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Relationships Between Testosterone, Cortisol and Performance in Professional Cyclists

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Abstract

In the literature the use of plasma levels of cortisol and the testosterone and testosterone: cortisol ratio for training management is encouraged. Decreased levels of testosterone and increased levels of cortisol are suggested to be indicative for a disturbance in the anabolic-catabolic balance, which may express itself in decreased performance. The purpose of the study was to examine if the acute hormonal response to a bout of exercise and the resting levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and cortisol are correlated to performance in cyclists. In addition, the effect of training on this correlation was studied. Ten professional cyclists participated and measurements took place before and after a defined period of training. Maximum workload (Pmax), determined on a cycle-ergometer with a slowly increasing protocol, increased by 30 watt (p < 0.001). Workload at a lactate level of 4 mmol/l (P4) increased by 18 watt (p < 0.05). Post training, resting testosterone levels decreased from 28.8 +/- 74 nmol/l to 24.6 +/- 90 nmol/l (p < 0.05). Resting cortisol levels increased from 272 +/- 110 nmol/l pre training to 379 +/- 242 nmol/l post training (p < 0.05). These results indicate an increased catabolic state. The acute hormonal response and the resting levels of LH were not changed post training. The resting levels of testosterone and cortisol and the acute response to exercise showed no correlation with performance pre and post training. In spite of an increased catabolic state post training there was an increase in performance. These results suggest that in endurance trained cyclists, decreased testosterone levels, increased cortisol levels and a decreased testosterone: cortisol ratio does not automatically lead to a decrease in performance or a state of overtraining.

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... Low serum T values along with high serum C values have been considered counteractive for performance [13]. More recently, Hoogeveen and Zonderland [14], investigating professional cyclists, found that a decrease in basal serum T values in endurance athletes should not automatically be considered a reason for decreasing the intensity and the volume of training. However, we are not aware of studies investigating hormonal changes in elite riders during competition (Vuelta and Giro d'Italia) before 2000 [2,14,15]. ...
... More recently, Hoogeveen and Zonderland [14], investigating professional cyclists, found that a decrease in basal serum T values in endurance athletes should not automatically be considered a reason for decreasing the intensity and the volume of training. However, we are not aware of studies investigating hormonal changes in elite riders during competition (Vuelta and Giro d'Italia) before 2000 [2,14,15]. ...
... On the other hand, it has been argued that supplementation with anabolic steroids did not improve endurance performance [29,30]. The first authors who investigated the relationships between T and performance in professional cyclists were Hoogeveen and Zonderland [14]. They concluded that in endurance athletes, the presence of low serum T levels was not an indication to reduce the intensity and the volume of training. ...
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Cycling stage racing is a heavy and strenuous endurance event and it has been recognized that such exercise can affect the hormonal asset of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic–pituitary–testicular (HPT) axis. However, in cycling, literature on such changes is scarce and published data have been derived from small samples of athletes. The aims of study were to provide normative values for serum hormonal steroid values, changes in serum hormonal steroids and assess any relationships between a riders’ performance and their hormonal profile before and after the stage race. Male elite professional cyclists (n = 93) competing in the 2010 GiroBio 10-day stage race participated in this study. Blood chemistry measurements included cortisol (C), testosterone (T), free testosterone (fT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Data are expressed as mean ± SD. Serum concentration of C and fT were lower at the end of GiroBio [C (nmol L⁻¹): 559.34 ± 95.71 vs 469.59 ± 51.12; fT (pmol ml⁻¹): 63.91 ± 27.85 vs 37.51 ± 17.86]. These serum hormonal (mean values ± 2SD) values may be near the physiological ceiling for elite cyclists. There was inverse correlation among average final speed and pre-competition serum concentration of T (r = −0.265, p = 0.01); average final speed was negatively correlated with riders body mass pre and post the 10-day stage event. In conclusion, pre-GiroBio serum C levels could be a useful benchmark to preserve riders’ health and, moreover, our data confirm that the strenuous effort sustained by riders during a stage race induces appreciable changes in the hormonal profile. In addition, our data suggest that lower levels of T could represent favourable prerequisite to cope better in a cycling stage race.
... physical exertion alters serum concentration of several hormones and enzymes. Decreased levels of testosterone and increased levels of cortisol are suggested to be indicative for a disturbance in the anabolic-catabolic balance, which may induce performance impairment (Hoogeveen & Zonderland, 1996). Training volume is related to serum testosterone and cortisol (Purge et al., 2006). ...
... Endogenous hormones are essential for physiological reactions and adaptations during physical work and influence the recovery phase after exercise by modulating anabolic and catabolic processes. Decreased levels of testosterone and increased levels of cortisol are suggested to be indicative for a disturbance in the anabolic-catabolic balance (Hoogeveen & Zonderland, 1996) which can affect performance. ...
... After workout 2 (W2), cortisol values showed a more pronounced increase which is related to the greater physical intensity induced by the precedent training session. Our high values contrast with those measured by Hoogeveen and Zonderland (1996), after an intensified period of training with cyclists, who increased resting cortisol levels from 272±110 nmol/l to 379±242 nmol/l. These authors considered these values as an increased catabolic state. ...
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ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of two different soccer workouts on basal values of cortisol, testosterone and creatine kinase (CK) in professional soccer players one day after exertion. Twenty three professional soccer players (age: 25.2±3.1 years) realised two different workouts (W1 and W2). Twenty-two hours after the workouts blood samples were collected in fasting state from the antecubital vein for verifying changes of the selected biomarkers. Cortisol increased significantly from 278.8±19.8 nmol.l-1 (average basal values out-season) to 527.8±76.4 nmol.l-1 (p<0.001) and 747.7±121.1 nmol.l-1 (p<0.0001) after W1 and W2, respectively. Testosterone was not significantly (p>0.05) altered [19.8±7.2 nmol.l-1 (out-season); 24.4±5.6 nmol.l-1 after W1; 23.4±6.1 nmol.l-1 after W2]. Creatine Kinase (CK) increased significantly from 101.5±30.2 U/L (out-season) to 178.4±88.5 U/L (p<0.01) after W1 and 419.8±372.0 U/L (p<0.0001) after W2. It was concluded that W2 induced a more significant increase in CK and cortisol serum levels. These increases are probably due to the relative higher number of eccentric contractions in W2. Keywords:
... Five studies [10,28,30,35,36] performed both resting levels after an OTP and hormones responses to ME in NFOR/FOR induced athletes by OTP, one [19] performed both basal and stimulated hormones by ITT, and one [18] performed ME response after an OTP, but not basal levels; the seven studies that explored acute responses after an OTP means 33.3% of total of studies that performed OTP; the six studies that performed ME after an OTP represents Type of analysis: CC = Basal levels compared with healthy athletes; CHB = Resting hormone levels in FOR-induced athletes compared to previous basal levels of the same subjects when previously healthy; CRH = Acute hormone response to stimulation tests compared to acute response in healthy athletes; RRH = Resting hormone levels to OTP in athletes previously affected by OTS/NFOR/FOR compared to basal hormones in healthy athletes; CB = Acute hormone responses compared to basal levels in the same affected athletes 54.6% of total studies that employed ME, as the other studies did ME in previously affected athletes without any previous type of overload training. Figure 1 summarizes the types of athletes and tests performed in the selected studies. ...
