Article

The influence of sexual orientation on body image in adult men and women

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Abstract

Whereas gay culture's presumed emphasis on physical appearance may potentiate body dissatisfaction, lesbian culture's seeming lack of emphasis on appearance may protect against body dissatisfaction. We examined body dissatisfaction, associated psychosocial variables, and affiliation with the gay and lesbian community. Self-report measures were administered to 257 subjects (69 lesbians, 72 heterosexual women, 58 gay men, and 58 heterosexual men). Compared with heterosexual men, gay men reported significantly more body dissatisfaction and more distress in many of the psychosocial areas related to body dissatisfaction. In contrast, lesbians and heterosexual women did not differ in these areas. Although affiliation with the gay community was associated with body dissatisfaction in gay men, affiliation with the lesbian community was unrelated to body dissatisfaction in lesbians. It seems that aspects of the gay community increase vulnerability to body dissatisfaction, yet the values of the lesbian community do not seem to be protective against body dissatisfaction.

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... Heffernan ( 1996 ) found signifi cant differences in the degree of weight concern between women who were involved in LGB 'activities' and those who were not. In contrast, Beren et al. ( 1996 ) found that lesbian women's affi liation to LGB communities was not signifi cantly related to their body satisfaction. Cogan ( 1999 ) argued that although lesbian subculture may promote positive messages about women's bodies, and value 'healthy' or 'natural' body shapes, such messages cannot protect women from internalizing mainstream society's thin beauty ideals or experiencing body dissatisfaction. ...
... Empirical evidence has found that affi liation to LGB communities was a significant predictor of gay men's body dissatisfaction (e.g. Beren et al., 1996 ). Qualitative explorations of young gay men's body image reported that they felt that LGB social space (the 'scene') was highly competitive with regard to appearance (Morgan & Arcelus, 2009 ). ...
... Much research into sexuality and body image has asked participants to indicate the nature of their current attractions and behaviours on Kinsey-type 7-point Likert scales (Kinsey, 1953 ) which tend to range from 'exclusively heterosexual' through to 'exclusively homosexual'. Researchers then label participants as 'heterosexual', 'gay', or 'lesbian' based on their responses (e.g. Brand et al., 1992 ;Beren et al., 1996 ). One major fl aw of this technique is that researcher-imposed labels are not always congruent with participants' sexual identities (Morris & Rothblum, 1999 ). ...
Article
We live in a society in which messages associating physical attractiveness with success and happiness are pervasive. There is an epidemic of appearance concerns amongst teenagers and adults in westernised countries and body image dissatisfaction is now considered normative. Large numbers of people experience negative impacts on wellbeing and, for many adolescents, adults, and even children, appearance concerns are influential in choices about a range of health behaviours. The challenges facing them include difficulties with social encounters and the problem of having to cope with negative self-perceptions. This publication is a comprehensive reference text written by experts in the field. It examines how people feel about the way they look, and why it is that some people are happy with their appearance whilst increasing numbers are troubled by the way they look — reporting that these appearance-related concerns affect many aspects of their lives including relationships, health, and wellbeing. It considers the influence of other people and how the media affects thoughts and behaviours related to appearance. It explores the experiences of people living with a disfigurement in a society that seems to be increasingly focussed on appearance and the pursuit of an idealised image of beauty, size, and weight.
... Minority stress theory is the prevailing explanation for sexual orientation-related health disparities. It is hypothesized that minority stress (i.e., excess stress experienced by individuals from stigmatized social groups) contributes to the higher prevalence of binge eating among SMW (Beren et al., 1996;Brooks, 1981;Meyer., 2003;Pitman, 1999). Sexual minority stressors exist at the individual (e.g., stigma consciousness, internalized homophobia), interpersonal (e.g., discrimination), and structural (e.g., policies that restrict the rights of sexual minorities) levels (Hatzenbuehler & Pachankis, 2016). ...
... Studies have shown than SMW who report childhood trauma (e.g., sexual and physical abuse) are more likely to report higher odds of overeating (Caceres et al., 2019a) There is also a large body of evidence that body dissatisfaction is positively associated with binge eating in SMW (Beren et al., 1996;Mason et al., 2018;Meneguzzo et al., 2018;Pennesi & Wade, 2016;Pitman, 1999;Stice & Shaw, 2002). We selected these and other covariates based on prior findings of significant relationships with overeating or binge eating in women (Beren et al., 1996;Borghese, 2021;Caceres et al., 2019a;Connolly, 2011;Feldman & Meyer, 2007;Laska et al., 2015;Mason et al., 2018;Meneguzzo et al., 2018;Pennesi & Wade, 2016;Pitman, 1999;Stice & Shaw, 2002). ...
... Studies have shown than SMW who report childhood trauma (e.g., sexual and physical abuse) are more likely to report higher odds of overeating (Caceres et al., 2019a) There is also a large body of evidence that body dissatisfaction is positively associated with binge eating in SMW (Beren et al., 1996;Mason et al., 2018;Meneguzzo et al., 2018;Pennesi & Wade, 2016;Pitman, 1999;Stice & Shaw, 2002). We selected these and other covariates based on prior findings of significant relationships with overeating or binge eating in women (Beren et al., 1996;Borghese, 2021;Caceres et al., 2019a;Connolly, 2011;Feldman & Meyer, 2007;Laska et al., 2015;Mason et al., 2018;Meneguzzo et al., 2018;Pennesi & Wade, 2016;Pitman, 1999;Stice & Shaw, 2002). ...
Article
Sexual minority stressors (e.g., stigma consciousness, internalized homophobia, discrimination) are posited to contribute to higher prevalence of overeating and binge eating among sexual minority women (SMW) relative to heterosexual women. Few studies have examined psychosocial mediators of the associations of minority stressors with overeating and binge eating in SMW. Using data from a diverse, community-based sample of SMW, we examined these associations, including the potential mediating effects of past-year depression. We also conducted exploratory analyses to determine if the associations of sexual minority stressors with overeating and binge eating differed by sexual identity or by race and ethnicity. The sample included 607 SMW (38.2% White, 37.1% African American, 24.7% Latina) with a mean age of 39.7 years. Approximately 17% and 9% of SMW reported overeating and binge eating, respectively, in the past 3 months. Greater stigma consciousness was associated with higher odds of overeating (AOR 1.31, 95% CI = 1.03–1.66). We found no significant associations between minority stressors and binge eating. Past-year depression did not mediate associations between minority stressors and overeating or binge eating. Although we found no sexual identity differences, stigma consciousness among Latina SMW was associated with higher odds of overeating relative to White SMW (AOR 1.95, 95% CI = 1.21–3.12) and African American SMW (AOR 1.99, 95% CI = 1.19–3.31). Findings highlight the importance of screening SMW for stigma consciousness as a correlate of overeating and considering racial and ethnic differences in overeating and binge eating in this population.
... However, it should be noted some research findings suggested no significant differences between lesbian and heterosexual women in body dissatisfaction, attitudes regarding weight and appearance, awareness of cultural standards of attractiveness, drive for thinness, likelihood of having a higher BMI, and body esteem concerning weight and physical appearance [15,139,140,150,172]. And, other investigators found no apparent differences in the path from internalization of the thin ideal to disordered eating behaviors [125,172]. ...
... Risk factors related to gender attitudes included negative femininity, low endorsement of women's movement, less active work to improve the status of women, acceptance of traditional gender roles, realization of sexism, body-gender identity incongruence, lower masculinity, and non-identification as a feminist [40,65,77,99]. Risk factors related to intrapsychic functioning included low self-esteem, reduced self-awareness, shame, interoceptive awareness, emotional control, self-blame, catastrophizing, and media internalization [12,15,69,74,77,89,97,107,109,110,131]. Risk factors related to body image included actual to ideal weight discrepancy, internalized sociocultural standards of beauty (i.e., media pressure to be thin, thin ideal internalization, internalized cultural attitudes concerning thinness), body esteem concerning weight, weight discrimination, physical condition, sexual attractiveness, sexual objectification, self-objectification, body surveillance, negative eating attitudes, and higher perceived weight status [40,50,69,74,77,83,88,97,103,110,165]. ...
... The results discussed above are further supported by findings of greater body dissatisfaction, (i.e., poor body image, body image anxiety, drive for thinness, drive for muscularity, shape concerns, weight concerns), sociocultural influence (i.e., internalization of the thin ideal, susceptibility to advertising on physical appearances), eating concerns, frequency of engaging in conversations about appearances, and appearance orientation in gay adults compared to heterosexual men [2,15,36,56,58,85,99,100,126,146,172,173]. Additionally, in one study, 63% of the gay participants reported basing their self-worth on their weight status, in addition to approximately one-half experiencing dissatisfaction with their eating patterns [14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background According to past research, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals experience a higher prevalence of psychopathology, which is attributable to the increased stress (i.e., stigma and prejudice) that they experience, as detailed by the minority stress model (MSM). Main This current literature review examined the empirical literature regarding the rates and types of, and risk factors for eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors in LGBT adults and adolescents, in addition to each individual subgroup (i.e., lesbians, gay males, bisexuals, transgender and gender-nonconforming individuals). Conclusion LGBT adults and adolescents experience greater incidence of eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors than their heterosexual and cisgender counterparts. Additionally, gay, bisexual, and transgender adults and adolescents were all at increased risk for eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors. Mixed results were found for lesbian adults and adolescents. Results are discussed within the framework of the MSM.
... Received 7 August 2019; Received in revised form 30 July 2020; Accepted 5 August 2020 were vulnerable to body dissatisfaction, the research findings were not consistent. For instance, the magnitude and direction of such relationship have been found to vary by gender and the type of sexual orientation (e.g., gay/lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual; Beren, Hayden, Wilfley, & Grilo, 1996;Davids & Green, 2011;Morrison, Morrison, & Sager, 2004;Siever, 1994). ...
... In general, for both men and women, higher BMI has been shown to be closely associated with higher body dissatisfaction (Slevec & Tiggemann, 2011;Yates, Edman, & Aruguete, 2004). Specifically for gay men and lesbian women, BMI has also been found to be a significant predictor of body dissatisfaction (Beren et al., 1996). Hence, BMI may interact with sexual orientation to affect individual differences in body dissatisfaction. ...
... This finding is in line with the previous meta-analysis (Morrison et al., 2004). In general, research appears to support the notion that for women, sexual minority status is not a risk factor for body dissatisfaction (e.g., Alvy, 2013; Beren et al., 1996), perhaps because of the lesbian sub-culture that may counteract minority stress as discussed above. It is unlikely, however, for the lesbian sub-culture to counteract all sources of body dissatisfaction, particularly those from the media that target females in general. ...
