionally, epidemiological studies indicate, that in areas where garlic is consumed regularly, the incidence of cardiovascular diseases are lower [4,7,10,32]. It has been well reported that this plant reduces many risk factors, which play a key role in the formation and development of atherosclerosis (anti-inflammatory properties, lowers total and low density lipoproteins cholesterol, increases high density lipoproteins cholesterol, reduces triglycerides and fibrinogen levels) [13,20,21]. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to comparison of chemical components and antioxidant activity in leaves of winter and spring varieties of garlic, obtained from POLAN Company; Krakow, Poland) as well as in leaves of wild (bear’s) garlic. The content of basic chemical components were determined according to the AOAC methods. Selected minerals content was determined according to the PN procedure. Vitamin C and polyphenols were determined using the Tillman’s and Folin-Ciocalteau’s methods, respectively. The ability to scavenging of the ABTS•+ was analyzed by Re et al. method. Leaves of wild garlic had the significantly lowest amount of dry matter (79.0 g·kg-1), proteins (13.7 g·kg-1), total carbohydrates (50.8 g·kg-1), dietary fiber (26.9 g·kg-1), ash (8.9 g·kg-1), vitamin C (956.1 mg·kg-1), and antioxidant activity (25.0 mmol TEAC·kg-1), but the highest level of crude fat (5.6 g·kg-1), potassium (34.6 g·kg-1), magnesium (1.72 g·kg-1), iron (230.3 mg·kg-1) and zinc (58.8 mg·kg-1) as compared to winter and spring varieties. At the same time, there was no unambiguous differences in the level of basic chemical components (proteins 20.9 ÷ 35.7 g·kg-1, fat 1.6 ÷ 2.8 g·kg-1, total carbohydrates 61.3 ÷ 116.5 g·kg-1, fibre 33.7 ÷ 57.0 g·kg-1, ash 8.9 ÷ 14.1 g·kg-1), antioxidants (vitamin C 75.4 ÷ 459.7 mg·kg-1, polyphenols 335.3 ÷ 1895.1 mg·kg-1), antioxidant activity (27.0 ÷ 30.1 mmol TEAC·kg-1) and the amount of minerals (calcium 7.55 ÷ 28.9 g·kg-1, potassium 15.9 ÷ 28.0 g·kg-1, magnesium 0.85 ÷ 1.32 g·kg-1, sulphur 2.41 ÷ 6.22 g·kg-1, iron 34.4 ÷ 85.7 mg·kg-1, zinc 9.32 ÷ 13.8 mg·kg-1) between winter and spring varieties, as well as between winter varieties. © by Polskie Towarzystwo Technologów Żywności, Kraków 2015.
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Background We report the case of a 93-year-old patient with normal left ventricular function and severe mitral annulus calcification, with mild mitral steno-insufficiency. Case Presentation She had developed creeping drugs-induced renal toxicity that is generally totally overlooked, due mainly to statins, a proton pump inhibitor, and aspirin. The Na and fluid retention, along with hypertension that ensued, although not severe, caused acute heart failure (sub-pulmonary edema) by worsening the mitral insufficiency. This occurred due to a less efficient calcific mitral annulus contraction during systole and an increasing mitral transvalvular gradient, as the transvalvular mitral gradient has an exponential relation to flow. After the suspension of the nephrotoxic drugs and starting intravenous furosemide, she rapidly improved. At 6 months follow-up, she is stable, in an NYHA 1-2 functional class, despite the only partial recovery of the renal function.
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Background Garlic (Allium sativum) is currently used as a natural supplement for the treatment of various diseases and disorders, because it has antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antiparasitic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. This systematic review aimed to summarize the in vitro and in vivo effects of garlic against Schistosoma spp. Method The current study was carried out according to the PRISMA guideline and registered in the CAMARADES-NC3Rs Preclinical Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Facility (SyRF) database. Literature search was conducted using five databases; namely Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Google Scholar from January 2008 to January 2021. The search was restricted to articles published in English language. The search was performed using appropriate syntax and specific tags for each database. Results Of 2,600 studies, 10 met the eligibility criteria for review. All studies used Schistosoma mansoni and garlic. Ten studies (90%) were performed in vivo and one study in vitro. The results of studies showed that garlic can remove the parasite through a direct effect on the parasite itself, such as changes in the parasite's coat or destruction of its spines, or indirectly by strengthening the immune response against the parasite. Conclusion Effective anti-schistosomal responses of garlic in studies show that the active compounds of garlic can be used as a complement with chemical drugs or as an alternative for them, and this is needed to optimize the consumption of these active compounds for medicinal uses.
