The reliability of analysis of intraoperative frozen sections for identifying active infection during revision hip or knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg 78A:1553-1558

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York, N.Y. 10003, USA.
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (Impact Factor: 5.28). 11/1996; 78(10):1553-8.
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A prospective study was performed to determine the reliability of analysis of intraoperative frozen sections for the identification of infection during 175 consecutive revision total joint arthroplasties (142 hip and thirty-three knee). The mean interval between the primary and the revision arthroplasty was 7.3 years (range, three months to twenty-three years). To reduce selections bias, tissue was obtained for frozen sections during all revisions in patients who did not have active drainage from the wound or a sinus tract. Of the 175 patients, twenty-three had at least five polymorphonuclear leukocytes per high-power field on analysis of the frozen sections and were considered to have an infection. Of these twenty-three, five had five to nine polymorphonuclear leukocytes per high-power field and eighteen had at least ten polymorphonuclear leukocytes per high-power field. The frozen sections for the remaining 152 patients were considered negative. On the basis of cultures of specimens obtained at the time of the revision operation, nineteen of the 175 patients were considered to have an infection. Of the 152 patients who had negative frozen sections, three were considered to have an infection on the basis of the results of the final cultures. Of the twenty-three patients who had positive frozen sections, sixteen were considered to have an infection on the basis of the results of the final cultures; all sixteen had frozen sections that had demonstrated at least ten polymorphonuclear leukocytes per high-power field. The sensitivity and specificity of the frozen sections were similar regardless of whether an index of five or ten polymorphonuclear leukocytes per high-power field was used. Analysis of the frozen sections had a sensitivity of 84 per cent for both indices, whereas the specificity was 96 per cent when the index was five polymorphonuclear leukocytes and 99 per cent when it was ten polymorphonuclear leukocytes. However, the positive predictive value of the frozen sections increased significantly (p < 0.05), from 70 to 89 per cent, when the index increased from five to ten polymorphonuclear leukocytes per high-power field. The negative predictive value of the frozen sections was 98 per cent for both indices. The current study suggests that it is valuable to obtain tissue for intraoperative frozen sections during revision hip and knee arthroplasty. At least ten polymorphonuclear leukocytes per high-power field was predictive of infection, while five to nine polymorphonuclear leukocytes per high-power field was not necessarily consistent with infection. Less than five polymorphonuclear leukocytes per high-power field reliably indicated the absence of infection.

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Available from: Paul Dicesare, Jan 19, 2014
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    • "In this study, 232 out of 303 patients (77%) were diagnosed before the publication year of the MSIS criteria, and the proportion who met the MSIS criteria was higher in patients who were diagnosed after the MSIS criteria publication year than before (76% (54/71) versus 62% (143/232), p = 0.032) (data not presented in the Results section). It is conceivable that the perception of surgeons has been changed by the recent established diagnostic value of tests for diagnosing PJI such as synovial fluid analysis and histologic analysis [34] [35] [36] [37] [38]. Despite these limitations, this study is the largest series that considered the diagnosis and infecting organism of PJI following TKA in an Asian population; it is believed to provide valuable information on how orthopedic surgeons diagnose PJI in real clinical practice. "
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    ABSTRACT: The lack of standardized diagnostic criteria for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) poses a challenge to accurate diagnosis of PJI. Recently, the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) proposed diagnostic criteria for PJI. However, it is not known how well these proposed criteria accommodate real clinical scenarios. We determined what proportion of patients satisfied the MSIS criteria, and if MSIS criteria were not met, what other rationales were used to diagnose PJI. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 303 patients who underwent two-stage exchange arthroplasty for treatment of PJI of the knee at 17 institutions. The rationale for making the diagnosis of PJI was also recorded, if the case did not meet the MSIS criteria. In addition, detailed information about isolated microorganisms were gathered. Among the 303 patients, 198 met the diagnostic criteria proposed by MSIS. Among the 105 patients who did not meet the MSIS criteria, 88% met two or three minor criteria; however joint fluid analysis or histologic analysis was not performed in 85% of these 105 patients. The most common rationale for the diagnosis of PJI was the presence of abnormal physical findings. Microorganisms were identified in only 52% of all patients; the most common organism was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. The diagnosis of PJI was based on clinical suspicion in approximately one-third of cases. In this series, joint aspiration or histological analysis was not performed in a large number of patients. Thus, surgeons should perform joint fluid and histologic analysis to assure the accuracy of PJI diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · The Knee