Article
Previous research studies on the relationship between body dissatisfaction and sexual orientation in men and women showed inconsistent results. To better understand this body of research, we conducted a quantitative synthesis based on a three-level random-effects meta-analytic model. In total, we analyzed 229 effect sizes from 75 primary studies published between 1986 and 2019. Results showed that sexual minority men had a higher level of body dissatisfaction than heterosexual men (57 studies, 128 effect sizes), with a small to medium effect size (d = 0.34; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.39). Other comparisons—bisexual men vs. gay men (6 studies, 9 effect sizes), sexual minority women vs. heterosexual women (36 studies, 85 effect sizes), and bisexual women vs. lesbian women (6 studies, 7 effect sizes)—showed smaller and statistically insignificant differences. Moderator analyses revealed that the inconsistency in previous studies comparing sexual minority men and heterosexual men could be partially explained by specific study features, including publication year, survey method, participants’ age, participants’ BMI, and measures used to assess body dissatisfaction. The inconsistent findings in comparing sexual minority women and heterosexual women could be partially explained by the different survey methods used in previous studies. Explanations and implications are discussed.
... Within sexual minority subculture, acceptance of diverse and larger bodies has been reported (Swami and Tovée 2006, Kelly 2007, Alvy 2013), yet there may also be body ideals that emphasize athleticism (Beren, Hayden et al. 1996, Aaron, Markovic et al. 2001, Smith, Telford et al. 2019. ...
... Sexual minority women also face ongoing exposure to pervasive cultural ideals of the thin, hegemonic feminine body (Smith, Telford et al. 2019). Sexual minority women may therefore face conflicting cultural ideals and pressures regarding body size and shape (Beren, Hayden et al. 1996, Kelly 2007. Relative to cisgender heterosexual women, cisgender sexual minority women have been reported to have comparable levels of body image concerns (Feldman andMeyer 2007, Koff, Lucas et al. 2010), or even greater body image concerns (Hadland, Austin et al. 2014). ...
Conference Paper
Weight-stigma and internalised weight-stigma are risks for EDs and suicidality. Suicidal ideation in current and lifetime EDs is directly and indirectly effected by perceived-burdensomeness. Similarly, research has linked weight-based discrimination with perceived-burdensomeness and increased suicidal ideation. Weight self-stigma has been linked with weight change, indicating the negative effects of weight self-stigma, and emphasising the central role of fear of being stigmatised by others in this process. Self-discrepancy and negative self-schemas may also include fear of an imagined fat/larger self, or fear of returning to a larger/fat body weight. Considering these factors in the relationship between weight stigma, fear of fatness, and disordered eating, it may be that fear-of-fatness and perceived burdensomeness in EDs more closely align with fear of weight-based discrimination. Pervasive, systemic devaluation of individuals in fat/larger bodies may foster internalised beliefs that one is worthless or a burden on society that praises thinness, dehumanises, pathologizes, and positions larger bodies as a moral/personal failure. This may compound minority stress and weight bias internalisation for those who face intersectional oppressions and experiences of their bodies and identities as a marginalised other. Fear of additional (weight-based) marginalisation may influence ED vulnerability for certain populations, including those who may experience intersectional marginalisation, and those in larger bodies. Insecure attachment, social anxiety, and fear of negative evaluation are also highly prevalent in EDs. It may be that these factors relate to increased awareness of the threat of weight-based marginalisation and therefore, heighten ED risk. This paper will explore the literature on ‘fear of fatness’, ‘feeling fat’, and negative ‘fat talk’ in EDs as related to internalised weight stigma, marginalisation (i.e., race/ethnicity, genders, sexualities, disability), perceived burdensomeness, and fear of stigmatisation. It will argue for the consideration of ‘fear of fatness’ and ‘feeling fat’ as central to ED within a broader context of body politics, weight-based discrimination and disordered eating as a means of coping with fear of (further) social discrimination.
... However, prior research has found that community involvement was positively related to muscularity enhancement behaviors, both directly and indirectly through internalization of the mesomorphic ideal and appearance comparison, suggesting that community involvement may promote gay men's engagement in muscularity-driven behaviors (Tylka & Andorka, 2012). Other research among SM groups found that community involvement may not be protective against negative outcomes, and was associated with higher disordered eating symptoms (Convertino, Brady, Albright, Gonzales IV, & Blashill, 2021;Davids & Green, 2011;Feldman & Meyer, 2007) and body dissatisfaction (Beren, Hayden, Wilfley, & Grilo, 1996;Davids & Green, 2011;Davids, Watson, Nilsson, & Marszalek, 2015), supporting the finding that community involvement may actually place SM individuals at greater risk for eating disorders. ...
... Third, we explored SM community involvement as a key moderating variable within our model, integrating these two theories. This is consistent with the pathways proposed in the minority stress model and subsequent tests of this model showing that community involvement may moderate the association between minority stressors and negative physical and mental health outcomes (Beren et al., 1996;Davids et al., 2015;Meyer, 2003). To examine this moderation, we utilized latent interaction modeling to better understand the associations between community involvement and variables within the minority stress and tripartite influence models, as theorized by the minority stress model (Meyer, 2003). ...
Article
Eating disorders are serious mental illnesses associated with high mortality rates and health complications. Prior research has found increased rates of eating pathology in sexual minority (SM; e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual) individuals compared to sexual majority (i.e., heterosexual) individuals. Two prominent models have potential to explain these differences: the tripartite influence model and minority stress theory. While both models separately have promise for explaining the pathway of eating disordered behavior in SM individuals, research has indicated that both models have unexplained variance. Therefore, a comprehensive, integrative model could further explain unique variance. 479 men and 483 women between 18 and 30 years were recruited through Qualtrics; all participants endorsed attraction to same-gender partners. Two model were estimated by gender using structural equation modeling. For men and women, community involvement accelerated the positive association of heterosexist discrimination with internalized homophobia. Minority stressors were associated with dissatisfaction and muscularity behavior, indicating the importance of incorporating minority stress. For women, community involvement accelerated both the association of pressures with muscularity internalization and the association of muscularity-based dissatisfaction with muscle building behaviors. If confirmed by prospective studies, this model could help refine prevention and intervention efforts with this vulnerable population.
... Given these differences in body image ideals and socio-cultural expectations, the question is whether research findings concerning the extent of body image dissatisfaction in heterosexual females could in principle be true of individuals with different gender orientation, particularly homosexual males. As previously mentioned, this sexual minority group was reportedly plagued to a comparable degree by body image dissatisfaction as heterosexual females (Beren et al., 1996) Despite the recent recognition of the importance of gender orientation, the investigation of body image dissatisfaction in homosexual males remains relatively limited. Most of the existing literature is drawn from Western cultures, where the sense of individualism is posited to be strong and influential. ...
... We selected Thai homosexual adolescents as a relevant sample for the study. Given the relative acceptance in Thai culture of homosexuality (Beren et al., 1996), we found that the degree to which homosexual males were portrayed in the media was relatively high (Lanzieri and Hildebrandt, 2016) and justified empirical examination of media influence in the internationalization of homosexual males' body image ideal. Additionally, because of the relative acceptance, these individuals were less likely to be stigmatized but more open in their reflection of factors that contributed to body dissatisfaction. ...
Article
Full-text available
The debilitating impact of body image dissatisfaction has been well-documented, leading to attempts to propose ways to alleviate the dissatisfaction. These proposals are drawn primarily from findings from studies on female youth. The current study extends this work, and contributes to an emerging initiative to attempt to reduce body image dissatisfaction in homosexual male youth. Past empirical findings have identified these adolescents to be particularly prone to body image dissatisfaction. With the formal operational stage of cognitive development, adolescents are particularly self-conscious and scrutinize their body image more critically, leading to body image dissatisfaction. The aim of the current study was to identify a potential protective factor that might help reduce the impact of body scrutinization in Thai homosexual male adolescents. These participants were selected due to the relative lack of published research on body image in Asian homosexual males. Additionally, despite its orientation toward the collectivistic fulfillment of social roles and obligations, Thai culture is quite accepting of sexual minorities. Homosexual male body image ideals are portrayed in the media with relatively high frequency. For this reason, internalization of media influence was selected as a potential mediator of the relationship between body scrutinization and body image dissatisfaction. Data were collected from 114 Thai homosexual male youths who responded to online questionnaires measuring body scrutinization, media internalization, and body image dissatisfaction. As hypothesized, findings demonstrated that body scrutinization significantly predicted both body image dissatisfaction and media internalization. Media internalization significantly but partially mediated the relationship between body scrutinization and body image dissatisfaction. Implications were discussed in terms of the preventative and therapeutic potentials for reducing media influence on body image dissatisfaction when the scrutinization was engaged.
... Research carried out to date points in two directions. Some studies have found that lesbian and heterosexual women share the same body issues when it comes to level of dissatisfaction (Striegel-Moore et al., 1990;Beren et al., 1996;Koff et al., 2010;Yean et al., 2013); concerns over weight and appearance (Heffernan, 1996;Yean et al., 2013); and their internalization of thin and beauty ideals (Koff et al., 2010). Given that all women in Western cultures find themselves immersed in heteronormative societies, which follow specific beauty and appearance "norms, " these findings might indicate that lesbian women are exposed to the same body dissatisfaction risks as heterosexual women (Dworkin, 1989). ...
... A quantitative examination of the body dissatisfaction differences revealed no sexual orientation-based significant differences. Contrary to our expectations, overall levels of body dissatisfaction were similar in all three groups of women This result coincides with those studies in which no overall differences in level of satisfaction between lesbian and heterosexual women were observed (Striegel-Moore et al., 1990;Beren et al., 1996;Heffernan, 1996;Morrison et al., 2004;Grogan et al., 2006;Peplau et al., 2009;Koff et al., 2010;Yean et al., 2013;Huxley et al., 2014;Tiggemann, 2015), yet it also contradicts research suggesting that bisexual women may experience more body image issues than their lesbian and heterosexual peers (Koh and Ross, 2006;Boehmer et al., 2007;Polimeni et al., 2009). The absence of Matched superscript across rows are those between which are significant differences according to Fisher's r-to-z transformation. ...
Article
Full-text available
Gender-based differences in body image dissatisfaction are not conclusive. Women’s body experiences and their impact on sexual satisfaction may advance knowledge on how heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian women internalize heterosexist values. In this study, we quantitatively examined the degree of body image and sexual dissatisfaction experienced by heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian women, to determine whether body dissatisfaction can predict sexual dissatisfaction. Three hundred and fifty-four women completed an online survey measuring body and sexual dissatisfaction. No sexual orientation-based differences were observed in body or sexual dissatisfaction; however, body concerns were found to have less influence on sexual dissatisfaction in lesbian women compared to heterosexual and bisexual women. Standards of beauty remain constant among all women, yet removing themselves from the male gaze may be interpreted as a protective factor which shields women from expressing concern about their appearance during sexual activity.
... Die HoM gaben signifikant höhere Werte auf beiden Skalen an als die HeM, was hinsichtlich einer stärkeren Körperunzufriedenheit interpretiert werden kann. Dieses Ergebnis konnte durch weitere Forschungsarbeiten mittels der Skala Body Dissatisfaction (EDI) gezeigt werden (Beren et al., 1996;Siever, 1994 (Peplau et al., 2009). ...