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Introduction Garlic, also known as Allium sativum, is common to many kitchens around the world and has been used for thousands of years. Its proposed benefits are widely circulated, though little is known about its adverse effects. This case report aims to highlight a possible association between the consumption of raw garlic and the increased chance of bleeding. Methods A detailed analysis of a patient’s case was performed. Results The patient’s anemia was believed to be the result of an increased inhibition of platelet aggregation caused by the consumption of large amounts of raw garlic. Discussion It is very important for clinicians to routinely review and educate patients regarding their medications, both prescription and non-prescription, which also include complementary and alternative medications.
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Garlic (Allium sativum) is a widely known medicinal plant, potential of which remains to be fully evaluated. Its wide-range beneficial effects appear to be relevant for treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis and related diseases. It is generally believed that garlic-based preparations are able to improve lipid profile in humans, inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis, suppress low density lipoprotein oxidation, modulate blood pressure, suppress platelet aggregation, lower plasma fibrinogen level and increase fibrinolytic activity, thus providing clinically relevant cardioprotective and anti-atherosclerotic effects. It is important to assess the level of evidence available for different protective effects of garlic and to understand the underlying mechanisms. This information will allow adequate integration of garlic-based preparations to clinical practice. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of anti-atherosclerotic effects of garlic preparations, focusing on antihyperlipidemic, hypotensive, anti-platelet and direct anti-atherosclerotic activities of the medicinal plant. We also provide an overview of available meta-analyses and a number of clinical trials that assess the beneficial effects of garlic.
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Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, Allium. Functional components in alliums have long been maintained to play a key role in modifying the major risk factors for chronic disease. What is the history of garlic? Is it used in modern times? Is garlic used for culinary purposes? What is its composition? Nutritional value? What is its health giving properties? Are there any adverse effects of consuming garlic? A Biblical verse dealing with these issues is studied from a contemporary viewpoint.
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Herbs are traditionally used in the management of CVD, and can play a role in preventing CVD development, particularly by modifying platelet function. Turmeric, feverfew, garlic, ginger, ginseng, and willow bark have anti‐platelet factors. Concurrent use of some herbal extracts may increase or decrease the pharmacologic effects of anti‐platelet or anti‐coagulant drugs, with moderate or severe consequences. It is, therefore, important to consult guidelines about avoiding the potential risks of interactions between anticoagulants/anti‐platelets and drugs. However, larger human trials are required for more information.
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Standardization is the code of conduct in order to ensure the proper identification, authentication and also for the standardization of crude herbal drugs. The quality of herbal drugs is the sum of all factors which contribute directly or indirectly to the safety, effectiveness and acceptability of the product. Towards authentication and quality assurance of medicinal plants, pharmacognostic, physicochemical studies of Nigella sativa and Allium cepa seeds were performed. The macroscopic and physicochemical parameters like ash value, loss on drying, foaming index, swelling index, extractive values and fluorescence analysis were carried out as per WHO guidelines. The findings of Pharmacognostic and physicochemical studies can be used as markers in the identification and standardization of Nigella sativa and Allium cepa seeds as a herbal remedy and also towards monograph development on the plant. Further it assists in validating this raw material for use in herbal formulations in the upcoming era.
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The ready-to-eat produce market has grown rapidly because of the health benefits and convenience associated with these products. Onion is widely used as an ingredient in an extensive range of recipes from breakfast to dinner and in nearly every ethnic cuisine. However, cutting/chopping of onion is a nuisance to many consumers due to the lachrymatory properties of the volatiles generated that bring tears to eyes and leave a distinct odor on hands. As a result, there is now an increasing demand for fresh-cut, value-added, and ready-to-eat onion in households, as well as large-scale uses in retail, food service, and various food industries, mainly due to the end-use convenience. Despite these benefits, fresh-cut onion products present considerable challenges due to tissue damage, resulting in chemical and physiological reactions that limit product shelf-life. Intensive discoloration, microbial growth, softening, and off-odor are the typical deteriorations that need to be controlled through the application of suitable preservation methods. This article reviews the literature related to the fresh-cut onion, focusing on its constituents, nutritional and health benefits, production methods, quality changes throughout storage, and technologies available to increase product shelf-life.