... Cortisol and noradrenaline were decreased in the ETG in both induced FOR (n = 5) and non-FOR (n = 4), compared to control, which means that altered findings may not always differentiate OTS/NFOR/FOR, but indicate an excess of training. The proposed markers of OTS/ NFOR/FOR were also contested by Hoogeveen et al. [30], who showed that hormonal changes were the same between OTS and healthy athletes, concluding that all the alterations were related to physiological adaptions, not to reduced sports performance. ...
... Furthermore, despite of the systematic search for decreased total T and T/C ratio as markers of worsened performance, Hoogeveen et al. [30] showed that decreased total T, increased cortisol and decreased T/C ratio failed to predict reduction in performance. ...
Article
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Background Overtraining syndrome (OTS), functional (FOR) and non-functional overreaching (NFOR) are conditions diagnosed in athletes with decreased performance and fatigue, triggered by metabolic, immune, hormonal and other dysfunctions and resulted from an imbalance between training stress and proper recovery. Despite previous descriptions, there is a lack of a review that discloses all hormonal findings in OTS/FOR/NFOR. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate whether and which roles hormones play in OTS/FOR/NFOR. Methods A systematic search up to June 15th, 2017 was performed in the PUBMED, MEDLINE and Cochrane databases following PRISMA protocol, with the expressions: (1)overtraining, (2)overreaching, (3)overtrained, (4)overreached, or (5)underperformance, and (plus) (a)hormone, (b)hormonal, (c)endocrine, (d)adrenal, (e)cortisol, (f)GH, (g)ACTH, (h)testosterone, (i)IGF-1, (j)TSH, (k)T4, (l)T3, (m)LH, (n)FSH, (o)prolactin, (p) IGFBP-3 and related articles. Results A total of 38 studies were selected. Basal levels of hormones were mostly normal in athletes with OTS/FOR/NFOR compared with healthy athletes. Distinctly, stimulation tests, mainly performed in maximal exercise conditions, showed blunted GH and ACTH responses in OTS/FOR/NFOR athletes, whereas cortisol and plasma catecholamines showed conflicting findings and the other hormones responded normally. Conclusion Basal hormone levels are not good predictor but blunted ACTH and GH responses to stimulation tests may be good predictors of OTS/FOR/NFOR.
... Indeed, hormonal alterations found in athletes with FOR, NFOR and/or overtraining syndrome athletes may result from overload training, regardless of the resultant performance state. For example, Hoogeveen et al. [59] showed that hormonal changes were similar between athletes with overtraining syndrome and healthy athletes, while Uusitalo et al. [60] reported marked individual differences during both normal training and overload traininginduced changes in adrenaline, noradrenaline and cortisol. In cyclists and triathletes who were classified as being FOR, the concentrations of testosterone, cortisol, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, growth hormone, and insulin were comparable with those measured in a non-overreached state in the same athletes [61]. ...
... In cyclists and triathletes who were classified as being FOR, the concentrations of testosterone, cortisol, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, growth hormone, and insulin were comparable with those measured in a non-overreached state in the same athletes [61]. These studies [59][60][61] suggest that alterations in hormone levels may not always differentiate between training states, but rather represent the general responses to overload training. Furthermore, it should also be noted that changes in particular hormone levels are not necessarily detrimental (i.e. ...
... Furthermore, it should also be noted that changes in particular hormone levels are not necessarily detrimental (i.e. decreased testosterone:cortisol ratio) as Hoogeveen et al. [59] showed that decreased total testosterone and increased cortisol did not relate to the changes in incremental cycling performance in professional cyclists. It is clear that increases in training load should be matched with increased energy intake to compensate for the increased energy expenditure [62]. ...
Article
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There are variable responses to short-term periods of increased training load in endurance athletes, whereby some athletes improve without deleterious effects on performance, while others show diminished exercise performance for a period of days to months. The time course of the decrement in performance and subsequent restoration, or super compensation, has been used to distinguish between the different stages of the fitness–fatigue adaptive continuum termed functional overreaching (FOR), non-functional overreaching (NFOR) or overtraining syndrome. The short-term transient training-induced decrements in performance elicited by increases in training load (i.e. FOR) are thought be a sufficient and necessary component of a training program and are often deliberately induced in training to promote meaningful physiological adaptations and performance super-compensation. Despite the supposition that deliberately inducing FOR in athletes may be necessary to achieve performance super-compensation, FOR has been associated with various negative cardiovascular, hormonal and metabolic consequences. Furthermore, recent studies have demonstrated dampened training and performance adaptations in FOR athletes compared to non-overreached athletes who completed the same training program or the same relative increase in training load. However, this is not always the case and a number of studies have also demonstrated substantial performance super-compensation in athletes who were classified as being FOR. It is possible that there are a number of contextual factors that may influence the metabolic consequences associated with FOR and classifying this training-induced state of fatigue based purely on a decrement in performance may be an oversimplification. Here, the most recent research on FOR in endurance athletes will be critically evaluated to determine (1) if there is sufficient evidence to indicate that inducing a state of FOR is necessary and required to induce a performance super-compensation; (2) the metabolic consequences that are associated with FOR; (3) strategies that may prevent the negative consequences of overreaching.
... The external methods include performance tests like countermovement jumps [5] or submaximal performance tests [47]. The internal methods include markers such as hormone concentrations of testosterone [6] or testosterone/cortisol ratio [13] and heart rate or HRV measurements [19,45]. As a non-invasive method to evaluate the autonomic nervous system function, HRV is a potential tool to analyse the current recovery status during intensive training periods. ...
... It has been found that endurance athletes tend to have lower testosterone concentrations compared to controls [8]. However, adaptations observed after the endurance training period has varied from a decrease [13], an increase [6] to no change [43]. Training mode may affect on hormonal response, because a greater acute free testosterone response has been found after a high-intensity interval session compared to a lower intensity steady-state session [9]. ...
