France SC, Rosel PE, Agenbroad JE, Mullineaux LS, Kocher TD.. DNA sequence variation of mitochondrial large-subunit rRNA provides support for a two-subclass organization of the Anthozoa (Cnidaria). Mol Mar Biol Biotechnol 5: 15-28
We have sequenced a portion of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene from 29 species of Anthozoa, representing six orders of the subclasses Ceriantipatharia, Hexacorallia, and Octocorallia, with the focus on deep-seamount corals (> 500-m depth). We have detected significant length variation in the gene, with homologous gene fragments ranging from 545 bp in a shallow-water scleractinian coral to 911 bp in a deep-sea antipatharian black coral. The aligned sequences were divided into five regions: three high-identity sequence blocks (HSBs) and two highly variable blocks of insertions/deletions (INDELs). Most of the length variation among species occurred as varying numbers of nucleotides in the two INDELs. Little or no intraspecific sequence variation was detected over spatial scales of up to approximately 150 km. Interspecific sequence variation was lowest among the octocorals and greatest among the ceriantipatharians. Our data indicate that the orders Ceriantharia and Antipatharia are highly divergent, and a phylogenetic reconstruction provides support for the two-subclass system of the class Anthozoa (Hexacorallia and Octocorallia).
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"Blakeslee, unpublished). Mitochondrial DNA was extracted from the snail's foot using a standard CTAB method (France et al., 1996). For L. littorea, a 624-bp fragment of the cytochrome b gene was amplified using primers and protocols from Blakeslee et al. (2008). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AimFor over 80 years, the Maine baitworm trade has shipped live polychaete worms and packing algae ‘wormweed’ to distributors world-wide, while also consistently transferring a wide diversity and abundance of hitchhiking organisms of all life stages to numerous recipient communities. Here, we investigate this potent, yet underestimated, invasion vector using an important recipient region (the Mid-Atlantic) to examine the stepwise species transfer and survival along four stages of the vector.LocationMaine and Mid-Atlantic region (New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina), USA.Methods
We quantified taxonomic identities and abundances of organisms associated with packing algae at four stages along the vector pathway during summer 2011: (1) Maine source habitats; (2) bait boxes from Maine distributors; (3) bait boxes from distributors in five Mid-Atlantic States; and (4) bait bags from retailers in five Mid-Atlantic States. We also examined functional diversity based on significant physical and life history characteristics and assessed genetic diversity for two common hitchhiking snail species.ResultsWe identified 17,798 live macro-organisms across 58 taxa, including marine macro-invertebrates, macroalgae, vascular plants and semi-terrestrial or aquatic invertebrates, present in bait boxes and bags. In all measures of diversity and abundance, we observed decreases of live marine macro-invertebrates across sequential stages of the vector from source to recipient regions. Significant differences in community composition were also observed between stages and were driven by isopods (taxonomic diversity) and isopods, amphipods and some gastropods (functional diversity).Main conclusionsThe lack of management in the face of the sheer magnitude and diversity of organisms that are transported via the live marine bait trade underscores how this is an underappreciated vector that could be a considerable source of successful invasions globally.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Diversity and Distributions
"Although Reimer et al. (2004) and Sinniger et al. (2008) have shown that some species of the hexacorallian order Zoantharia can be distinguished by analyses of COI, generally for octocorals, COI sequences have low variability among species and genera, and this marker is considered more suitable for investigating higher-level (genus and higher) phylogenies. Msh1 is a mitochondrial region specific to octocorals and is considered to be a homolog of the prokaryote MutS gene (France et al., 1996; Berntson et al., 1999). Msh1 shows much more variability than COI, and is appropriate for more detailed phylogenetic investigations in many groups of octocorals (Sánchez et al., 2003b; Wirshing et al., 2005; McFadden et al., 2006b). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The primary problem hindering the study of octocorals is the disordered situation regarding their taxonomy, chiefly caused by insufficient knowledge of valid morphological taxonomic characters. Briareum is an octocoral genus found in the Atlantic and Pacific in shallow tropical and subtropical waters, and occurs in both encrusting and branching colony forms. Their simple morphology and morphological plasticity have hindered taxonomic understanding of this genus. In this study three morphologically distinct types (= type-1, -2, and -3) of Briareum from the Ryukyu Archipelago and their genetic diversity were examined. Colony, anthostele morphology, and sclerite length were examined for each type. Four molecular markers (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, mitochondrial mismatch repair gene, nuclear 18S ribosomal DNA, internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2)) were used to evaluate molecular phylogenetic status of these variations. Although one morphological type ("deep" small colonies, = type-3) showed small differences in nuclear ITS2 sequences compared to the other two types, the remaining types had identical sequences for all molecular markers examined. The results suggest extremely low genetic diversity despite highly variable morphology of Briareum species in Okinawa. Nevertheless, considering the distribution patterns and discontinuous morphology of type-3 compared to the other two morphotypes, genetic isolation of type-3 is plausible. In Briareum, small variances in nuclear ITS2 sequences of type-3 may have much more importance than in molecular phylogenies of other octocorals. Further phylogenetic investigations and comparison with Briareum specimens from other regions are necessary to conclusively taxonomically identify the three types.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE
"Total genomic DNA was isolated from tentacle or column tissue using the Qiagen DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit, or by standard CTAB extraction . Whole genomic DNA was amplified using published primers while applying standard PCR techniques . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sea anemones (order Actiniaria) are among the most diverse and successful members of the anthozoan subclass Hexacorallia, occupying benthic marine habitats across all depths and latitudes. Actiniaria comprises approximately 1,200 species of solitary and skeleton-less polyps and lacks any anatomical synapomorphy. Although monophyly is anticipated based on higher-level molecular phylogenies of Cnidaria, to date, monophyly has not been explicitly tested and at least some hypotheses on the diversification of Hexacorallia have suggested that actiniarians are para- or poly-phyletic. Published phylogenies have demonstrated the inadequacy of existing morphological-based classifications within Actiniaria. Superfamilial groups and most families and genera that have been rigorously studied are not monophyletic, indicating conflict with the current hierarchical classification. We test the monophyly of Actiniaria using two nuclear and three mitochondrial genes with multiple analytical methods. These analyses are the first to include representatives of all three currently-recognized suborders within Actiniaria. We do not recover Actiniaria as a monophyletic clade: the deep-sea anemone Boloceroides daphneae, previously included within the infraorder Boloceroidaria, is resolved outside of Actiniaria in several of the analyses. We erect a new genus and family for B. daphneae, and rank this taxon incerti ordinis. Based on our comprehensive phylogeny, we propose a new formal higher-level classification for Actiniaria composed of only two suborders, Anenthemonae and Enthemonae. Suborder Anenthemonae includes actiniarians with a unique arrangement of mesenteries (members of Edwardsiidae and former suborder Endocoelantheae). Suborder Enthemonae includes actiniarians with the typical arrangement of mesenteries for actiniarians (members of former suborders Protantheae, Ptychodacteae, and Nynantheae and subgroups therein). We also erect subgroups within these two newly-erected suborders. Although some relationships among these newly-defined groups are still ambiguous, morphological and molecular results are consistent enough to proceed with a new higher-level classification and to discuss the putative functional and evolutionary significance of several morphological attributes within Actiniaria.