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Medicinal plants have been used for treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Objective of this study is to document the effect of herbal drugs on anticoagulant therapy. The material for this review was taken mostly from PubMed and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews. Some other relevant references were collected from personal database of papers on anti-coagulant properties of plants. Literature review shows that many plants such as Thymus vulgaris, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba taub, Pulmonaria officinalis and Cinnamomum cassia etc have anti-coagulant activity. This review shows that medicinal plants should be prescribed with care to patients on anticoagulant therapy.
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Haemostasis is the process of forming clots in the walls of damaged blood vessels to prevent abnormal bleeding and to maintain intravascular blood in a fluid state. Fenugreek is largely universal staple herb, popular throughout history and it has been consumed for treatment of different disorders. We aimed to study the possible anticoagulant effect of Fenugreek aqueous extract in vitro by using blood samples of normal individuals. In vitro anticoagulant effects of Fenugreek aqueous extract (5%) in different volumes (25, 50 and 75 μL) were examined in the blood samples of normal individuals by measuring prothrombin time (PT). The aqueous extract of Fenugreek was found to inhibit coagulation process in vitro and significantly prolonged prothrombin time in a dose-dependent manner. Fenugreek aqueous extract in different concentrations inhibits clot formation and increases prothrombin time. Subject to further studies on efficacy and safety, It can well be used, in the future, as a supplementary anticoagulant agent in cardiovascular diseases and to prevent hypercoagulable states.
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The individual volatile sulphur components formed in the presence of alliinase were analyzed in nine different Allium wild genotypes by SPME-GC and SPME-GC-MS, respectively. Relating to the individual profiles, two chemotypes can be discriminated which correspond more or less to a “garlic type” and an “onion type.” Since the described method is very rapid and reproducible and needs only small sample amounts, it can be efficiently used to evaluate large Allium gene bank accessions with special regard to valuable flavour and healthful properties.
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Introduction: Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease. It is presented by a triad of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), progressive optic nerve damage, and constriction of the peripheral visual field. Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess the ocular hypotensive effects of some drugs used in treatment of open angle glaucoma (OAG) at Alsaym Ophthalmic Hospital, Wad Medani, Sudan. Methodology: A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted at specialized ophthalmological health setting. Patients ( n = 200) diagnosed with OAG and treated with different anti-glaucoma drugs were selected randomly to participate in this study. The ocular hypotensive effects of anti-glaucoma drugs were evaluated monthly for 4 successive months, by measuring the diurnal IOP for each patient, using tonometer. The obtained data were collected in especial data collection form and analyzed by IBM SPSS Inc. (IBM SPSS Statistics) Software;Group's Business Analytics Portfolio. Results: Monotherapy of timolol (eye drops 0.5% and 0.1% eye gel), betaxolol 0.5% eye drops produced significant reductions in the total mean of IOP, ranged between 4.4 and 6.1 mmHg, while travoprost 0.004% eye drops showed a remarkable reduction of 7.3 mmHg. Combinations of travoprost with timolol and and/or dorzolamide 2% resulted in significant IOP lowering effects, ranged from 8.9 to 12.7 mmHg. Mono or combined therapy with travoprost was found to be superior to other anti-glaucoma monotherapy. Conclusion: The obtained results showed that travoprost produced clinical significant and superior ocular hypotensive effects when used alone or in combination with timolol and/or dorzolamide. It is thus recommended to use prostaglandin analogues in treatment of OAG because they are the most effective agents in reducing the mean diurnal IOP.