... B. EDI vs. BSS) und verschiedener Interpretationen dieser (z. B. Beren et al., 1996), kann die selbstberichtete Körperunzufriedenheit nicht eindeutig den Kognitionen oder Affekten zugeordnet werden und wird deshalb als kognitiv-affektives Konstrukt Darüber hinaus ist die Repräsentativität berichteter Ergebnisse durch vorwiegend studentische (z. B. und selektive Stichproben (z. ...
Article
Dieses Review stellt bisherige Kernbefunde und Trends hinsichtlich Unterschieden zwischen homosexuellen (HoM) und heterosexuellen Männern (HeM) im Körperbild entlang dessen drei Komponenten perzeptiv, kognitiv-affektiv und behavioral zusammenfassend dar. Außerdem wird ein vergleichender Überblick über die Auftretenshäufigkeit sowie Symptomatik von Essstörungen (ES) und der Körperdysmorphen Störung (KDS) gegeben. HoM weisen im Vergleich zu HeM kein insgesamt negativeres Körperbild, sondern negativere Ausprägungen auf einzelnen Facetten auf. Die Männer scheinen sich nicht in der Wahrnehmung des eigenen Körpers und der Diskrepanz zwischen tatsächlichem und idealem Körper zu unterscheiden. Bezüglich der Präferenz eines schlanken Körperideals liegen Inkonsistenzen vor. HoM zeigen im Selbstbericht eine höhere Ausprägung in Körperunzufriedenheit und Schlankheitsstreben als HeM. Hinsichtlich der Häufigkeit von Sportverhalten liegt ein inkonsistentes Bild vor, HoM berichten jedoch tendenziell ein stärkeres Vermeidungs- und Kontrollverhalten. Im Muskulositätsstreben scheinen sich die Männer nicht zu unterscheiden. Es kann nicht eindeutig davon ausgegangen werden, dass sich HoM und HeM in der Häufigkeit von ES voneinander unterscheiden, jedoch scheinen keine Häufigkeitsunterschiede bezüglich KDS zu bestehen. Demgegenüber liegt bei HoM tendenziell eine schwerere ES- und KDS-Symptomatik vor. Für eine umfassendere Sichtweise auf das Körperbild von und die Psychopathologie von ES und KDS bei HoM und HeM sowie individuellere Gestaltung von Interventionen, ist weitere Forschung notwendig. Diese sollte insbesondere wenig untersuchte Konstrukte wie Definiertheitsstreben, kognitive Verzerrungen, Investmentverhalten und Essanfälle sowie potenzielle mediierende Faktoren wie bspw. die Zugehörigkeit zur schwulen Community (inklusive Subgruppen) einschließen.
... Maskulinität geht traditionell mit Eigenschaften wie Aktivität und Orientierung an Handlungen einher,e ntsprechend wird Selbstwert unab-hängiger vom sozialen Kontext und eher aus eigenen Leistungen generiert (Flaherty &D usek, 1980). So wird höhere Maskulinität mit wenigerSchlankheitsstreben und höhererK örperzufriedenheit und niedrige Maskulinität mit gestörtem Essverhalten sowohl bei Männern als auch bei Frauen assoziiert (Hepp, Spindler &M ilos, 2005;Lakkis et al. 1999;Jackson et al., 1988;Braitman &R amanaiah, 1999;Lakkis et al., 1999, Jackson et al., 1988Beren et al., 1996). Die vorliegende Querschnittsstudie untersucht vor diesem Hintergrund die folgendenH ypothesen. ...
... Dies geht mit den Ergebnissen der vorliegenden Studie einher,n ach denen homosexuelle Frauen bei vergleichbarem BMI zufriedener mit ihrem Körper sind und sich einen höherenBMI wünschen. Obwohl homosexuelle Frauen in einer heteronormativen Gesellschaft aufwachsen,die in westlichen Kulturen mit einem schlanken Schönheitsideal korrespondiert, bewegen sie sich meist auch in Subkulturen mit alternativen Schönheitsidealen (Beren et al., 1996). Gemeinschaften von homosexuellen Frauens chätzen eine Variation verschiedener Figuren und gewichten die äußere Erscheinung weniger (Henrichs-Beck, Szymanski, Feltman &B atchelor,2 015). ...
Article
Background: Lesbian women tend to be more satisfied with their bodies compared with heterosexual women. Therefore, female homosexuality might protect from body dissatisfaction. The underlying mechanisms are yet unknown. Aim: This study examines whether higher body satisfaction is linked to gender role, more specifically to masculinity. Method: To address this issue, a mediation analysis was employed after conducting a survey on N = 478 women. Results: Lesbian women reported higher body satisfaction and higher masculinity than heterosexual women. Masculinity mediated the differences in body satisfaction. Conclusion: Partially mediated by masculinity, female homosexuality may be regarded as a protective factor against body dissatisfaction.
... Adult lesbians have more male-typical features such as spatial [23] and visuospatial skills [24], less body dissatisfaction [25] and lower rates of eating disorder [26], lower voice pitch [27], greater athletic and throwing skills [28], possibly lower pain thresholds [29], more ambidexterity [30] or left-handedness [31], and a higher sex drive than heterosexual women [32]. Gay males have more feminine-typical traits such as fluid body movement [33], self-objectification [34], eating disorders [35], letter and verbal fluency [36], body dissatisfaction [35], speech patterns [37], and fingerprint patterns [38]. ...
... In 1992, Allen reported a correlation between male sexual orientation and a female-shifted or larger anterior commissure size, among the first reports suggesting a neurobiological origin for sexual orientation [25,40,41]. Male-to-female transgender individuals, regardless of their hormone use, also have a female-shifted or smaller volume of the central subdivision of the bed nucleus of the stria terminals (BSTc), a region typically larger in males and essential for sexual behavior [42]. ...
Chapter
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A number of studies have described lesbians in the United States as an underserved patient population. Among women in the United States, having a sexual orientation other than heterosexual is associated with increased rates of poor physical and mental health. This chapter will provide background to the ways that lesbians in the United States have been shown to be underserved in terms of health care and describe what clinicians can do to improve the quality of care provided to lesbian women, including detailed recommendations for gynecologic care in the outpatient setting.
... A second part of this systematic review was focused on ED symptoms and eating behaviours. The search individuated 38 papers Austin et al., 2013;Bankoff et al., 2016;Bayer et al., 2017;Beren et al., 1996;Bergeron & Senn, 1998;Brand et al., 1992;Cella et al., 2010;Cella et al., 2013;Davids & Green, 2011;Diemer et al., 2015;French et al., 1996;Gettelman & Thompson, 1993;Hadland et al., 2014;Herzog et al., 1992;Katz-Wise et al., 2015;Lakkis et al., 1999;Legenbauer et al., 2009;Maloch et al., 2013;Mason & Lewis, 2015;Matthews-Ewald et al., 2014;Meyer et al., 2001;Moore & Keel, 2003;Mor et al., 2015;Nelson et al., 2011;Owens, Hughes, & Owens-Nicholson, 2003;Peplau et al., 2008;Polimeni et al., 2009;Schneider et al., 1995;Share & Mintz, 2002;Shearer et al., 2015;Siever, 1994;Striegel-Moore et al., 1990;Strong et al., 2000;VanKim et al., 2016;Watson et al., 2017;Wichstrom, 2006;Yean et al., 2013;Zullig et al., 2017) with relevant heterogeneity in the assessment of the symptoms, scales employed (e.g., Eating Disorders Inventory, Eating Attitudes Test-26, Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaires, and Youth Risk Behavioural Surveillance System Survey), and inclusion criteria. ...
... Conversely, a greater body satisfaction than heterosexual women was found in SM women by Bergeron andSenn (1998), French et al. (1996), Gettelman and Thompson (1993), Herzog et al. (1992), Lakkis et al. (1999), Moore and Keel (2003), Mor et al. (2015), Owens et al. (2003), Peplau et al. (2008), Polimeni et al. (2009), Schneider et al. (1995, Siever (1994), and Strong et al. (2000). Other studies did not show any significant difference as regards sexual orientation (Beren et al., 1996;Cella et al., 2010Cella et al., , 2013Davids & Green, 2011;Legenbauer et al., 2009; Nelson et al., 2011;Striegel-Moore et al., 1990;VanKim et al., 2016;Yean et al., 2013). ...
Article
Background Although the literature consistently shows increased levels of psychological distress in the gay population, less evidence—and with contrasting findings—is available with regard to lesbian women. The aim of the present study is to review the literature in the eating disorders (EDs) field in order to provide further data on the frequency of EDs symptoms in sexual minority women. Method A systematic review of the studies identified by electronic database search (PubMed, Ovid, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar) up to August 2017. Results Fourty‐five studies were found, conducted on 372,256 women. Only 7 studies investigated patients with lifetime diagnosis of ED. As for the symptomatology of EDs, 39 studies were found, which presented huge differences in the scales used for the assessment (e.g., Eating Disorders Inventory and Eating Attitudes Test‐26). Conclusions A higher number of diagnoses of EDs were found in sexual minority women, with a symptomatology characterized by higher occurrence of binge eating and purging, as well as lower body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness, compared with heterosexual peers.
... Adult lesbians have more male-typical features such as spatial [23] and visuospatial skills [24], less body dissatisfaction [25] and lower rates of eating disorder [26], lower voice pitch [27], greater athletic and throwing skills [28], possibly lower pain thresholds [29], more ambidexterity [30] or left-handedness [31], and a higher sex drive than heterosexual women [32]. Gay males have more feminine-typical traits such as fluid body movement [33], self-objectification [34], eating disorders [35], letter and verbal fluency [36], body dissatisfaction [35], speech patterns [37], and fingerprint patterns [38]. ...
... In 1992, Allen reported a correlation between male sexual orientation and a female-shifted or larger anterior commissure size, among the first reports suggesting a neurobiological origin for sexual orientation [25,40,41]. Male-to-female transgender individuals, regardless of their hormone use, also have a female-shifted or smaller volume of the central subdivision of the bed nucleus of the stria terminals (BSTc), a region typically larger in males and essential for sexual behavior [42]. ...
Article
Gynecologic Oncologists are sometimes consulted to care for patients who present with diverse gender identities or sexual orientations. Clinicians can create more helpful relationships with their patients if they understand the etiologies of these diverse expressions of sexual humanity. Multidisciplinary evidence reveals that a sexually dimorphic spectrum of somatic and neurologic anatomy, traits and abilities, including sexual orientation and gender identity, are conferred together during the first half of pregnancy due to genetics, epigenetics and the diversity of timing and function of sex chromosomes, sex-determining protein secretion, gonadal hormone secretion, receptor levels, adrenal function, maternally ingested dietary hormones, fetal health, and many other factors. Multiple layers of evidence confirm that sexual orientation and gender identity are as biological, innate and immutable as the other traits conferred during that critical time in gestation. Negative social responses to diverse orientations or gender identities have caused marginalization of these individuals with resultant alienation from medical care, reduced self-care and reduced access to medical care. The increased risks for many diseases, including gynecologic cancers are reviewed. Gynecologic Oncologists can potentially create more effective healthcare relationships with their patients if they have this information.