... Individual basal serum testosterone concentration as well as the testosterone/cortisol ratio correlated with changes in V max and 3000 m. Hoogeveen and Zonderland [13] found no correlation between the improvement of cycling performance and changes in testosterone or cortisol during a training period. However, Mäestu et al. [26] concluded that the first sign of decreased adaptivity in athletes is a decreased resting level of free testosterone and a lower maximal exercise-induced acute increase in free testosterone concentration. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to compare heart rate variability -guided (HRVG) and predetermined (PD) block periodization of high intensity aerobic training (HIT). Endurance performance, neuromuscular performance, heart rate variability (HRV) and serum hormone concentrations were measured before, in the middle and after the 8-week training period in 24 endurance trained males. Both groups improved significantly maximal treadmill velocity (Vmax) (p<0.001) and 3000 m running performance (HRVG; p<0.001 and PD; p=0.001). The relative changes in Vmax and countermovement jump were significantly greater in HRVG (p<0.05). Nocturnal heart rate decreased in both groups (p<0.01), but HRV (RMSSD, LF and TP) increased significantly only in HRVG (p<0.05). The significant increase in serum testosterone concentration was observed from mid to post in HRVG (p<0.05). Significant correlations were found between individual Vmax changes and absolute serum testosterone levels. Individual baseline level of HF correlated significantly with Vmax changes in PD. Block periodization of HIT seems to be an effective way to improve endurance and running performance in already endurance trained males. Based on training induced increases in endurance and neuromuscular performance combined with significant changes in HRV and serum testosterone levels observed in HRVG, individually HRV -guided block training may be more optimal compared to predetermined training.
... Some studies conducted on endurance athletes reported a training-induced decrease in resting T levels. This decrease can occur after just a few days, as a result of significant increases in both training intensity and training volume [10,11] or following long-term regular endurance training [12,13]. However, some studies have failed to support a decrease in T levels as a response to endurance training [6, [14][15][16]. ...
... Previous findings on resting C levels are also inconclusive. Several studies [13,16] have indicated that endurance training may increase C levels or not cause significant changes in values of this hormone [10,14,15,17]. ...
The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the "live high, train low" method (LH-TL) and intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) on testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) levels in cyclists. Thirty cyclists participated in the experiment. The LH-TL group (n = 10) was exposed to normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 = 16.3%) for 11-12 h a day and trained in normoxia for 3 weeks. In the IHT group (n = 10), participants followed the IHT routine three times a week for 3 weeks in normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 = 16.3%). The control group (N; n = 10) followed the same training protocol in normoxia. The LH-TL training was found to significantly increase (p < 0.05) T levels and the testosterone/cortisol (T/C) ratio during the experiment. The area under the curve (AUC) calculated for T levels over 4 weeks was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the LH-TL group, by 25.6%, compared to the N group. The results also indicated a significant correlation (r = 0.53; p < 0.05) between AUC for T levels over 4 weeks and ∆ values of hemoglobin (HGB) in the LH-TL group. Overall, the findings show that LH-TL training at a moderate simulated altitude contributes to an increase in T levels and T/C ratio in athletes, which is a beneficial change stimulating anabolic processes and erythropoiesis.
... As such, catecholamine levels have been examined in overtrained athletes with decreases ( 16,37,38 ) and increases ( 3,6,21,25,39 ) or no change ( 40 ) observed. Methodological problems (capillary vs. venous blood, half-life time, time of day, relationship to exercise, etc.) and intra-individual variability seem to cause this con fl ict in the results and leave the use of catecholamine levels, and quite possibly other hormone levels as well, problematic for the determination of the overtraining syndrome ( 8,38,41,42 ) . Similarly, as free catecholamine levels have been used as an indicator of overtraining, especially the sympathetic nervous system activity, plasma levels typically only re fl ect an acute level (e.g., response to exercise), while 24-h urine levels would give an indication of average activity for the day ( 4 ) ; thus the collection period greatly affects the results and their interpretation. ...
... As such, cortisol levels in relation to the overtraining syndrome have been shown to be both variable ( 54 ) and equivocal, with investigations showing no change ( 12, 15, 38, 44, 48-52, 55, 56 ) , increases ( 14,41,(46)(47)(48)57 ) , and decreases ( 14,42,54,58 ) in the values, and thus cortisol by itself seems to be a poor marker of overtraining ( 54 ) . ...
Chapter
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Athletes typically train to enhance performance and competition goals; however, too much training with insufficient recovery can result in the athlete becoming overtrained. When the overtraining syndrome occurs, decrements in performance are the most prominent symptom, but others include fatigue, changes in mood state, competitive incompetence, and changes in sleep patterns, just to name a few. As the endocrine system is very involved in physiological adaptations and recovery to stress, two hypothesized mechanisms by which endocrine function affects exercise performance and may lead to the overtraining syndrome have been proposed, the sympathetic/parasympathetic imbalance and neuroendocrine dysfunction. The sympathetic/parasympathetic imbalance hypothesis states that during the early stages of overtraining, the sympathetic system is activated, while in the later stages of overtraining, the sympathetic system is inhibited and the parasympathetic system predominates. In the neuroendocrine dysfunction hypothesis, a disruption occurs in the anabolic (i.e., testosterone) to catabolic (i.e., cortisol) balance which affects performance and prolongs recovery. However, due to the difficulty in studying overtrained athletes, neither of these hypotheses has been supported well by the literature. Since the primary symptom of overtraining is a decrement in performance, proper exercise training planning is important which includes sufficient recovery such that overtraining does not occur as few markers of its progression have been shown to be of value.
... Purge et al. (2006) concluded that the increase in resting testosterone concentration during a 24-week endurance training period represents a positive adaptation to the training load in elite rowers. However, it is well known that endurance training decreases resting testosterone concentration (Wheeler et al., 1991;Urhausen et al., 1995;Hoogeveen & Zonderland, 1996;Uusitalo et al., 1998). It has been documented that decreased resting testosterone concentration is related to energy deficiency (Strauss et al., 1985;Friedl et al., 2000). ...