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This study was performed to investigate the effects of various garlic extracts on cholesterol synthesis in HepG2 cells. Raw garlic, grilled garlic, and freeze dried garlic were subjected to cold water extraction, and extracts were incubated at room temperature for 1 min or 60 min. The extracts were treated to HepG2 cells for 4 h, and cholesterol synthesis and mRNA expression level of HMG-CoA reductase were investigated. The alliin contents were reduced when garlic was incubated at room temperature for 60 min. Raw garlic extracts showed lower intracellular cholesterol contents compared to that of the control group. However, raw garlic extracts incubated for 60 min showed no differences compared to the control group. Freeze-dried garlic extract showed minimum intracellular triglyceride and cholesterol contents. Relative mRNA expression level of HMG-CoA reductase, a rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis, decreased in the garlic extracts. Compared with 60 min, garlic extracts incubated for 1 min showed a reduced level of HMG-CoA reductase mRNA expression. The freeze-dried garlic extract reduced mRNA expression level of HMG-CoA reductase in a dose-dependent manner in cells treated with 5% of 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/mL in medium, and the effect was maxed out at dose of 5% garlic extract at 1.0 mg/mL in medium. © 2015, Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. All rights reserved.
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The objective of this review is to brie fly examine the therapeutic uses of garlic( Allium sativum), a member of family Liliaceae in prevention and treatmentof diseases, as it is considered to be a herbal "wonder drug". Garlic isone of the earliest found Herbs known for their culinary and medicinal valuestherefore, employed in entire world as food spice as well as therapeuticagent for the treatment of diseases and maintenance of human health. Today,it stands as the second most utilized food supplement. Diseases thatmay be treated or prevented by garlic’s medicinal activity include cancer,diabetes, drug toxicity, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases (includingstrokes, hypertension, and thrombosis). Garlic’s current principal medicinaluses are to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease by lowering blood pressureby 5 â€Â7% and cholesterol concentration approximately by 10%. It alsoinhibits the platelet aggregation and enhances fibrinolytic activity, reducingclotting on damaged endothelium. Due to its sulfur containing compounds,high trace mineral content, and enzymes, the garlic has shown the antimicrobial,(anti â€Âviral, antiâ€Âbacterial, antiâ€Âfungal) and antioxidant abilities. Though,it is safe as food supplement but in some sensitive persons, it can cause gastrointestinalirritation, and of course, halitosis.
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Inflammation is a frequent reaction following therapeutic irradiation. Since the upregulation of adhesion molecules on endothelial cell surface is known to be associated with inflammation, the expression of adhesion molecules is an important therapeutic target.
In recent years, organizations which promote health, the scientific community, and nutritionists have directed attention toward achieving long-term health benefits through prevention of certain chronic diseases, like cancer or cardiovascular disorders. The current consensus is that this can be achieved by a combination of several basic factors - avoiding smoking, performing regular exercise, and consuming a proper diet. The protective role of naturally occurring food agents is the subject of this review.
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Context: Garlic 14-kDa protein is purified from garlic (Allium sativum L.) which is used in traditional medicine and exerts various immunomodulatory activities. Objective: The present study investigated the suppressive effect of garlic 14-kDa protein on LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and underlying mechanism in inflammatory macrophages. Materials and methods: J774A.1 macrophages were treated with 14-kDa protein (5-30 μg/ml) with/without LPS (1 μg/ml) and the production of inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), TNF-α, and IL-1β released were measured using ELISA. Nitric oxide (NO) production was determined using the Griess method. The anti-inflammatory activity of 14-kDa protein was examined by measuring inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 proteins using western blot. The expression of nuclear NF-κB p65 subunit was assessed by western blot. Results: Garlic 14-kDa protein significantly inhibited the excessive production of NO, PGE, TNF-α, and IL-1β in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated J774A.1 macrophages in a concentration-related manner without cytotoxic effect. Western blot analysis demonstrated that garlic 14-kDa protein suppressed corresponding inducible NO synthase expression and activated cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression. The inhibitory effect was mediated partly by a reduction in the activity and expression of transcription factor NF-κB protein. Conclusion: Our results suggested, for the first time, garlic 14-kDa protein exhibits anti-inflammatory properties in macrophages possibly by suppressing the inflammatory mediators via the inhibition of transcription factor NF-κB signaling pathway. The traditional use of garlic as anti-inflammatory remedy could be ascribed partly to 14-kDa protein content. This protein might be a useful candidate for controlling inflammatory diseases and further investigations in vivo.