... Furthermore, the MSM society is riddled with sexual objectification, and being slender, strong, and physically attractive in look and dress is highly valued. Therefore, MSM experience body dissatisfaction and its consequences to a larger degree than heterosexual men, according to research on male body image [45,46]. Despite the significant body image problems of MSM, studies on straight male body image are more prevalent. ...
Article
Larger penis size has been associated with a sign of strength, masculinity, and social standing. Little study has examined the relationship between men’s penis size and their partners’ sexual satisfaction. The purpose of the present study was to detail and evaluate the effect of penis size on partner sexual satisfaction with a design of narrative literature review. A systematic search of MEDLINE/PubMed was conducted to discover relevant studies on this issue. Currently, available studies show incomplete results between the penis size and partners’ sexual satisfaction and are limited by methodological drawbacks, including small sample’s size. The link between penis size and the sexual satisfaction of the partner need to be supported by more robust scientific evidence.
... Breaking this down further, when the sexual orientation of the relationship was heterosexual, not stated, mixed, or other, there is a negative association between body dissatisfaction and relationship satisfaction. Past research supports some of these results, as heterosexual women, and both gay men and lesbian women have reported greater body dissatisfaction, all at similar levels (e.g., Beren et al., 1996;Koff et al., 2010;Siever, 1994) and there is little difference in relationship satisfaction across most orientations (e.g., Cusack et al., 2012;Lavner, 2016) suggesting the possibility of a moderating impact of sexual orientation of the relationship across many orientations. However, what was surprising was the non-significant association for same-sex relationships. ...
Article
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Research has shown that there is an association between body dissatisfaction (a person’s negative evaluation of their own physical body) and romantic relationship satisfaction. Some have suggested that individuals with higher levels of body dissatisfaction report less satisfaction with their romantic relationships. However, others have suggested that there is a positive relationship between these two variables. This meta-analysis sought to examine the relationship between body dissatisfaction and relationship satisfaction. Possible moderators of this relationship were also examined. Fifty-six studies were meta-analyzed to quantitatively summarize the relationship between body dissatisfaction and relationship satisfaction. Additionally, participant body mass index (BMI), relationship length, gender, sexual orientation, and age were considered as potential moderators of this relationship. Results confirmed previous findings, indicating that body dissatisfaction was negatively associated with relationship satisfaction (r xy = −0.24). Furthermore, moderation analyses found that this negative relationship between body dissatisfaction and relationship satisfaction was attenuated as BMI increased. This relationship became stronger when the studies had higher female representation. Some sexual orientations also moderated the relationship. No moderating effects of age or relationship length were found.
... As such, some research has found that SM women experience lower body dissatisfaction than heterosexual women, particularly protection against thin ideal pressures, and express a preference for a larger ideal body size (Alvy, 2013;Huxley, Halliwell, & Clarke, 2015;Owens, Hughes, & Owens-Nicholson, 2003;Polimeni, Austin, & Kavanagh, 2009;Strong, Williamson, Netemeyer, & Geer, 2000). However, research findings have been inconsistent (Morrison, Morrison, & Sager, 2004), with other studies finding no differences in body dissatisfaction between SM and heterosexual women (Beren, Hayden, Wilfley, & Grilo, 1996;Koff, Lucas, Migliorini, & Grossmith, 2010;Legenbauer et al., 2009;Peplau et al., 2009). Indeed, Dworkin (1988) argued that all women, including SM women, are susceptible to body dissatisfaction given societal pressures to be thin perpetuated by Westernized, mainstream culture. ...
Article
Positive body image is a multidimensional construct consisting of various facets including body appreciation, body image flexibility, and functionality appreciation measured via the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2), Body Image-Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-5 (BI-AAQ-5), and Functionality Appreciation Scale (FAS), respectively. Research has supported the unidimensional factor structure of these measures; however, invariance testing based on sexual identity has yet to be conducted. The study’s primary aim was to assess the measurement invariance of the BAS-2, BI-AAQ-5, and FAS between sexual minority and heterosexual women. The secondary aim was to assess the psychometric properties of each positive body image measure among each sample. Participants were predominantly White, cisgender women who identified as a sexual minority (n = 310) or heterosexual (n = 360) and completed online questionnaires of positive body image, eating behaviors, and mental and physical health. Results supported invariance with no differences in BAS-2 or BI-AAQ-5 scores. A significant difference with a small effect size was found in FAS scores, with sexual minority women reporting lower FAS scores. Findings supported the BI-AAQ-5 and FAS’s incremental validity on perceived mental health. Overall, results suggest that the BAS-2, BI-AAQ-5, and FAS scores can be compared among women of varying sexual identities.
... Among the limited research areas is that of MSM attraction preferences. A handful of studies have focused on physical appearance as being a determinant factor (Beren et al., 1996;Hospers & Jansen, 2005;Sergios & Cody, 1985;Siever, 1994). Several other studies have examined specific attraction preferences including race and ethnicity (Trott, 2017), body type (Welch, 2016), age (Gobrogge et al., 2007), masculinity (Moskowitz et al., 2013;Wilson, 2017), muscularness (Varangis et al., 2012), and even hairiness (Moskowitz et al., 2013). ...
Article
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The attraction preferences of men who have sex with men (MSM) is largely unknown. While previous research has examined certain aspects tied to masculinity and race, no comprehensive study has been conducted. The current research addressed this gap by conducting two comprehensive surveys of the attraction preferences for MSM participants. The two surveys had participants identify key elements about themselves and then identify the attraction of these same elements in others. The results showed there were no universal ideal preferences for MSMs. That said, we found trends suggesting different body typed individuals have strong preferences for other body types. We discuss the practical implications of these findings, including the potential to predict attraction among the MSM population. This research supports the belief that MSMs have strong preferences for potential sexual partners.
... Aside from one study which concluded that past-year BEDs are highest among bisexual women, most studies indicated that disparities in binge eating are more pronounced in SM men than SM women. 23,67,68 For instance, in a study of 13,795 young adults, Austin et al. found that gay males were 620% more likely to report past-year binge eating compared to heterosexual men (95% CI 3.7 14.0, p < .0001) while bisexual males were 360% more likely to report past-year binge eating compared their heterosexual counterparts (95% CI 1.2 18.1, p < .05). ...
Article
The purpose of this study is to present current data on the prevalence and co-occurrence of 12 substance and behavioral addictions among adult cisgender sexual minorities (SM). We utilized MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar databases to systematically review the literature on alcohol, nicotine, cannabis, illicit drugs, gambling, eating/food, Internet, sex, love, exercise, work, and shopping within the SM community. Peer reviewed empirical articles in English from 2000 to 2019 were included. When possible, we compared prevalence and co-occurrence statistics between four SM subgroups (stratified into lesbian women, bisexual women, gay men, and bisexual men), and used heterosexual women and men as reference groups. Studies were scant within each area of addiction with the most studies focusing on addictions acknowledged within the DSM-V (alcohol, nicotine, cannabis, illicit drugs, gambling). Significantly fewer studies addressed the prevalence and co-occurrence of behavioral addictions across SM subgroups. Most studies assessing addiction among SM populations either categorize SMs into a single group or only stratify by gender. However, even with limited research, the findings from this review suggest that significant differences in addictive behaviors exist when comparing one SM subgroup to another. There is a strong need for more research that quantifies these disparities through prevalence and co-occurrence statistics.
... Media theorists and other researchers emphasizing social learning explanations have tried to pin the cause on Western thin ideals and gender role expectations that lead to women experiencing greater dissatisfaction with their bodies. However, this conjecture fails to explain the strange pattern wherein bodily dissatisfaction and eating disorders appear to affect heterosexual women and homosexual men at higher rates (Beren, Hayden, Wilfley, & Grilo, 1996;Striegel-Moore, Tucker, & Hsu, 1990). If there is no cultural model for homosexual men to learn from, given that the media primarily presents attractive females, then why should homosexual men exhibit such high rates of eating disorders when the aforementioned cultural causes-Western thin ideals and gender role expectations-are less salient for them? ...
Chapter
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Intrasexual competition is a key component of sexual selection. Evolutionarily, women compete for access to and retention of mates on key dimensions that men have evolved to value and prioritize in their long-and short-term mates, in particular physical attractiveness. Such competition evolved to be adaptive in ancestral environments as the perceived competition consisted of real individuals. However, underlying psychological mechanisms for competition are excessively triggered and more continuously engaged in modern environments, because these psychological mechanisms for social comparison and competition, at a deep level, do not differentiate between real people and imagined intrasexual competition in the form of mass media images. Utilizing an evolutionary mismatch framework, this chapter explores ways that women are psychologically influenced by the pervasive presence of virtual same-sex competitors for mates. Various negative psychological states in modern societies (e.g., depression, eating disorders) may be linked to virtual intrasexual competition.
... We hypothesized that all possible direct and indirect effects would be significant. We included body mass index (BMI) as a control variable in our analyses because body image variables are regularly affected by a person's body mass (Beren et al. 1996;Stice and Shaw 2002). ...
Article
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In the present study, we extend prior research on objectification theory by integrating fear of rape into a mediation model predicting depression in college women. With a sample of 496 U.S. college women 18–37 years-old, we examined three aspects of fear of rape (taking rape precautions, safety concerns, and fear of men), along with body shame and appearance anxiety, as potential mediators in the linkage of interpersonal sexual objectification through body surveillance to depression. We found that sexual objectification was associated with more body surveillance, which in turn was related to more body shame, greater appearance anxiety, more rape precautions, greater safety concerns, and more fear of men. Body shame, appearance anxiety, and fear of men were related to more depression whereas taking rape precautions was related to less depression and safety concerns was not related to depression. Direct relations between sexual objectification and depression, body shame, and the three aspects of fear of rape also emerged. A majority of indirect effects was also significant. Our results suggest that women’s fear of rape is an additional explanatory variable in understanding how interpersonal sexual objectification is related to women’s mental health concerns.