... Thus, the present results do not support the utility of the baseline basal testosterone and cortisol concentrations as predictors of individual endurance training adaptation. Previously, decreased resting concentration of testosterone has been reported after heavy endurance training (Wheeler et al., 1991;Urhausen et al., 1995;Hoogeveen & Zonderland, 1996;Uusitalo et al., 1998). However, in the present study, serum concentrations of testosterone and cortisol remained statistically unaltered over the whole study. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate factors that can predict individual adaptation to high-volume or high-intensity endurance training. After the first 8-week preparation period, 37 recreational endurance runners were matched into the high-volume training group (HVT) and high-intensity training group (HIT). During the next 8-week training period, HVT increased their running training volume and HIT increased training intensity. Endurance performance characteristics, heart rate variability (HRV), and serum hormone concentrations were measured before and after the training periods. While HIT improved peak treadmill running speed (RSpeak ) 3.1 ± 2.8% (P < 0.001), no significant changes occurred in HVT (RSpeak : 0.5 ± 1.9%). However, large individual variation was found in the changes of RSpeak in both groups (HVT: -2.8 to 4.1%; HIT: 0-10.2%). A negative relationship was observed between baseline high-frequency power of HRV (HFPnight ) and the individual changes of RSpeak (r = -0.74, P = 0.006) in HVT and a positive relationship (r = 0.63, P = 0.039) in HIT. Individuals with lower HFP showed greater change of RSpeak in HVT, while individuals with higher HFP responded well in HIT. It is concluded that nocturnal HRV can be used to individualize endurance training in recreational runners. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... Silva et al. [77] observed a significant increase in the T/C ratio at the end of a soccer season, which revealed an elevated fatigue status at this time but without any correlation with performance. In other sports, both positive and negative relationships were found between these hormonal parameters and performance in cycling or rowing [116,117]. Moreover, data analyses differed from one report to another. ...
... This finding is supported by other studies. 5,31 Likewise, when trained and untrained subjects performing four hours of road bicycling at the highest possible level were compared, it was observed that FSH levels were higher in the trained subjects, suggestive of a compensatory hypogonadism as result of intensive chronic training or Sertoli cell dysfunction. 32 Hypogonadal states have been observed as a result of chronic ultra-endurance-training when running or cycling 10-20 or more hours per week. ...
Article
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Male athletes in general are subjected to the same causes of infertility as the general population, but sports practice itself may be possibly an additional infertility factor or, at least an aggravating factor for a previously existing fertility condition; on the contrary, being physically active has been hypothesized to favor hormonal and seminological processes and could be beneficial for fertility. In this relationship, the different inherent parameters of physical activity-exercise (training volume, intensity, objective, organization and frequency) are of paramount importance. Therefore, this review discusses both the negative and positive impact of physical exercise on the male reproductive potential. Clear knowledge is lacking on this topic as incongruences exist due to the fact that studies lack standardization in assessment tools or research protocols. So that future studies can reveal more information regarding exercising male fertility, we introduce a unique questionnaire developed with the intent to help standardize future studies on male fertility and exercise.
... However, exercise training not only increased lactate level but also induced glucocorticoid release, such as corticosterone (CORT, cortisol in human beings; CORT in rodents) (Sellers et al., 1988). The literatures have shown that inappropriate/ overtraining exercise training regarded as a stress which would decrease sperm concentration (Roberts et al., 1993), affect exercise performance (Hoogeveen and Zonderland, 1996;Handziski et al., 2006), and interfere hormone homeostasis (Roberts et al., 1993;Urhausen et al., 1995;Mastorakos et al., 2005), such as ratio of cortisol to testosterone. Dong et al. (2004) reported that mice placed in immobilization situation (IMO) increased glucocorticoid production rapidly, suppressed serum testosterone levels through nongenomic mechanism and decreased cytoplasmic cAMP in Leydig cells. ...
Article
The increasing intensity of exercise enhanced corticosterone and lactate production in both humans and rodents. Our previous studies also demonstrated that lactate could stimulate testosterone production in vivo and in vitro. However, the production of testosterone in response to combined corticosterone and lactate on Leydig cells, and underlying molecular mechanisms are remained unclear. This study investigated the changes in testosterone levels of Leydig cells upon exposure to lactate, corticosterone or combination of both, and revealed the detailed mechanisms. Leydig cells were isolated from rat testes, and treated with different concentrations of lactate (2.5∼20 mM), cortiosterone (10−9∼10−4 M) and lactate plus corticosterone. The production of testosteroen were assayed by radioimmunoassay, and the key molecular proteins, including luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), protein kinase A (PKA), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cholesterol P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) involved in testosterone production were performed by western blot. Results showed that testosterone levels were significantly increased with lactate, while decresed with corticosterone and lactate plus corticosterone treatment. Protein expressions of LHR and P450scc were upregulated with lactate treatment. However, PKA and P450scc were downregulated by lactate plus corticosterone treatment. This downregulation was followed by decreased testoterone levels in Leydig cells. Furthermore, acetylated cAMP, which activates testosterone production was increased with lactate, but not altered by conrtiosterone. Our findings conclude that corticosterone may interfere with lactate, and restrict lactate-stimulated testosterone production in Leydig cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... Bei langer Beobachtungsdauer sind invasive Tests für das Trainingsmonitoring weniger geeignet. Das mit biochemischen Methoden gesteuerte Training gewinnt tendenziell dennoch an Bedeutung [7,8], selbst wenn die biochemischen Kriterien zur Diagnose des Overreachings bis jetzt meist nicht bestätigt werden konnten [9,10]. ...
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The main objective of this non-experimental prospective study was to evaluate the joint use of mood scores, an orthostatic heart rate test, and the description of training characteristics for an early detection of overreaching (OR) in elite endurance athletes. We followed up 11 high performance, non-professional endurance athletes (23.6 ± 4.4 a) - orienteers (5 ♂, 2 ♀, triathletes (3 ♂) and a duathlete (♀) - during 35.9 ± 5.4 weeks without interfering with their training schedule. A broad assessment was used, including training volume, the relation of planned to completed training (ΔTr), resting heart rate (RHR), difference between resting heart rate supine and standing (orthostatic test; ΔHR), the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and the Recovery-Stress-Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ-Sport). Main outcome measures were: a) incidence of OR and OTS and b) incidence of an unplanned reduction in training volume of at least 20% (ΔTr ≤ 0.8). Treadmill tests were performed at least bimonthly, two to six times per athlete for performance assessment and diagnosis of OR. During 395 person-weeks of follow-up, we found no athlete with symptoms and signs of OTS. One athlete suffered from one episode of OR, documented by impaired results in the performance test. In this case, training volume before OR was average, but out of training time was full of duties. RHR was within the personal range. A rise in ΔHR of about eight bpm (from 23 to 31) three weeks before OR was followed by a steep drop of about 17 bpm (from 31 to 14 bpm) the following two weeks. Values of ΔHR returned to normal variation three weeks thereafter. EBF and POMS-scores showed no consistent pattern before the episode of OR. Ten athletes progressed to 49 unplanned reductions of their training volume for 20% or more (between 1 and 10 times per 41 athlete), mainly because of infectious diseases (43%), injuries (20%), and fatigue (18%). On average, three more weeks of reduced training followed the reduction because of fatigue. In search of predictors of fatigue, neither EBF nor POMS were generally predictive, but both scores increased in the following weeks with reduced training. RHR and ΔHR showed no consistent correlation with fatigue induced training reduction. Using an individual approach, it was nevertheless possible to identify «individually correct» associations between one or more specific predictors and a defined outcome. In summary, in one case ot UK, our predictors were related to the condition, but did not precede it in an unequivocal way. The parameters under study were rather general signs of an unbalanced state of stress and recovery than real warning sings of the outcomes. Our results suggest that even by a combination of presumed «predictors of overtraining» it is not possible to detect impending overreaching in a general way. However, using a strictly individualized approach, every single parameter under study might be a predictor of fatigue, when compared to an individual reference value, a so-called «personal baseline». The most promising road to monitor the training regimen of a given athlete, and to detect early signs of OR, might be an even more systematic search for individual patterns of behaviour and variations regarding the presumed predictive parameters of OR and OTS.