Article
Article
Forty-two healthy male albino rabbits weighing around 1 Kg were divided into 4 groups. Group I (8)- fed on normal stock diet, Group II (8)- fed on stock diet plus cholesterol (0.5 gm in 5 ml of olive oil). Group III (15)- received stock diet plus cholesterol plus garlic (0.25 gm) juice. Group IV (11)- received stock diet plus cholesterol plus onion (2.5 gm) juice. The animals were closely observed and followed for 16 weeks. Approximately every 4 weeks, blood samples were collected for estimation of various parameters (S. cholesterol, S. triglycerides, S. lipoproteins, S. phospolipids, and fibrinolytic activity). At the end of experiment, animals were sacrificed and degree of aortic atherosclerosis was graded (grade 0 to 4) in different groups and compared. Experimental study revealed that both garlic and onion (garlic more than onion) had significant effect in inhibiting the rise in S. cholesterol, S. triglycerides, S. beta lipoproteins, and S. phospolipids and significant effect in enhancing the fibrinolytic activity. The beta: alpha ratio was altered favourably and the ratio was kept close to normal. As regards the degree of aortic atherosclerosis as seen on post mortem, it was significantly less in garlic and onion group when compared with pure cholesterol group.
Article
In 6 healthy adults the effect of essential oil of garlic on platelet aggregation was studied in vitro with an aggreganometer. The blood was collected in a siliconized centrifuge tube containing sodium citrate. The aggregating agents used were ADP, epinephrine and collagen. In each subject aggregation was studied 3 times: (i) initial fasting control; (ii) immediately after (i) but with essential oil of garlic drawn into the syringe together with the sodium citrate; (iii) 5 days after feeding 0.5 mg of essential oil of garlic daily.Addition of essential oil of garlic inhibited in-vitro platelet aggregation induced by ADP, epinephrine or collagen; the effect was dose-related. Oral administration of garlic also decreased platelet aggregation. Thus, garlic seems to inhibit some aspects of thrombus formation.
Article
When added to platelet-rich plasma, aqueous extracts of garlic inhibited platelet aggregation and the release reaction. Subsequent experiments designed to characterize the inhibitory component revealed that the inhibitory activity was i) associated with small molecular-weight components, ii) the inhibitory component possessed the typical garlic odor and contained an abundance of sulfur, iii) the inhibitory activity could be extracted with organic solvents, and iv) temperatures above 56° C and alkaline pH above 8.5 quickly destroyed the inhibitory activity. The Rf value of the major inhibitory component after thin-layer chromatographic separation was similar to that of allicin, an unique thiosulfinate in garlic previously shown to possess strong antibiotic and antifungal properties. Allicin was synthesized. On thin-layer chromatographic plates, allicin co-migrated with the inhibitory component in garlic. At 10 uM concentration, allicin inhibited completely platelet aggregation and the release reaction. Comparative studies suggest that the major platelet aggregation and release inhibitor in garlic may be allicin.
Article
The effects of the essential oils of onion (extracted from 2 g of raw onion per kg body weight) and garlic (extracted from 1 g of raw garlic per kg body weight) have been observed on experimental atherosclerosis produced by cholesterol feeding (0.5 g/kg) in rabbits. The rise in serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides was significantly reduced by both onion and garlic during the 4-month period of study. Cholesterol feeding significantly increased beta-(P less than 0.01) and pre-beta (P less than 0.001) lipoproteins while decreasing the alpha-fraction (P less than 0.001). Onion and garlic both prevented these changes. The beta/alpha ratio, which was initially 1.6 : 1, rose to 4.5 : 1 and 5.7 : 1 at the end of 2 months and 4 months of cholesterol feeding. However, this ratio did not increase significantly, both at the 2-month and 4-month period, when onion and garlic were added. Fibrinolytic activity significantly increased with onion (P less than 0.001) and garlic (P less than 0.001) while feeding only cholesterol actually decreased it (P less than 0.001). Onion and garlic reducec aortic atheroma by about half. It is suggested that the essential oils of onion and garlic protect against experimental atherosclerosis by preventing the fall in the alpha lipoprotein fraction and by enhancing fibrinolytic activity, as well as by lowering the serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
Article
Indomethacin, fenoprofen, naproxen, acetylsalicylic acid, phenylbutazone and sulfinpyrazone were studied as inhibitors of serotonin release and of cyclooxygenase activity in human platelets. Inhibition by indomethacin, acetylsalicylic acid and naproxen, but not the other drugs, was time-dependent and irreversible. When release of serotonin-14C was induced by dilute collagen all drugs produced concentration-dependent inhibition which became virtually complete at higher drug concentrations. The rank order of potency of the inhibitors was similar to that observed for cyclooxygenase activity of washed platelets for most drugs. These observations indicate the importance of arachidonate metabolism as the principal pathway mediating the action of dilute collagen. Acetylsalicylic acid which is relatively loosely bound to albumin inhibited release in plasma and enzyme activity in washed platelets with approximately equal potency. The other drugs are more avidly bound to albumin, and concentrations required to inhibit release were 10 to 50 times greater than the concentrations which produced a similar degree of inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity in the washed platelet system. The potency of the drugs was compared with their potency as inhibitors of cyclooxygenase activity of gastric mucosa. The effect of fenoprofen and of sulfinpyrazone was considerably stronger in the platelet system, while the other drugs exhibited activity which was comparable on the 2 tissues.