... Furthermore, plastic surgeries targeted specifically toward sexual minority men have been developed in recent years (e.g., anal rejuvenation; O'Connor 2017). Further, sexual minority men report greater body dissatisfaction than heterosexual men (Beren et al. 1996;Frederick and Essayli 2016;Mcardle and Hill 2009;Peplau et al. 2009). In female samples, body dissatisfaction has been associated with holding positive attitudes towards plastic surgery and an increased likelihood to undergo surgery (Dunaev et al. 2018;Slevec and Tiggemann 2010;Swami 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Plastic surgery is a popular form of appearance modification. Nonetheless, attitudes toward the recipients of plastic surgery remain divided. These attitudes may be indicative of an underlying moralisation of plastic surgery in contemporary society. To test this hypothesis, we examined perceptions of plastic surgery in the context of Moral Foundations Theory – a formal framework in which morality is categorised into five innate foundations: Sanctity, Care, Fairness, Loyalty, and Authority. Across two complementary online surveys with samples of 385 undergraduate psychology students (75% female) and 1533 sexual minority men, respectively, we investigated participants’ valuation of each moral foundation and their moral condemnation of plastic surgery. Results indicated that scores on Sanctity predicted moral condemnation, such that participants who valued Sanctity more highly were more likely to perceive plastic surgery as morally fraught. Sanctity encompasses naturalness and purity elements of morality. As such, results were explored in the context of two broad theories: feminist theory, which posits that unnatural beauty is perceived as unfavourably as ugliness itself, and evolutionary theory, which suggests that unnatural stimuli are moralised because they elicit innate and powerful disgust reactions. Ultimately, we concluded that the underlying societal moralisation of plastic surgery is attributable to perceptions of plastic surgery as fundamentally unnatural. Implications for interventions targeted at eradicating plastic surgery condemnation are discussed.
... To date, no clear explanation has been provided for the etiology of transsexuality, although some speculations have been made by physicians, psychiatrists, and biologists. In this regard, the role of biological and psychological factors, such as inheritance, prenatal stress, parental sexual relations, genetic disorders, hormone structure, neurological and central nervous system problems, and some environmental factors, should be taken into consideration [3,4]. The prevalence of transsexuality is more common among men, with reports of 1 per 30,000, but it is 1 per 100,000 in women. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Several reports have demonstrated varying results on the quality of life (QoL) of the transgender population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis about the quality of life (QoL) of individuals during the post transsexual surgery period. Methods: We searched major biomedical electronic databases, including Scopus, Google Scholar, Psychological Information Database (PsycInfo), Web of Science, PubMed, Excerpta Medica dataBASE (EMBASE), and ProQuest, for all relevant literature published in English up to December 2019. The included papers required to be cross sectional studies that reported quality of life in people with transsexuality post surgery. After selecting eligible studies, 2 authors extracted data of each study independently and resolved any inconsistency by consensus with the third reviewer. The risk of bias was assessed by 2 independent research experts by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Results: In this study, out of 497 articles extracted from the initial investigation, 8 articles with 1099 patients were ultimately selected for meta-analysis. The pooled mean of quality of life in transsexual individuals was obtained to be 70.45 (95%CI 55.87-85.03) and 59.17 (95%CI 48.59-69.74), based on World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQoL-BREF) and The 36-item short form of the Medical Outcomes Study questionnaire (SF36), respectively. Also, the results of the subgroup analysis for the weighted mean quality of life in male to female and female to male showed that the mean quality of life in female to male was 57.54 (95%CI 42.24-72.84) and it was 62.47 (95%CI 45.94-79.00) in male to female, based on SF36 questionnaire. Moreover, the weighted mean quality of life in female to male was 69.99 (95%CI 43.76, 96.23) and it was 70.65 (95%CI 53.11, 88.19) in male to female, based on WHOQoL-BREF questionnaire. Conclusion: The results of this systematic review may support the approaches to transsexuality that facilitates sex reassignment. In this review, the means of quality of life after surgery were not compared to the means of quality of life before surgery or even before hormonal therapy which was due to inadequate number of primary studies.
... LGBT community involvement and body surveillance also were nonsignificant for lesbians, which is consistent with other research examining body image constructs [2]. Some evidence does suggest that more feminine lesbians may feel pressure to be more masculine to fit into the lesbian community [38]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Drawing on objectification theory, we investigated associations among age, gender-typed traits (masculinity, femininity), community involvement (gay and lesbian sample), and body objectification (body surveillance and body shame) in gay men, lesbians, and heterosexual men and women. Our sample included 390 participants from university and community settings. A total of 82 gay men, 62 lesbians, 82 heterosexual men, and 164 heterosexual women, M age = 23.06 years (range 18–62), completed a measure to assess body surveillance and body shame and masculinity and femininity. Additionally, the lesbian and gay participants completed an assessment to measure LGBT community involvement. Controlling for age, results were significant for the femininity × masculinity interaction on body surveillance for gay men and lesbians, and masculine gender-typed traits for heterosexual women. Masculinity also was a significant predictor of body shame for lesbians. LGBT community involvement was non-significant for both gay men and lesbians. Our findings are consistent with objectification theory and highlight the importance of examining the complexities of gender (e.g., interaction between masculinity and femininity) and sexual orientation when body objectification is investigated.
... The result is that these studies overlook the possibility that lesbian and bisexual women's body dissatisfaction scores may differ (Davids & Green, 2011). Other authors have acknowledged that bisexual data may be distinct from lesbian data, but have omitted bisexual participants due to small numbers (e.g., Beren et al., 1996;Share & Mintz, 2002). ...
Article
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Body image pressures for heterosexual women are well established. However, lesbian body image is less well understood, while bisexual women have largely been overlooked with the psychological literature. Further, women's investment in 'traditional' appearance practices associated with femininity are under explored. The current study explored differences between 472 heterosexual, lesbian, and bisexual women on measures of body satisfaction, body hair practices, and cosmetics use. While there were no significant differences between body satisfaction scores, lesbian and bisexual women had more positive attitudes to body hair, and were less likely to remove hair from particular parts of their bodies, than heterosexual women. Cosmetics use was highest among heterosexual women, significantly lower among bisexual women, and lowest among lesbians. We argue that these results highlight the importance of exploring the distinctiveness of bisexual, lesbian and heterosexual women's appearance concerns and appearance practices.
... With the exception of studies investigating the role of sexual orientation in eating disorders, research on sexuality and eating pathology in men is relatively non-existent. There is evidence to suggest that non-heterosexual men are at a greater risk of developing an eating disorder [52][53][54][55][56][57]; this is hypothesized to result from minority stress as well as cultural pressures concerning physical appearance among men of same-sex attraction [15••]. Given the lower prevalence of AN and BN in men, future research might investigate the association between sexuality and disordered eating in non-clinical and BED samples. ...
Article
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Purpose of Review Clinical observation and a growing body of empirical research point to an association between disordered eating and sexual function difficulties. The present review identifies and connects the current knowledge on sexual dysfunction in the eating disorders, and provides a theoretical framework for conceptualizing the association between these important health conditions. Recent Findings Research on sexuality and eating pathology has focused on clinical samples of women with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). All aspects of sexual response can be impacted in women with an eating disorder, with sexual function in women with AN appearing to be more compromised than in women with BN. Research of this nature is extremely limited with respect to BED, non-clinical samples, men, and individuals with non-binary gender identities. Summary Sexuality should be examined and addressed within the context of eating disorder treatment. Sexual dysfunction and eating disorders, along with commonly comorbid disorders of anxiety and mood, can be seen as separate but frequently overlapping manifestations of internalizing psychopathology. Psychological, developmental, sociocultural, etiological, and biophysical factors likely represent risk and maintenance factors for internalizing disorders. A dimensional, trans-diagnostic approach to disordered eating and sexuality has promising implications for future research and clinical interventions.
... 94, 95), we did not analyze these persons in the present study due to the insufficient sample size (N = 7). Moreover, we did not investigate the relation between sexual orientation and body image, although previous studies have found indications of an influence of sexual orientation on body image (96)(97)(98)(99). Therefore, future research should investigate the impact of age on body image for different sexual orientations. ...
Article
Full-text available
Body image disturbance is associated with several mental disorders. Previous research on body image has focused mostly on women, largely neglecting body image in men. Moreover, only a small number of studies have conducted gender comparisons of body image over the lifespan and included participants aged 50 years and older. With regard to measurement, body image has often been assessed only in terms of body dissatisfaction, disregarding further aspects such as body appreciation or the importance of appearance. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore different aspects of body image in the general German-speaking population and to compare men and women of various ages. Participants completed an online survey comprising questionnaires about body image. Body dissatisfaction, importance of appearance, the number of hours per day participants would invest and the number of years they would sacrifice to achieve their ideal appearance, and body appreciation were assessed and analyzed with respect to gender and age differences. We hypothesized that body dissatisfaction and importance of appearance would be higher in women than in men, that body dissatisfaction would remain stable across age in women, and that importance of appearance would be lower in older women compared to younger women. Body appreciation was predicted to be higher in men than in women. General and generalized linear models were used to examine the impact of age and gender. In line with our hypotheses, body dissatisfaction was higher in women than in men and was unaffected by age in women, and importance of appearance was higher in women than in men. However, only in men did age predict a lower level of the importance of appearance. Compared to men, women stated that they would invest more hours of their lives to achieve their ideal appearance. For both genders, age was a predictor of the number of years participants would sacrifice to achieve their ideal appearance. Contrary to our assumption, body appreciation improved and was higher in women across all ages than in men. The results seem to suggest that men’s and women’s body image are dissimilar and appear to vary across different ages.
... Other studies have found that lesbian and heterosexual women tend to have similar levels of bulimic behaviors [20,21], body dissatisfaction and body image [6,24,25,28] and eating disorders [2,3]. Beren et al. [29] found similar levels of body dissatisfaction and psychosocial distress in women of both sexual orientations, and concluded that belonging to the lesbian community does not seem to be protective against body dissatisfaction. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Homosexuality is a clear risk factor for disordered eating in men; however, for women, research has yielded contradictory results. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the association between sexual orientation and disordered eating in women. Methods PRISMA guidelines were used. Studies comparing disordered eating between lesbians and heterosexual women were identified using PsycNet database and Google Scholar. Twenty-one studies met inclusion criteria. Overall disordered eating, restricting, binging and purging were examined for heterosexual, lesbian, bisexual and ‘mostly heterosexual’ women. Results Whereas there was no significant difference in overall disordered eating between lesbians and heterosexual women, lesbians reported restricting less and binging more than heterosexual women. Bisexual women were more likely than lesbian women to restrict food intake and purge, and more likely than heterosexual women to have overall disordered eating and restrict food intake. “Mostly heterosexual” women were more likely than heterosexual women to restrict food intake, binge and purge. Conclusions Women of different sexual orientations show distinct patterns of disordered eating. Bisexual and “mostly heterosexual” women appear to be particularly at risk. Stress resulting from binegativity and rigid views of sexuality in a dichotomous society, rather than sexual orientation itself, may be associated with disordered eating in women. Findings should be viewed with caution because there were few studies with bisexual and “mostly heterosexual” women. This study elucidates the nature of the association between disordered eating and sexual orientation. Findings provide a possible explanation for previous inconsistencies, since opposing trends for different behaviors cancel each other out. Level of evidence Level I, systematic review and meta-analysis.