... A temporary dissociation at this phase is consistent with evidence that other biological processes relate in divergent ways to cortisol and DHEAs during stressor exposure. For example, DHEAs is positively associated with testosterone during acute stress response (56), whereas cortisol and testosterone responses may be unrelated or negatively associated (57,58). Positive associations with testosterone further underscore that DHEAs may be implicated in resiliency-oriented biological reactivity processes, as increased testosterone in response to acute stress has also been linked to sustained competitiveness and dominance (59). ...
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Objectives: Understanding individual differences in the psychobiology of the stress response is critical to grasping how psychosocial factors contribute to racial and ethnic health disparities. However, the ways in which environmentally sensitive biological systems coordinate in response to acute stress is not well understood. We used a social-evaluative stress task to investigate coordination among the autonomic nervous system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and immune/inflammatory system in a community sample of 85 healthy African American men and women. Methods: Six saliva samples, 2 at each of baseline, event, and recovery phases of the stressor task, were assayed for cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, salivary alpha-amylase, and salivary C-reactive protein. Individual differences in perceived discrimination and racial identity were also measured. Results: Factor analysis demonstrated that stress systems were largely dissociated before stressor exposure but became aligned during event and recovery phases into functional biological stress responses (factor loadings ≥ .58). Coordinated responses were related to interactions of perceived discrimination and racial identity: when racial identity was strong, highly perceived discrimination was associated with low hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity at baseline (B's = .68-.72, p < .001), low stress mobilization during the task (B's = .46-.62, p < .049), and a robust inflammatory response (salivary C-reactive protein) during recovery (B's = .72-.94, p < .002). Conclusion: Culturally relevant social perceptions may be linked to a specific pattern of changing alignment in biological components of the stress response. Better understanding these links may significantly advance understanding of stress-related illnesses and disparities.
... Fernandez-Garcia and colleagues highlighted that those cyclists who came into competition with the greatest volume had testosterone levels lower than those of other cyclists. Other authors have suggested decreased TT as a result of training [29,75]. Moreover, when comparing trained and untrained subjects who were subjected to 4 h of road bicycling at a performance level as high as possible, it was observed that FSH levels were higher in the trained subjects. ...
Chapter
Physical activity has become a widespread lifestyle among the most developed societies because of the many benefits it provides. Its practice is considered as a symbol of health and quality of life. Nevertheless, such premises do not reflect the reality of a beneficial activity for humans. Athletes are subjected to the same causes of infertility as men in the general population. Yet, in this very specific population, sports practice itself becomes a possible cause of infertility. The type of physical activity and different inherent parameters (e.g., volume, intensity, objective, organization, and frequency) are important variables in this equation. On occasion, endurance athletes such as runners and cyclists are more at risk to be affected because of the inherent parameters associated with this type of exercise and the metabolic pathways employed. Therefore, sports practice may have an important impact on male fertility. On the other hand, physical activity and sports practice have been shown to enhance semen quality when compared to sedentary subjects. It all depends on the type of activity, the way it is performed, and the desired objective sought with this activity. Therefore, this chapter will discuss both the negative and positive impact of physical exercise on the male reproductive potential.
... As insulin-induced hypoglycemia acts by altering the secretion of hypothalamic factors which stimulate the release of hormones from the anterior pituitary, this study provided evidence for hypothalamic dysfunction in overtrained athletes, as indicated by an impaired hormonal response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia, which was reversible after adequate rest from training. Since this study there have been numerous proposals put forward [62][63][64][65] as to which hormonal measurements might indicate OR or OTS. But the results of the research devoted to this subject are far from unanimous, mostly because of the difference in measuring methods, and/or detection limits of the analytical equipment used 62 . ...
Article
Objective: To assess and discuss the effects of exercise training on hormonal concentrations. Data sources: Papers were identified through MEDLINE (keywords: hormones and exercise, overreaching, overtraining). Study section and data extraction: The selected papers examined were from established sports sciences/endocrine/physiology journals, and specifically related to hormones and exercise. Conclusions: Optimal hormonal assessment requires that the physiological, technical and analytical variables that can influence the measured hormonal values are understood by those performing the interpretation of hormonal values. Knowledge of these factors will allow a better hormonal follow-up of athletes, and a higher efficiency in detecting and preventing abnormal fatigue and the overtraining syndrome (OTS), as well as preventing hormonal doping.
... Les données de la littérature à ce sujet divergent selon les auteurs. Plusieurs études ont montré que lors de périodes d'entraînement intensif, les valeurs de repos de testostérone sont plus basses qu'avant la période d'entraînement (Costill et al. 1991 ;Vervoorn et al. 1991 ;Steinacker et al. 1993 ;De Sousa et al. 1994 ;Flynn et al. 1994 ;Hoogeveen et Zonderland, 1996 ;Calbet et al. 1999 ;Filaire et al. 2001). 1988 ;Seidman et al. 1990 ;Nicklas et al. 1995 ;Mackinnon et al. 1997). ...