Article
In 6 healthy adults the effect of essential oil of garlic on platelet aggregation was studied in vitro with an aggreganometer. The blood was collected in a siliconized centrifuge tube containing sodium citrate. The aggregating agents used were ADP, epinephrine and collagen. In each subject aggregation was studied 3 times: (i) initial fasting control; (ii) immediately after (i) but with essential oil of garlic drawn into the syringe together with the sodium citrate; (iii) 5 days after feeding 0.5 mg of essential oil of garlic daily. Addition of essential oil of garlic inhibited in-vitro platelet aggregation induced by ADP, epinephrine or collagen; the effect was dose-related. Oral administration of garlic also decreased platelet aggregation. Thus, garlic seems to inhibit some aspects of thrombus formation.
Article
The effect of essential oil of garlic on serum fibrinolytic activity has been studied in 10 healthy individuals (group I); 10 patients with old myocardial infarction (group II) and in 20 patients with acute myocardial infarction (group III). Garlic was administered at the dosage equivalent to the essential oil extracted from 1 g of raw garlic per kg body weight. Groups I and II were administered garlic for a period of three months. Blood samples were collected initially, then monthly for the next 5 months. Group III was followed for 40 days and were allocated to two sub-groups, one receiving garlic and the other a placebo during the first 20 days only. Garlic increased fibrinolytic activity by 130% in group I and by 83% in group II at the end of 3 months. In group III the increase was by 63 and 95.5% above the post-infarction value after 10 and 20 days respectively. In the placebo-treated acute myocardial infarction subgroup the increase was only 24% at the end of 20 days. Thus, garlic is of value in effectively increasing fibrinolytic activity, both during long term use in chronic infarction cases as well as during the critical acute post-infarction period. The possible therapeutic role of essential oil of garlic in coronary artery disease has been discussed.
Article
Soluble rat tail tendon collagen produced respiratory distress, agitation, convulsions and finally death in rabbits when infused intravenously (i.v.) in lethal doses. Similar observations were noted when a lethal dose of arachidonic acid (unsaturated essential fatty acid) was infused. These agents caused thrombocytopenia, indicative of in vivo platelet aggregation, hypotension and increased levels of thromboxane (TX) B2 (a stable metabolite of TXA2) in the plasma. Histopathological examination of lung, heart and liver tissue indicated that the lungs and livers of treated animals were adversely affected, while heart tissues appeared to be normal. Histopathological examination of lung and liver tissues of animals pretreated with garlic, then treated with a lethal dose of collagen or arachidonic acid showed a significant reduction in the damage observed compared to animals not pretreated with garlic.
Article
Rabbits were given collagen and arachidonic acid intravenously. Blood pressure, platelet counts, plasma thromboxane-B2 (TXB2) and plasma 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha, (6-keto-PGF1 alpha) were determined. Both thrombogenic agents, upon infusion of a lethal dose, caused thrombocytopenia, indicative of in vivo platelet aggregation and hypotension. These changes were associated with an increase in plasma levels of TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Pretreatment of rabbits with an aqueous extract of garlic (500 mgkg) provided protection from thrombocytopenia and hypotension. Thromboxane-B2 synthesis was significantly reduced in animals pretreated with garlic and then injected with a lethal dose of either collagen or arachidonic acid. The amount of TXB2 synthesized in these animals was not sufficient to induce thrombocytopenia or hypotension. All animals pretreated with garlic were well protected against the effects of collagen or arachidonate infusion, and no apparent symptoms were observed in these animals. These observations indicate that garlic may be beneficial in the prevention of thrombosis.