... Although it has been suggested that there exist potentially important differences in body image across racial and ethnic groups (Kronenfeld, Reba-Harrelson, Von Holle, Reyes, & Bulik, 2010) that might differentially impact disordered eating behaviors, relatively little research has examined the salience or the significance of such factors (Lydecker & Grilo, 2016;Lydecker, Gueorguieva, Masheb, White, & Grilo, 2019). Furthermore, we would expect possible gender differences given varying male and female body-image ideals, and the influence that the intersection of gender and sexual orientation may have on these preferences (Beren, Hayden, Wilfley, & Grilo, 1996). ...
Article
Objective: The increased occurrence of disordered eating behaviors among sexual minorities is well established; however, few studies have examined disparities in eating disorder diagnoses among this population. This study sought to examine lifetime prevalence estimates of DSM-5 defined EDs, including anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge-eating disorder (BED) as a function of sexual orientation. We then compared prevalence of EDs based on experiences with perceived discrimination. Method: A nationally representative sample of U.S. adults (N = 35,995) participating in the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III completed structured diagnostic interviews. Results: Prevalence rates were significantly higher among sexual minorities than heterosexual respondents for all EDs: AN = 1.71% (SE = 0.50) versus 0.77% (SE = 0.07), BN = 1.25% (SE = 0.37) versus 0.24% (SE = 0.03), BED = 2.17% (SE = 0.52) versus 0.81% (SE = 0.05). Odds of lifetime diagnosis were significantly greater among sexual minorities for AN (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.93), BN (AOR = 3.69), and BED (AOR = 2.32), after adjusting for sociodemographic variables. Sexual minorities reporting experiences with perceived discrimination had significantly higher prevalence of AN than those not endorsing perceived discrimination: 3.78% (SE = 1.43) versus 0.82% (SE = 0.33); AOR = 5.06. There were no significant differences in prevalence of BN or BED by perceived discrimination. Discussion: Findings indicate that sexual minorities are disproportionately affected by EDs. Further research is needed to better understand mechanisms contributing to these disparities and heightened risk for EDs.
... Furthermore, the extent of involvement with the lesbian community is negatively correlated with weight concerns (47) and appearance-related concerns (58). By contrast, Beren et al. (59) did not find any relation between involvement with the lesbian community and body image disturbance. Moreover, a report published by the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) showed that individuals with a sexual orientation other than heterosexual still experience high levels of discrimination due to their sexual orientation in different European countries (60), which may endanger the mental health of non-heterosexual individuals [e.g., (61,62)]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Body image disturbance is a core symptom of eating disorders (EDs) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). There is first evidence that females’ body image differs depending on sexual orientation, with heterosexual women (HEW) appearing to show more body image disturbance symptoms than homosexual women (HOW). Such disparities might be moderated by everyday discrimination experiences and involvement with the lesbian community. However, to date, there has been no comprehensive assessment of a broad range of body image facets such as drive for thinness, leanness, and muscularity; body avoidance; body checking and body dissatisfaction; and ED and BDD pathology as well as moderating factors. Moreover, studies have often neglected bisexual women (BIW). A total of N = 617 women (n = 180 HOW, n = 322 HEW, n = 115 BIW) completed an online survey assessing the various facets of body image, ED and BDD pathology, discrimination experiences, and involvement with the lesbian community. Significant group differences were found regarding drive for leanness and thinness, body checking, investment behavior, and body ideal (all p<.05). BIW showed significantly more body checking than HOW. Compared to HEW, HOW reported a significantly lower drive for leanness and thinness as well as compared to HEW and BIW less investment behavior. HOW preferred a body ideal with significantly more body fat than did HEW (all p<.05). In contrast, no differences emerged in body dissatisfaction, drive for muscularity, body-related avoidance, ED and BDD pathology, and body image disturbance (all p>.05). In all groups, discrimination experiences were positively related to ED and BDD pathology and to body image disturbance (all p < .05); however, discrimination was significantly correlated with more body image facets in HEW than in HOW or BIW. Involvement with the lesbian community was positively correlated with a larger ideal body size in HOW (p < .05) and negatively correlated with drive for muscularity in BIW (p < .05). Despite the group differences in several body image facets, we found no consistent evidence of increased vulnerability to body image disturbance or associated pathology depending on sexual orientation. However, in HEW, discrimination experience might pose a risk factor for the development of body image–related pathology and single facets of body image disturbance.
... Over several decades, evidence has accumulated in support of an association between sexual orientation and ED symptoms in adults, particularly in men, [43][44][45][46][47] and in adolescent males. [48][49][50] In examination of trends over time in eating pathology among adolescent sexual minority subgroups, although notably improved compared with sexual minority females, males continue to report higher prevalence of purging, using diet pills, and fasting to lose weight compared with their heterosexual counterparts. ...
Article
Eating disorders are serious psychiatric disorders, associated with significant psychiatric and medical consequences. Although traditionally considered a female disorder, more recent evidence has determined that EDs among males are not uncommon and are equally severe in symptom presentation. Among youth and adolescent males, certain factors increase the risk for ED, including muscularity-focused body image concerns and sexual orientation. Future study of these and other factors that may increase the risk for or maintain EDs among adolescent males is critical to improving screening, assessment, and precision treatment efforts.
... As many Nongians in the category of Phua-Page gain more interests from other Nongians, it reflects that the way in which most gay male Nongians express their gale male desire over Phua-Page's (sexualized) masculine bodies. According to Wood (2004), gay men, compared to lesbians and straight women, supported by a claim of Beren et al. (1996) and Silberstein et al. (1989), tend to focus more on their body image as a primary source of attraction and a central part of their personal and cultural life (46). However, on the contrary to Wood who portrays gay male people as powerless and non-agency subject to the homonormative masculine bodies, Nongians can be differently understood as their desire toward those (sexualized) masculine bodies of Phua-Page is, in fact, reflecting two contradictory ways of both subjugation to the "hegemonic masculinity", which is a concept demonstrating that not only women but also men suffer from normativity of masculinity in different levels (Connell 1987), on the one hand, and the agency of objectification of Phua-Page, on the other. ...
Conference Paper
Nongng" (literally meaning 'the younger'), a well-known Facebook page among over 223,842 likers, particularly Thai teenagers and young adults, is more and more fashionably mentioned and referred. What lie behind this page, however, are not just nonsense, vulgarity, or simply comicality as it is (re)presented. This study, therefore, aim to uncover what lie behind its representation of nonsense, a use of vulgar language, "Pasa-Tip", literally meaning 'divine language', primarily derived from "Pasa Skoy" (a sub-culturalized young women), which is an intentional Thai typo, and caricatures as well as clips videos with politically incorrect captions. I will reflect this page in three dimensions: firstly, collective identity, so-called "Satsana-Nongng" (Nongng's religion), shared among page members, so-called "Nongngians"; secondly, subaltern space, where those who are not included in the mainstream political platform and dominant culture come to share their voices; and thirdly, process of de-formalisation, contesting the academics of writing, framing, and representing. Taking this page into account would bring about understanding another space where Thai politics and debates over current issues have been silently (but piquantly) (re-)produced in a form of transgression between academics and nonsense. Once nonsense becomes sensible, while voices of the unheard can be heard, the missing piece of knowledge jigsaw can eventually be discovered.
... For example, it would be helpful to gain some insight into the role of selfidentified sexual orientation regarding (the relationship between) self-perception and sexual behaviors. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals may be more affected by these relationships between physical self-perception and sexual behaviors because of their greater investment in body image (e.g., see Beren, Hayden, Wilfley, & Grilo, 1996;Blashill et al., 2016). The development of a framework for identifying and understanding the salient dimensions of femininity/ masculinity ideologies (or sociocultural influences) on physical self-concept and sexual health for women and men is important. ...
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Sexual behavior is a normative part of the transition to adulthood, with an intensification of the exploration of the links between self-esteem, sexuality, and physical self-perception. This study examined the relationships between sexual risk–safety behaviors and overall physical self-concept, as well as its subdimensions such as sports ability, body fat, or physical appearance. In total, 652 sexually active undergraduate students completed self-report questionnaires about their physical self-concept and sexual behaviors. A clustering analysis described three patterns of sexual risk–safety behaviors for women and men: “birth control in a relationship,” “condom users,” and “risk-takers.” The male sexual risk-takers reported lower physical self-concept scores related to physical competence and masculinity subdomains (sports, endurance) than the two other groups. The female sexual risk-takers expressed significantly higher physical dissatisfaction in social and femininity subdomains (appearance, strength) than the others. A lack of perceived physical coordination was strongly associated with sexual risk-taking for both men and women. These findings indicate that specific subdomains of physical self-concept may be linked to safer or risky sexual behaviors in a sample of young adults.
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Objective: This study contributes to the quantitatively large, yet narrow in scope research on body image in gay men by assessing whether gay and heterosexual men systematically differ on various dimensions of body image disturbance and associated pathology, i.e., eating disorder and body dysmorphic disorder symptoms. Moreover, we examined the influence of general everyday discrimination experiences and involvement with the gay community on body image. Method: N = 216 men (n = 112 gay men, n = 104 heterosexual men) participated in an online survey measuring the discrepancy between self-rated current and ideal body fat/ muscularity; drive for leanness, muscularity, and thinness; body satisfaction; body-related avoidance and checking; appearance fixing; overall body image disturbance; eating disorder and body dysmorphic disorder pathology; general everyday discrimination experiences; and involvement with the gay community. Results: Gay men showed a greater discrepancy between self-rated current and ideal body fat; higher drive for thinness, body-related avoidance, appearance fixing, overall body image disturbance, eating disorder and body dysmorphic disorder pathology; and lower body appreciation than heterosexual men (all p ≤ .05). Contrary to expectation, everyday discrimination experiences were more strongly associated with body image disturbance and eating disorder/ body dysmorphic disorder pathology in heterosexual men than in gay men (all p ≤ .05). Gay community involvement was not associated with any body image disturbance-, ED-, or BDD aspect in gay men (all p ≥ .20). Discussion: The results suggest greater body image disturbance in gay men than in heterosexual men regarding cognitions, emotions, behaviors, and perception as well as higher eating disorder and body dysmorphic disorder pathology. The results also suggest the dilemma of a thin, yet muscular body ideal in gay men. Surprisingly, discrimination experiences and involvement with the gay community did not explain differences in body image disturbance. Gay men may have become resilient to discrimination over time, and body ideals might differ across gay sub-communities.