Article
Football is the most popular sport in the world, especially among children and adolescents. Optimizing the physical potential of young soccer players is one of the main objectives of academies and training centers. In fact, the elite young players must be ready to perform and support high training loads observed at high level. Monitoring the anthropometric development, physical and physiological adaptations and endocrine responses may help to better understand the effects of intensive training in young elite soccer and thus help to guide the development process. Consequently, in this thesis four studies were conducted to answer this problematic. In the first one, we studied the Physical and anthropometric profile according playing position in young elite soccer players (a longitudinal study).In the second, we analyzed the Effects of a soccer season on anthropometric characteristics and physical fitness in elite young soccer players.To avoid the classical methodological bias related to puberty and maturation, we also performed the same measurements in a group of adolescents of the same biological age. In the last two studies we analyzed the effects of two seasons of high-level training on hormonal responses of the somatotropic axis (GH, IGF-I, IGFBP3) (Study 3) and cortical-gonadotropic axis (cortisol, testosterone, SHBG) (Study 4) in elite adolescents soccer players in relation to training load and to physical fitness in young elite soccer players and control subjects of the same biological age.Our results showed a significant improvement in anthropometric characteristics, physical and physiological parameters throughout the follow-up in these elite young soccer players without distinction based on the position of the game. They also indicate a likely acceleration of pubertal maturation related to football practice at high level. We also demonstrated that the endocrine system and especially the hormones responses of somatotropic and cortical-gonadotropic axis do not seem to be affected by the training process performed in the Academy of the Tunisian elite. This training process seems to be even beneficial.This thesis shows that the analysis and monitoring longitudinal anthropometric characteristics, physical, physiological and endocrine responses of young footballers can be beneficial in practice. Our work has, at least in part, established a baseline profile of the young Tunisian elite player. This kind of monitoring can well ensure the physical integrity and health of young athletes by reducing the risk of injuries or overtraining
... teste, no momento do teste, e a cada 5 minutos de teste, até perfazer 15 minutos, com uma intensidade de 36% da potência máxima da perna. Adaptado de Kraemer et al. (1989) A secreção dos glucocorticoides tem um comportamento circadiano, sendo as taxas de secreção de cortisol, mais altas de manhã cedo e mais baixas à tarde e noite (Lac et al. 1997;Hoogeveen & Zonderland. 1996). Este efeito resulta de uma alteração cíclica de 24h nos sinais a partir do hipotálamo que condicionam a secreção do cortisol. Sendo assim, os valores dos níveis de cortisol sanguíneo, só são significativas quando expressos em termos do momento do ciclo em que foram adquiridos (Guyton & Hall, 1997). Os resultados obtidos por Houmard et ...
... The science about testosterone and athletic performance shows-despite decades of concerted effort-no association between endogenous (naturally present) testosterone and athletic success, in either men or in women. No evidence shows that endogenous testosterone accounts for the differences in men's and women's athletic success (e.g., Court of Arbitration for Sport [CAS], 2015;Filaire, Bernain, Sagnol, & Lac, 2001;Frx et al., 2000;Hloogeveen & Zonderland, 1996;Karkazis et al., 2012). Papers that claim otherwise have used opinion pieces or even Senate hearings rather than scientific evidence to buttress their claims (e.g., Wood & Stanton, 2012). ...
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Policy debates have focused on who can participate in or access single-sex activities or services. This article describes how science of the biology of sex is relevant to three major policy areas: parenting (including leaves), sports, and public spaces. We focus on what scientists know about sex and gender (and gender/sex, where gender and sex are intertwined), and the role of various biological factors, including hormones such as testosterone and estradiol as well as genetics, gonads, genitals, and more. The policies under debate often use “biological sex,” but this fails to account for scientific understandings of sex and gender, misrepresents sex as single-faceted and binary, and overlooks scientific consensus about the importance of gender and identity.
... As previously states, Trifluralin can increase serum cortisol level (10). Cortisol elevation induces negative effects on testosterone synthesis, steroidogenesis, and spermatogenesis, directly (16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21). According to recent studies, Trrifluralin leads to activation of a type of nuclear receptor in liver called PXR (Pregnane Xenobiotic Rceptor), which is a kind of steroid/xenobiotic sensor (22)(23)(24). ...
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Background: Trifluralin is a herbicide and used in agriculture widely. It enters plants through developing roots and stops plant cells from division and elongation (meristemic inhibitor). Extensive application of trifluralin to control annual grasses and broadleaf weeds in agriculture, horticulture and horn garden, leads to environmental pollution and its entrance into the food chain could have determined effects on human and other species. In this research the effects of trifluralin on reproductive parameters of the male rats including serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone levels, and changes in testicular tissue and body weight were investigated. Materials and Methods: For this purpose male rats were randomly divided in 5 groups, to include control, sham (received normal saline as a solvent), and three experimental groups which received 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg oral trifluralin respectively. After 16 days, body and testis weight were measured and blood samples were taken from heart and used for measurement of LH, FSH and testosterone levels. To evaluate histological changes, testes were removed and weighed and, after obtaining tissue section, stained by HE. Results: Serum testosterone, FSH, and LH levels showed significant decrease in experimental groups (p<0.05). There was significant decrease in the number of germinal and somatic cells in testis in experimental groups. There was also a significant decrease in body and testis weight in experimental groups. Conclusion: It can be concluded that oral administration of trifluralin could decrease gonadotropins and testosterone hormone levels and also this herbicide could have hazardous effects on testis tissue.
... It is also indicated that this hormone is able to prevent protein synthesis and increase muscle mass [8]. Thus, reducing the concentration of testosterone and increasing the concentration of cortisol reflects a disorder in the anabolic-catabolic balance [9]. On the other hand, in exercise physiology the ratio of testosterone to cortisol is used to assess the balance between anabolic and catabolic processes. ...
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Purpose Different types of physical activity can induce different hormonal and physiological responses. In this study, we examined the testosterone, cortisol, creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) response to acute intermittent (IE) and continuous (CE) aerobic exercise in sedentary men. Methods In this single-blinded randomised crossover study, eleven sedentary healthy males completed protocols (CE and IE) on two different days separated by a 1-week washout period. CE comprised 40 min of running on a treadmill at 60% of reserve heart rate. IE consisted of 40 min of running on a treadmill with intensity alternating between 50% (2 min) and 80% (1 min) of reserve heart rate. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after each exercise session. Results Serum testosterone concentrations increased significantly after IE (+8.0%, P = 0.021) and decreased non-significantly after CE (−5.8%, P = 0.409). The IE response was greater than the CE response (P = 0.01). Cortisol concentration decreased in both IE and CE exercise (P = 0.001 and P = 0.016, respectively), by −33.6 and −34.6%, respectively. The testosterone to cortisol ratio increased significantly after both forms of exercise (IE: P = 0.003; CE: P = 0.041). CK concentrations significantly increased from PRE to POST (IE: +20.6%, P = 0.001; CE: +26.5%, P = 0.046). Despite the increase in concentrations of LDH, the changes were not significant (F(3, 30) = 1.01, P = 0.402; IE: +11.4% and CE: +23.1%). Conclusions In summary, it seems that intermittent exercise can be more useful in the development of body anabolic processes in sedentary men due to pronounced increases in testosterone.