Article
It has been suggested that a drug which selectively inhibits platelet thromboxane synthesis, sparing vascular synthesis of prostacyclin, would be more effective as an anti-thrombotic agent. We studied the effect of an aqueous extract of garlic on the production of thromboxane and prostacyclin by rabbit whole blood and aorta in vitro and ex vivo. A dose-dependent inhibition of thromboxane production was observed during blood clotting. Synthesis of prostacyclin was not affected by any concentration of garlic extract used in the experiment. A slight but insignificant reduction in the vascular synthesis of prostacyclin was observed at the highest concentration of garlic used in in vitro experiments. The synthesis of thromboxane by aorta was completely suppressed at all the concentrations of garlic tested. A similar pattern of results was observed after intraperitoneal administration of garlic (1 ml/kg) for one week on the enzymatic synthesis of thromboxane and prostacyclin of these tissues ex-vivo. Aortic synthesis of prostacyclin was significantly increased in the garlic treated rabbits compared to the controls. The data obtained from these rabbit experiments suggested that it may be possible to achieve a selective suppression of thromboxane formation by platelets with sparing of vascular synthesis of prostacyclin by garlic treatment.
Article
Alliums have been grown for many centuries for their characteristic, pungent flavor and medicinal properties. The present review, which includes references published up to the middle of 1984, is primarily concerned with the chemical composition, flavor, and physiological properties of these crops, their extracts, and processed products. Special emphasis is placed upon the relationship between the organoleptically and biologically active components of onion and garlic. Following a brief historical introduction, current production of commercially important alliums is described and their botanical origins and interrelationships are explained. Following consideration of the major economic diseases and pests of alliums, the agronomic, husbandry, and practices associated with their cultivation are described, particular emphasis being placed upon the storage and processing of onion and garlic. The detailed, overall chemical composition and nutritional value of members of the genus Allium are presented in Section 7; after an outline of the origin and nature of flavor components and precursors, the flavor volatiles of individual members are presented. The effects of agronomic, environmental, and processing practices on chemical and flavor content and quality are considered in Section 9. The following section deals critically with the human and animal studies which have been conducted into the medical and therapeutic properties of alliums, emphasis being placed upon the studies into the antiatherosclerotic effect of onion and garlic and their essential oils. After a study of antimicrobial properties of alliums and their effects on insects and animals, an overview is presented which highlights unexplored or inadequately studied areas and suggests rewarding areas for future research.
Article
Injection of sodium arachidonate (1.4 milligrams per kilogram) into the marginal ear veins of rabbits caused death within 3 minutes. Histological examination showed platelet thrombi in the microvasculature of the lungs. Rabbits were protected from the lethal effects of arachidonic acid by pretreatment with aspirin. Fatty acids closely related to arachidonic acid did not cause death.
Article
It has been suggested that aspirin (ASA) would be more effective as an antithrombotic agent if employed in a dose which inhibits platelet thromboxane synthesis selectively, sparing vascular synthesis of prostaglandin I2 (PGI2). We have studied the effect of ASA concentration on rabbit platelet and aortic cyclooxygenase activity in vitro and the effect of administration of varying doses of ASA to rabbits on the cyclooxygenase activity of these tissues ex vivo. We also measured plasma levels of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1 alpha) after infusion of arachidonic acid into rabbits pretreated with varying doses of ASA. Concentrations or doses of ASA required for 50% inhibition were about 10 times greater for the arterial enzyme than for the platelet enzyme in the in vitro and ex vivo studies. However, the dose required for complete inhibition of the platelet enzyme was 1 mg/kg and this dose inhibited the vascular enzyme by 62%. We conclude that meaningful selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity of the two tissues is difficult to achieve in the rabbit. Since doses of ASA which are antithrombotic appear to be high enough to almost totally inhibit vascular PGI2 synthesis, PGI2 synthesis may be a relatively unimportant mechanism for prevention of thrombosis.