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Body image and body change behaviours, as well as risk and protective factors for body esteem, were documented by sexual orientation in young adults aged 18-25 years. Cross-sectional data from My World Survey 2 Post Second Level (MWS2-PSL) were used. The sample consisted of 1,975 heterosexual, 256 gay, 169 bisexual, 89 questioning men and 4,521 heterosexual, 167 lesbian, 781 bisexual, 356 questioning and 121 pansexual women. Body esteem, body dissatisfaction and body change behaviours were profiled across sexual orientation groups. Risk factors including sexual minority stress (e.g., discrimination) and protective factors (e.g., resilience) for body esteem were analysed across groups using Chi Square Tests of Independence and Analyses of Covariance. Multiple regressions identified relationships between body esteem, body change behaviours and risk and protective factors for each group. Heterosexual men exhibited higher body esteem and lower body dissatisfaction than sexual minority men. Bisexual women demonstrated the lowest body esteem, while pansexual women exhibited lower body satisfaction versus heterosexual, lesbian and questioning women. Muscle building and weight loss attempts did not differ among women, but weight loss attempts were elevated in gay and bisexual men. Comfort with sexuality, resilience and social support were positively associated with body esteem. Risk and protective factors for body esteem varied by sexual orientation, highlighting the importance of examining these constructs separately across sexual minority subgroups.
Article
Theories of eating pathology explain body image and disordered eating in diverse populations, including sexual minority (SM) individuals. Yet, previous efforts to extend theories of eating pathology to SM individuals have mostly focused on Western populations. The present study integrated the tripartite influence, minority stress, and social comparison models to explain variance in body image and disordered eating in Chinese SM men and women. Chinese self-identified SM adults (N = 1051; n = 519 men, n = 532 women) completed an online, cross-sectional study that assessed sociocultural influences (e.g., tripartite influence), minority stress, social comparisons, drive for muscularity, and disordered eating. Two integrated models were tested for men and women using structural equation modeling. Across both populations, sociocultural influences exerted the largest direct positive effects on body image and disordered eating. In men, only downward body image comparisons were uniquely related to outcomes. In women, higher upward body image comparisons were uniquely associated with higher drive for muscularity and higher downward body image comparisons were uniquely associated with higher thinness-oriented disordered eating. Minority stressors (e.g., sexual orientation concealment, internalized homophobia) were uniquely related to outcomes in men, not women. Findings extend existing theories of body image and disordered eating to Chinese SM populations.
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Objective: Sexual minoritized persons evidence higher prevalence of eating disorders than heterosexual persons, yet it is unclear which specific symptoms drive these disparities. Empirical evidence also documents the importance of considering subclinical eating disorder presentations, as well as potential differentiation in expression of eating disorder symptoms based on gender. The current study complements that of Kamody et al. (2020), who examined sexual orientation-based disparities in eating disorder diagnoses using a nationally representative sample of the US adult population. Method: Using the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III), we compared the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms across sexual minority status separately for men and women. Results: Sexual minoritized men were more likely than heterosexual men to report body mass index (BMI) < 18.5 kg/m2 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.76), thus, being screened into questions about restrictive eating. Sexual minoritized women were more likely than heterosexual women to endorse ever engaging in a binge-eating episode (OR = 2.25) and engaging in weekly binge eating for at least 3 months (OR = 1.58), thus, being screened into follow-up questions about binge eating. Sexual minoritized men were more likely than heterosexual men to fear gaining weight even when at their lowest weight (OR = 4.35) and experience a loss of control when overeating (OR = 3.13). Discussion: Sexual orientation-based disparities in eating disorder symptom endorsement were nuanced when stratifying the entire sample by gender. Findings expand previous research on disparities in clinical/diagnosed eating disorders, highlighting the importance of assessing symptomology beyond diagnosis, as well as the intersectional influence of sexual orientation and gender, in both research and practice.
Chapter
Job burnout has become a frequently faced problem which cannot be ignored for workers. It brings great damage to the physical and mental health of employees, which is generally caused by the individual’s inability to coordinate the balance of physical, psychological and emotional resources with job demands and pressure. The body is an important carrier of human beings. When the body is not in good condition, it will also have a significant impact on the physical and mental health of individuals and the working state of employees. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of employees’ body dissatisfaction on job burnout and the mediating role of self-efficacy. Specifically, through the theoretical perspective provided by the JD-R model, this paper uses cross-sectional design to collect demographic information, body satisfaction, self-efficacy and job burnout data of employees, and plans to use process mediation analysis to test hypotheses.
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Background: We examined links among face visibility on dating-profile pictures, self-perceived attractiveness, condom use self-efficacy, and unprotected receptive anal intercourse (URAI) in 223 young men who have sex with men (YMSM; ages 18-24 years) using online dating applications (e.g. Grindr). Methods: Participants reported their face visibility on their main dating-profile picture, attractiveness, condom use self-efficacy, and frequency of URAI in the past 3 months. Number of casual sex partners and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use were statistically controlled in all analyses. Results: Using a mediated moderation model, we found that a significant attractiveness-by-face-visibility interaction for URAI was fully mediated by condom use self-efficacy. Specifically, lower face visibility on profile pictures related to lower condom use self-efficacy, which in turn related to higher URAI, but only among highly attractive YMSM. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that attractive YMSM who show less-visible faces on their dating profiles could be at particularly high risk for sexually transmissible infections. This study has potentially important clinical implications because dating applications have become one of the most common ways for YMSM to find sexual partners.
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This study examined the relative influence of trait and state weight, shape, and eating concerns on dysregulated eating in the daily lives of sexual minority women with overweight and obesity. This study is a secondary analysis of data from an Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) study of 55 sexual minority women with overweight/obesity. Trait shape, weight, and eating concerns were assessed at baseline. For the following five days, participants used a smartphone to report state weight/shape concerns, overeating, and binge eating five times daily. Women who endorsed higher levels of trait weight, shape, and eating concerns at baseline reported more frequent state weight/shape concerns in daily life. Trait eating concerns were associated with higher odds of binge eating during EMA, but trait weight/shape concerns were unrelated to future dysregulated eating. In daily life, state weight/shape concerns was associated with greater risk for over/binge eating at the concurrent EMA prompt, the subsequent EMA prompt, and over the course of a full day, independent of trait concerns. State weight and shape concerns may play an important role in predicting dysregulated eating in daily life among sexual minority women of higher body weight.
Thesis
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Surprisingly little research exists examining body image in the overweight. The present study aimed to assess variation in body dissatisfaction in overweight and obese adults and to evaluate the contribution of childhood, family and attitudinal factors in the variation in body dissatisfaction. 128 obese (mean BMI = 37.2), and 37 overweight (mean BMI = 27.5) adults completed measures of: body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, weight locus of control, situational avoidance, teasing history, attitudes and beliefs about obesity, diet history, family weight history, and general demographics. Clinical participants were recruited from various centres including an obesity clinic, two dietetic departments and a general practice. A small normal weight community sample (n = 34) were also assessed. Body dissatisfaction in the obese was associated with being female, having low self-esteem, being overweight as children, being frequently teased about weight and shape during childhood, having an external locus of control for weight, and having an unsupportive partner. The findings are discussed with regard to Friedman and Brownell's (1995) suggestion for a new generation of studies in obesity designed to understand the variation in health and well-being within the obese population.
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This study explores the body image ideals among a racially/ethnically diverse sample of gay and bisexual men in the United States. Furthermore, it examines the role body image ideals play on mobile dating applications (“dating apps”) for gay and bisexual men. Guided by Objectification Theory and Minority Stress Theory, 30 semi-structured interviews were conducted with young gay and bisexual men (ages 18-30 years) in Massachusetts. Using thematic analysis, three central themes emerged: 1) the ideal male body: muscular, thin, and light-skin toned; 2) discrimination; 3) navigating deviations from the ideal body: appearance comparison, retaliation, and body regulation and weight control behaviors. Our results suggest the dominant ideal male body is muscular and thin. Racial/ethnic minority participants added this ideal is further characterized as white/light-skin toned. Further, participants reported a wide variety of discriminatory experiences on dating apps, especially men deviating from the dominant body ideal. Over half of the men in our sample who reported use of dating apps recounted at least one experience of racial/ethnic discrimination or body weight and shape discrimination on dating apps. While some dating apps have modified their policies to promote inclusivity, further research into the impact of dating app-mediated discrimination are warranted.
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Body image concerns typically affect women more so than men, but there is reason to believe that this pattern may depend on sexual orientation. The present study examined differences in levels of body satisfaction among men and women who identified as heterosexual, plurisexual (bisexual and pansexual), gay, and lesbian, using data from a large-scale national probability sample from New Zealand (N = 17,005). As expected, heterosexual men reported higher body satisfaction than heterosexual women. Gay and plurisexual men reported lower body satisfaction than heterosexual men. Gay men also reported lower body satisfaction than lesbian women, and did not differ significantly from heterosexual and plurisexual women. Ratings of heterosexual, plurisexual, and lesbian women’s body satisfaction did not differ significantly. Results held when adjusting for a range of demographic covariates (including age and BMI), and highlight the importance of examining the psychological and health outcomes associated with poor body image among gay men. These findings emphasize the relevance of sexual orientation in understanding men’s body image-related issues.
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Body image disturbance is a core symptom of eating disorders (EDs) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). There is first evidence that females’ body image differs depending on sexual orientation, with heterosexual women (HEW) appearing to show more body image disturbance symptoms than homosexual women (HOW). Such disparities might be moderated by everyday discrimination experiences and involvement with the lesbian community. However, to date, there has been no comprehensive assessment of a broad range of body image facets such as drive for thinness, leanness, and muscularity; body avoidance; body checking and body dissatisfaction; and ED and BDD pathology as well as moderating factors. Moreover, studies have often neglected bisexual women (BIW). A total of N = 617 women (n = 180 HOW, n = 322 HEW, n = 115 BIW) completed an online survey assessing the various facets of body image, ED and BDD pathology, discrimination experiences, and involvement with the lesbian community. Significant group differences were found regarding drive for leanness and thinness, body checking, investment behavior, and body ideal (all p.05). In all groups, discrimination experiences were positively related to ED and BDD pathology and to body image disturbance (all p < .05); however, discrimination was significantly correlated with more body image facets in HEW than in HOW or BIW. Involvement with the lesbian community was positively correlated with a larger ideal body size in HOW (p < .05) and negatively correlated with drive for muscularity in BIW (p < .05). Despite the group differences in several body image facets, we found no consistent evidence of increased vulnerability to body image disturbance or associated pathology depending on sexual orientation. However, in HEW, discrimination experience might pose a risk factor for the development of body image–related pathology and single facets of body image disturbance.
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Purpose: There is increasing research on positive body image, but no studies to date have examined these constructs in lesbian, bisexual, and queer (LBQ) women. However, LBQ women are at increased risk for mental health concerns and disordered eating, and there is evidence that body appreciation might be both adaptive and protective. This study examined factors that could uniquely relate to body appreciation in LBQ women. Method: Women identifying as LBQ (N=150) completed demographics and measures of social support, resilience, self-esteem, and body appreciation. We tested a hypothesized mediational model of social support leading indirectly to body appreciation through resilience and self-esteem, controlling for body mass index. Results: All direct effects, except social support to body appreciation (p=0.696), were significant (ps=0.017–0.001), reflecting a full multiple mediation. As hypothesized, the effect of social support on body appreciation was indirect (p=0.011), through resilience and self-esteem. Conclusion: This is the first study to investigate factors that might facilitate positive body image in LBQ women. Although preliminary, results suggest social support, resilience, and self-esteem might be important targets of body image interventions with LBQ women.