... Without sufficient recovery from periods of overload, "non-functional overreaching" (NFOR) can occur (requiring weeks/months for full recovery) with NFOR complicit in the more protracted overtraining syndrome (OTS; requiring several months or even years for full recovery). 2 Resting concentrations of cortisol and testosterone (both salivary and blood derived) [4][5][6] were suggested as markers of overreaching/NFOR/OTS, due to their ability to indicate the body´s catabolic/anabolic state, respectively. Yet their efficacy in these regards is inconclusive with increases, decreases and no changes in concentrations reported when comparing before to after intensified-training periods. ...
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Purpose: Progressively overloading the body to improve physical performance may lead to detrimental states of overreaching/ overtraining syndrome. Blunted cycling-induced cortisol and testosterone concentrations have been suggested to indicate overreaching after intensified training periods. However, a running-based protocol is yet to be developed or demonstrated as reproducible. This study developed two 30-min running protocols, (1) 50/70 (based on individualized physical capacity) and (2) RPETP (self-paced), and measured the reproducibility of plasma cortisol and testosterone responses. Methods: Thirteen recreationally active, healthy men completed each protocol (50/70 and RPETP) on 3 occasions. Venous blood was drawn preexercise, postexercise, and 30 min postexercise. Results: Cortisol was unaffected (both P > .05; 50/70, η2p = .090; RPETP, η2p = .252), while testosterone was elevated (both P < .05; 50/70, 35%, η2p = .714; RPETP, 42%, η2p = .892) with low intraindividual coefficients of variation (CVi) as mean (SD) (50/70, 7% [5%]; RPETP, 12% [9%]). Heart rate (50/70, effect size [ES] = 0.39; RPETP, ES=−0.03), speed (RPETP, ES=−0.09), and rating of perceived exertion (50/70 ES = −0.06) were unchanged across trials (all CVi < 5%, P < .05). RPETP showed greater physiological strain (P < .01). Conclusions: Both tests elicited reproducible physiological and testosterone responses, but RPETP induced greater testosterone changes (likely due to increased physiological strain) and could therefore be considered a more sensitive tool to potentially detect overtraining syndrome. Advantageously for the practitioner, RPETP does not require a priori exercise-intensity determination, unlike the 50/70, enhancing its integration into practice. Keywords: performance, training-load monitoring, stress, overreaching, prevention
... The present hormonal findings for testosterone are remarkably comparable in nature relative to similar male-based research. The published findings of Anderson et al. [14], Keizer et al. [15], and Hloogeveen et al. [16] all show alike steroid hormonal changes in men as we observed in our female subjects. That is, prolonged endurance exercise produces a biphasic response in testosterone in which, initially, there are increases from the exercise followed by reductions in recovery. ...
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Objective: To examine the response of testosterone in women to an intensive, prolonged endurance exercise bout that mimicked a competitive event. Methods: Ten healthy eumenorrheic women ran to exhaustion at ~100% of their ventilatory threshold in their follicular menstrual cycle phase. Testosterone measures were assessed pre-exercise, immediately, 30 min, 60 min, 90 min, and 24 h post-exercise. Results: At exhaustion (75.1 ± 7.0 min), total (56%), free (36%), and bioavailable testosterone (50%) were increased from pre-exercise values (p< 0.05). At 24 h post-exercise, these measures were decreased from pre-exercise values (-21%, -31%, -18%, respectively; p < 0.05). Effect sizes for these changes ranged from medium to large in magnitude. Conclusion: Testosterone was elevated in the early recovery period following exhaustive endurance exercise but was reduced by 24 h afterward. These outcomes are comparable to responses seen in men when sex-based concentration differences are considered.
... Regarding Testosterone the other dependent variable of this investigation, conflicting results have been reported. Some studies involving well trained cyclists reported that, endurance training often reduce serum Testosterone [82,83], while others have described an increase [84,85]. ...
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Background and Study Aim. The use of blood parameters in monitoring athletes is an essential but an unstandardized component of managing athletic preparation. This study aims to describe and evaluate typical measurements and responses observed while monitoring elite cyclist during a training camp. The reported observations might contribute in constituting a scientific support for other practitioners to employ. Material and Methods. 35 elite cyclists from the Algerian National team aged 16 – 23 years participated in this study. Peripheral fasting blood samples were collected in resting after 24 hrs of physical inactivity and outside competitions. Complete blood count (CBC) and hormonal index values (Cortisol, Testosterone, Probnp and TnT) were tested twice before and after the training camp. The statistical data were analysed by the SPSS software version 22.0. Results. The observed rates of change were significant (p
... In this regard, numerous studies carried out to address low-intensity training with BFR have shown that muscle hypertrophy occurs at low intensity of 20% of repetition maximum and a pressure of about 160 mm Hg. These training can be useful to athletes, patients in post-operative rehabilitation (especially with ACL injuries), rehabilitation of cardiac patients, and elderly (11). Also, recent research that sought to address the poten-Cell Mol Biol (Noisy le Grand) 2020 | Volume 66 | Issue 1 Saman sharifi et al. tial safety issues of these types of training concluded that training with BFR did not pose any risk beyond the traditional resistance training. ...
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The present study aimed to determine the effect of low-intensity training with blood flow restriction (BFR) on the response rate of anabolic hormones. Forty healthy and untrained young men, aged 18 to 25 years old, were randomly divided into five groups: one session of BFR training (BFR1), two sessions of BFR training (BFR2), one session of resistance training without BFR (WBFR1), two sessions of resistance training without BFR (WBFR2), and the control group (without training). BFR groups had three sets of 20 repetitions with 20-30% 1RM, and none-BFR groups had three sets of 10 repetitions with 70-80% 1RM for six weeks. Both BFR1 and WBFR1 groups trained 3day a week (1 session in a day and three sessions a week), BFR2 and WBFR2 groups trained three days a week (but two sessions a day and six sessions in a week) and Control group did not perform any training. The mean changes in growth hormone(GH), testosterone(TS), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) hormones were determined by ELISA technique before, after a first training session and after six weeks of the training program. To the analysis of data, two way repeated measures ANOVA at a significant level of P<0.05 also were used. The results showed a significant increase in GH levels in each of the four training groups as compared with the pre-test and the control group after a first training session and after six weeks of the training program (P<0.05). There was no significant increase in TS levels in each of the four training groups, as compared with the pre-test and the control group in both acute and chronic TS response (P>0.05). Only the WBFR1 group did not significantly increase in VEGF levels after the first training session (P>0.05). In chronic VEGF response, there were no significant changes observed in all training groups as compared with the control group(P>0.05). Despite the effectiveness of low-intensity BFR training, such as high-intensity resistance training on hormonal responses, two sessions per day training with the same volume does not necessarily result in larger responses in all hormones than one session per day training.