Bovine gastric mucosal and muscle microsomes synthesize prostaglandins and thromboxane b/ (TXB2) from aratchidonic acid (AA). TXB2 and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1 alpha) were the majro products synthesized by pylorus, body, and cardiac region of the gastric mucosa. Gastric muscle mainly synthesized 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha synthesis occurs at an appreciable rate from endogenous precursors but more rapidly with added arachidonate. Prostaglandins E2, F2 alpha and D2 were synthesized in smaller amounts under the conditions studied.
Article
The effect of fried and raw garlic on blood fibrinolytic activity has been compared in 20 patients with ischaemic heart disease. Three blood samples were collected on the first day of the study and similarly on the 2nd and 7th days after garlic administration, either in raw or fried form. Fibrinolytic activity increased by 72% and 63% within 6 h of administration of raw or fried garlic, respectively. The elevated levels were maintained up to 12 h. In the second part of the study, raw or fried garlic was administered for 4 weeks to patients with ischaemic heart disease and fibrinolytic activity was measured at weekly intervals. It showed a sustained increase, rising to 84.8% at the end of 28th day when raw garlic was administered. Similarly, with fried garlic the rise was 72%. The study shows that: (i) both raw and fried garlic significantly enhance fibrinolytic activity (FA); (ii) garlic enhances FA within hours of administration; (iii) FA continues to rise with continued administration of garlic; (iv) frying removes the strong acrid smell of garlic, but preserves its useful effect on FA.
Article
Rabbits were infused intravenously with collagen or arachidonic acid. Blood pressure, platelet count, thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and plasma 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α) were monitored prior to and immediately following infusion. Both agents elicited dose-dependent thrombocytopenia, indicative of in vivo platelet aggregation, and hypotension. These changes were associated with increases in plasma TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1α. Pretreatment of rabbits with aspirin (ASA) or sulfinpyrazone (SPZ) provided protection from thrombocytopenia and hypotension which was only partial in the case of collagen infusion. TXB2 synthesis was blocked in protected rabbits. In almost all cases where the inhibitors failed to protect rabbits from hypotension and thrombocytopenia, TXB2 was elevated to 1–10 ng/ml. In appears that small amounts of thromboxane may be sufficient to cause a considerable degree of platelet aggregation in vivo. Our experiments failed to show significant inhibition of either basal 6-keto-PGF1α synthesis or the arachidonate-induced elevation of this compound. However, collagen-induced 6-keto-PGF1α synthesis was significantly blocked by both ASA and SPZ. These data are insufficient to infer differential sensitivity to inhibitors of the cyclooxygenase enzymes which lead to prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) or thromboxane A2 (TXA2) formation. The clinical efficacy of ASA and SPZ in thrombosis may be due to inhibition of thromboxane biosynthesis.
Article
When garlic cloves are chopped or crushed several dialkyl thiosulfinates are rapidly formed by the action of the enzyme alliin lyase or alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4) on S(+)-alkyl-L-cysteine sulfoxides. Allicin (diallyl thiosulfinate or allyl 2-propene thiosulfinate) is the dominant thiosulfinate released. A variety of sulfur containing compounds are formed from allicin and other thiosulfinates depending on the way in which garlic is handled. One such compound identified recently is ajoene which has been reported to possess antithrombotic properties. We present here data on the antiplatelet properties of ajoene together with its effects on the metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) in intact platelets. Thus, ajoene was found to inhibit platelet aggregation induced by AA, adrenaline, collagen, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and calcium ionophore A23187; the nature of the inhibition was irreversible. In washed platelets stimulated by labelled arachidonate, ajoene inhibited the formation of thromboxane A2; 12-lipoxygenase product(s) were reduced at higher ajoene concentrations. This garlic-derived substance inhibited the incorporation of labelled AA into platelet phospholipids at higher concentration. In labelled platelets, on stimulation with either calcium ionophore A23187 or collagen, reduced amounts of thromboxane and 12-HETE (12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid) were produced in ajoene-treated platelets compared to control platelets. This substance had no effect on the deacylation of platelet phospholipids. The results suggest that at least one of the mechanisms by which ajoene shows antiplatelet effects could be related to altered metabolism of AA.
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