Article
Empirical evidence continues to show that like other historically marginalized groups, fat people experience discrimination in employment, education, the media, politics, interpersonal relationships, and especially health care. Yet, despite the fact that fatphobia in the United States has always been intimately connected to other systems of oppression like sexism, racism, and classism, those of us who identify as critical sociologists so often exclude it from our analyses. We fail to acknowledge that fat is a social justice issue, too. In this article, I argue that fatphobia is a system of oppression worthy of greater theoretical and empirical consideration in humanist sociology. I begin by providing a brief history of the ways fat has been pathologized and medicalized in the United States. I then discuss some of the ways fat is connected with gender, race, and class in particular. Finally, I offer some strategies for how critical sociologists can move forward, including suggestions for engaging in fat activism.
Chapter
Gender incongruence, gender dysphoria, and many eating and weight disorders share a troubling body uneasiness. Gender nonconformities were considered to be diseases, in particular, mental disorders, till the last decades of the twentieth century. In this chapter the new DSM-5 diagnostic category gender dysphoria is discussed together with some recent changes in terminology and medical classifications concerning gender identity and sexual orientation.The rates of psychiatric disorders are higher among transgender patients attending specialized services than in cisgender people, with higher levels of body dissatisfaction and suicidal risk. Psychiatric morbidity tends to improve after gender confirmation treatments, often but not always. Therefore, an expert multi-disciplinary team including mental health professionals should manage the assessment and intervention procedures before and after hormone and surgical treatments. The risk of disordered eating and weight control behaviors is increased among sexual minorities, maybe more among MtF (male-to-female) transgenders and homosexual men. Transgender persons may develop unhealthy eating behaviors to accentuate the physical features of their gender identity. Stigma and violence exposure are significant risk factors, while social support is a significant protective factor. The effects of medical and surgical treatments of gender incongruence on eating and weight-related disorders are mostly unknown.
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Researchers have found that a disproportionate percentage of men diagnosed with eating disorders identify as gay, and there is extensive evidence that gay men have significantly more body image concerns than heterosexual men (Bosley, 2011). The current studies investigated whether pluralistic ignorance exists about what is considered attractive in the gay community. It was hypothesized that gay males would privately reject the notion that only a mesomorphic (thin and muscular) body type is attractive, yet incorrectly assume that their peers are attracted primarily to a mesomorphic body type. The studies found evidence for the existence of pluralistic ignorance about what is considered attractive in the gay community. Further, there was evidence for a significant association between pluralistic ignorance and body image concerns, particularly among men who were not in committed romantic relationships.
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Improvement of nasal breathing is considered to be the major aspect of functional rhinoplasty (fRPL). Nevertheless, simultaneous aesthetic modifications can be required to achieve sufficient functional enhancement. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the influence of the subjective perception of the nasal appearance on the outcome of fRPL. Patients undergoing fRPL were asked to complete the German version of the Utrecht Questionnaire for Outcome Assessment in Aesthetic Rhinoplasty (D-OAR) preoperatively, 1, 3 and 12 months after surgery. The patients’ satisfaction with the procedure’s result was determined using a five-point Likert scale 1, 3 and 12 months after rhinoplasty. In total, 87 patients (42 males and 45 females) with a median age of 25 years undergoing fRPL were included in this study. Compared to males, females showed diminished VAS scores (4.03 ± 2.02 vs 2.71 ± 1.96, p = 0.006) and higher D-OAR scores during preoperative outpatient consultation (13.34 ± 5.00 vs 16.07 ± 5.62, p = 0.020). An increase in the VAS score and a decrease in the D-OAR score were observed independent of gender post-operatively. Significant correlations between the patients’ satisfaction and the D-OAR score at each time point of assessment were demonstrated, whereas no significant correlation between the post-operative patients’ satisfaction and the initial D-OAR score could be identified. These results demonstrate the importance of body image and the subjective perception of the nasal appearance in particular in patients undergoing fRPL which should be taken into consideration of surgeons preoperatively. Level of Evidence IV This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.
Article
Background: Compulsive exercise (CE) is a harmful form of exercise that elevates the risk of developing/sustaining clinical eating disorders. College-aged sorority women are especially prone to CE. Due to the pronounced impact social relationships have on college students' behavior, this study aims to examine personal networks and CE among a sample of sorority women through an egocentric network analysis. Methods: A total of 204 women in a sorority from a large, private university in the southeastern United States completed a cross-sectional survey in spring 2015. Descriptive and regression analyses were conducted on demographic, attribute, and ego network data. Results: Relationships with siblings, significant others, and roommates were protective against CE in this sample. Conversely, body dissatisfaction and exercise frequency predicted CE. Conclusions: Findings suggest that social relationships can impact CE behaviors in this sample. Along with promoting body satisfaction and healthy exercise, public health efforts should focus on facilitating close interpersonal relationships, especially between sorority women and siblings, significant others, and roommates.
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This study is the continuation of a broader eating disorder study with a focus on males, which examines the influence of body image, sociocultural attitudes, appearance anxiety, and depression on disordered eating behaviors among college students. Based on EAT-26 scores, 10.5% of males were at risk of an eating disorder. Body image dissatisfaction was almost as common among males (65.2%) as females (68.6%) and BMI was not a significant predictor of dissatisfaction. Among participants who reported dissatisfaction with their bodies, eating disorder risk was higher among females than males. While there were differences between men and women in general, at-risk men and women showed quite similar self-report ratings on most measures of the SATAQ scale. The main gender difference was that Social Appearance Anxiety and Depression were significant predictors of eating disorder risk among females, but not males. This study indicates that risk of an eating disorder is more prevalent among males than previously reported. The risk is significant for college students as a whole and it is important to have preventative measures before disordered eating behaviors turn into an eating disorder. © 2018, © 2018 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.
Article
The development and validation of a new measure, the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) is described. The EDI is a 64 item, self-report, multiscale measure designed for the assessment of psychological and behavioral traits common in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia. The EDI consists of eight subscales measuring: Drive for Thinness, Bilimia, Body Dissatisfaction, Ineffectiveness, Perfectionism, Interpersonal Distrust, Interoceptive Awareness and Maturity Fears. Reliability (internal consistency) is established for all subscales and several indices of validity are presented. First, AN patients (N=113) are differentiated from femal comparison (FC) subjects (N=577) using a cross-validation procedure. Secondly, patient self-report subscale scores agree with clinician ratings of subscale traits. Thirdly, clinically recovered AN patients score similarly to FCs on all subscales. Finally, convergent and discriminant validity are established for subscales. The EDI was also administered to groups of normal weight bulimic women, obese, and normal weight but formerly obese women, as well as a male comparison group. Group differences are reported and the potential utility of the EDI is discussed.
Article
This study examined the relationship between sexual orientation and eating disorders in women using a non-clinical sample of 45 homosexual and 64 heterosexual women. Subjects completed two self-report inventories composed of questions regarding weight, body image satisfaction, eating attitudes, and eating behaviors. Homosexual women were significantly heavier than heterosexual women, desired a significantly heavier ideal weight, were less often concerned with weight and appearance, and had less drive for thinness. Homosexual women of normal weight were more satisfied with their bodies than heterosexual women. Homosexual women's greater body satisfaction and lower concern with weight and appearance may contribute to their lower rates of eating disorders.
Article
Lesbian subcultures have been described to downplay the importance of physical attractiveness and to challenge culturally prescribed beauty ideals. Within this context, one might argue that lesbians should be more accepting of their bodies and less likely to engage in disordered eating, than would heterosexual women. The relationship between sexual orientation and body esteem has not been examined empirically yet. This study compared 30 lesbian undergraduates and 52 heterosexual undergraduates on measures of body esteem, self-esteem, and disordered eating. Few group differences were found. Lesbian students reported lower self-esteem, more ineffectiveness, more interpersonal distrust, and more difficulties in identifying their own emotions, than did heterosexual students. Body esteem was found to be related more closely with self-esteem in lesbians, than in heterosexual students. These group differences may reflect the lesbian experience more than disturbances associated with disordered eating.
Article
Recent research suggests that some of the wording of the original Self-Consciousness Scale is too abstract for easy understanding by research participants who are not college students. This article presents a revised version of that scale, along with information regarding its psychometric properties. In general, the psychometric properties of the revised scale compare quite favorably to those of the original scale. It is suggested that the revised Self-Consciousness Scale be used whenever data are collected from populations other than college students.
Article
In the present study, 32 homosexual males (HMM), 32 homosexual females (HMF), 32 heterosexual males (HTM), and 32 heterosexual females (HTF) completed measures of body image disturbance and concerns with weight and dieting from five different perspectives: self, and typical homosexual male, heterosexual male, heterosexual female, and homosexual female. Participants were primarily Caucasian. Results indicated that, in general, HMMs and HTFs showed greater actual concerns with appearance, weight, and dieting, and were perceived to possess greater body image disturbance and dieting concerns compared to HTMs and HMFs. Subjects also held various stereotypic misperceptions about certain target groups such that HTFs and HMMs were predicted to possess greater body image disturbance and be more concerned with weight and dieting than was actually true. In addition, subjects made accurate predictions about HTMs overall, but were inconsistent in their predictions of HMFs on these measures. Results are discussed in terms of possible variation in the degree of importance these attributes may have for members of these four populations and how such differences may lead to an increased risk for developing eating disorders among heterosexual females and homosexual males.
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There are few topics so fascinating both to the research investigator and the research subject as the self-image. It is distinctively characteristic of the human animal that he is able to stand outside himself and to describe, judge, and evaluate the person he is. He is at once the observer and the observed, the judge and the judged, the evaluator and the evaluated. Since the self is probably the most important thing in the world to him, the question of what he is like and how he feels about himself engrosses him deeply. This is especially true during the adolescent stage of development.
Article
This study investigated the hypothesis that gay men and heterosexual women are dissatisfied with their bodies and vulnerable to eating disorders because of a shared emphasis on physical attractiveness and thinness that is based on a desire to attract and please men. Although men place priority on physical attractiveness in evaluating potential partners, women place greater emphasis on other factors, such as personality, status, power, and income. Therefore, lesbians and heterosexual men are less concerned with their own physical attractiveness and, consequently, less dissatisfied with their bodies and less vulnerable to eating disorders. Several instruments measuring body satisfaction, the importance of physical attractiveness, and symptoms of eating disorders were administered to 250 college students. The sample included 53 lesbians, 59 gay men, 62 heterosexual women, and 63 heterosexual men. Multivariate and univariate analyses of variance were used to examine the differences among the scores of lesbians, gay men, heterosexual women, and heterosexual men on these various constructs. The results generally confirmed the research hypothesis. The implications and ramifications these findings have for the understanding of both the psychology of lesbians and gay men and the prevention and treatment of eating disorders are discussed.
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