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    • "Infiltration of neutrophils or existence of bacteria in sections under high-power (400Â magnification, field diameter 0.6 mm) was considered to be a definitive diagnosis of infection [24]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background context Rapid diagnosis and accurate detection of etiological agents in pyogenic spinal infection (PSI) patients are important. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus-specific polymerase chain reaction (MRS-PCR) and broad-range universal PCR (U-PCR) for diagnosing PSI. Study design A prospective diagnostic study. Patients Thirty-two clinically suspect PSI patients and six control patients who underwent computerized tomography–guided biopsy and/or surgical treatment were enrolled. Methods Tissue samples were examined by microbiological culture, histopathology, and real-time PCR (MRS-PCR and U-PCR). The diagnostic accuracy of real-time PCR was analyzed based on the definitive diagnosis of infection, defined as a positive result from microbiological culture or histopathology. Results All six control subjects were negative for PSI for all analyses. Twelve clinically suspect PSI subjects received definitive diagnoses (PSI group). The non-PSI group consisted of six control subjects plus the remaining 20 patients from the PSI clinically suspect group. MRS-PCR results were positive for all MRS-cultured PSI subjects. U-PCR was positive for all subjects in the PSI group with one discrepancy between real-time PCR and microbiological culture results in differentiation between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. In the non-PSI group, MRS-PCR and U-PCR were positive in three and seven cases, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of MRS-PCR for diagnosing MRS infection were 1.00, 0.91, 0.57, and 1.00, respectively; those for the diagnosis of bacterial infection with U-PCR were 1.00, 0.73, 0.63, and 1.00, respectively. Conclusion Identification of MRS infection and ability to differentiate between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria is rapidly achieved using MRS-PCR and U-PCR. Real-time PCR provides a sensitive molecular diagnosis of PSI and may contribute to antibiotic selection.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · The Spine Journal
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    • "Generally, a discrepancy between the findings from frozen and paraffin sections may occur due to differences in the quality of the sections. Several reports have indicated that analysis of frozen sections agrees with that of paraffin sections (Lonner et al. 1996, Stroh et al. 2012), whereas another report showed a lower concordance rate (Tohtz et al. 2010). Stroh et al. (2012) reported a high concordance rate of 97%, in which a mean of greater than 5 polymorphonuclear leukocytes per HPF was the criterion for positive diagnosis. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose There are several diagnostic tests for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). We evaluated the properties of preoperative serum C-reactive protein (CRP), real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and histopathological evaluation of frozen and permanent sections in clinical cases with culture-positive PJI. Patients and methods 63 joints involving 86 operations were analyzed using serum CRP measurement prior to operation and tissue samples were collected intraoperatively for real-time PCR and histopathology. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio of positive test results (PLR), and likelihood ratio of negative test results (NLR) for each test in relation to positive microbiological culture results as the gold standard. Results The sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis with serum CRP were 90% and 85%, respectively. The corresponding values for real-time PCR and histopathology of frozen and paraffin tissue sections were 90% and 45%, 71% and 89%, and 90% and 87%, respectively. Serum CRP had a PLR of 5.8 and an NLR of 0.12, and real-time PCR had a PLR of 1.6 and an NLR of 0.18. The corresponding figures for frozen tissue sections were 6.6 and 0.32, and those for paraffin sections were 7.1 and 0.11, respectively. Interpretation The results suggest that real-time PCR and histopathology of frozen sections is a good combination. The former is suitable for screening, with its high sensitivity and good NLR, while the latter is suitable for definitive diagnosis of infection, with its excellent specificity and good PLR.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Acta Orthopaedica
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