... However, the mechanisms for these changes remain unclear. One explanation could be interactive modifications of the HPA axis [145], dependent upon modifications of hormonal uptake by their target organs or even alterations in their catabolism [146,147]. Different results were reported by Celani and Grandi [114]. The authors examined the effects of a 3-month regular training program on the pituitary testicular axis in nonprofessional male soccer players. ...
Article
A constant topic reported in the lay press is the effect of sex hormones on athletic performance and their abuse by athletes in their effort to enhance their performance or to either boost or sidestep their hard, protracted, and demanding training regimens. However, an issue that it is almost never mentioned is that the athletic training itself affects the endogenous production of androgens and estrogens, while also being affected by them. Among sports, soccer is a particularly demanding activity, soccer players needing to possess high levels of endurance, strength, and both aerobic and anaerobic capacity, with the very great physiological, metabolic, physical, and psychological exertion required of the players being both influenced by sex steroids and, reciprocally, affecting sex steroid levels. This review focuses on the currently available knowledge regarding the complex relationship between athletic training and competition and sex steroid hormone adaptation to the demands of the exercise effort. In the first part of the review, we will examine the effects of endogenous testosterone, estrogen, and adrenal androgens on athletic performance both during training and in competition. In the second part, we will explore the reciprocal effects of exercise on the endogenous sex hormones while briefly discussing the recent data on anabolic androgenic steroid abuse.
... Neither leukocytes nor cytokines seem to be changed following alcohol consumption, which means that the inflammatory response is not modulated by alcohol consumption. Such is a controversial finding because as reported by different authors [35,36] alcohol abuse not only increases inflammation but also alters the immune function of the body. Probably healthy individuals, who regularly exercise, as those included in each study of this review, do not express altered inflammatory or immune function following a single acute alcohol intoxication. ...
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Background: The aim of this manuscript was to describe the effects of alcohol ingestion on recovery following resistance exercise. Methods: A literature search was performed using the following database: Web of Science, NLM Pubmed, and Scopus. Studies regarding alcohol consumption after resistance exercise evaluating recovery were considered for investigation. The main outcomes took into account biological, physical and cognitive measures. Multiple trained researchers independently screened eligible studies according to the eligibility criteria, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Results: A total of 12 studies were considered eligible and included in the quantitative synthesis: 10 included at least one measure of biological function, 10 included at least one measure of physical function and one included measures of cognitive function. Conclusions: Alcohol consumption following resistance exercise doesn't seem to be a modulating factor for creatine kinase, heart rate, lactate, blood glucose, estradiol, sexual hormone binding globulin, leukocytes and cytokines, C-reactive protein and calcium. Force, power, muscular endurance, soreness and rate of perceived exertion are also unmodified following alcohol consumption during recovery. Cortisol levels seemed to be increased while testosterone, plasma amino acids, and rates of muscle protein synthesis decreased.
... Este comportamento também foi verificado por Hoogeveen (1996) Powers & Howley, 2001) jogadores de futebol de salão após um jogo de duas partes de 30 minutos. Esse aumento continuava a verificar-se 24h depois da realização do exercício. ...
... West et al. [14] showed an acute increase in concentrations of testosterone and cortisol concentrations among twelve healthy young men (21.8 ± 1.2 yr), after several resistance exercise sessions. In contrast, others have reported significant adaptive responses in professional cyclists to a training program that also induced declining testosterone and increasing cortisol concentrations indicative of an increased catabolic state [15]. These discrepancies among studies may occur due to differences in the baseline training status of participants, as well as the training volume/ intensity performed. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare the hormonal responses to one session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 4×4 min intervals at 85–95% maximum heart rate [HRmax], interspersed with 4 min of recovery at 75–85% HRmax), resistance training (RT at 50-70% of one repetition maximum 12-15 repetitions per set with 60s of recovery) or both (HIIT+RT) exercise protocol in a cohort of physical inactivity, overweight adults (age 18–30 years old). Randomized, parallel-group clinical trial among fifty-one men (23.6±3.5 yr; 83.5±7.8 kg; 28.0±1.9 kg/m2), physical inactivity (i.e., <150 min of moderate-intensity exercise per week for greater than 6 months), with abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥ 90 cm) or body mass index ≥ 25 and ≤ 30 kg/m2 were randomized to the following 4 groups: high-intensity interval training (HIIT, n=14), resistance training (RT, n=12), combined high-intensity interval and resistance training (HIIT+RT, n=13), or non-exercising control (CON, n=12). Cortisol, total- and free-testosterone and total-testosterone/cortisol-ratio (T/C) assessments (all in serum) were determined before (pre) and 1-min post-exercise for each protocol session. Decreases in cortisol levels were −57.08 (95%CI, −75.58 to −38.58; P=0.001; ɳ2=0.61) and −37.65 (95%CI, −54.36 to −20.93; P=0.001; ɳ2=0.51) in the HIIT and control group, respectively. Increases in T/C ratio were 0.022 (95%CI, 0.012 to 0.031; P=0.001; ɳ2=0.49) and 0.015 (95%CI, 0.004 to 0.025; P=0.007; ɳ2=0.29) in the HIIT and control group, respectively. In per-protocol analyses revealed a significant change in cortisol levels [interaction effect F(7.777), ɳ2=0.33] and T/C ratio [interaction effect F(5.298), ɳ2=0.25] between groups over time. Additionally, we showed that in both the intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol analyses, HIIT+RT did not change serum cortisol, total or free testosterone. The present data indicate a HIIT reduced cortisol and increased total-testosterone/cortisol-ratio levels significantly in physically inactive adults. Further study is required to determine the biological importance of these changes in hormonal responses in overweight men.
... More recently, cortisol and testosterone dynamics following exhaustive endurance exercise have been described in endurance-trained males, suggesting that recovery from endurance exercise sessions at ventilatory threshold might require up to 72 h for free testosterone to return to baseline values [33]. Previous findings in high-altitude marathon runners [34] and professional cyclists [35] provide further confirmation with regards to the effects of different kinds of exercise on testosterone secretion and profile. ...
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It is universally accepted that lifestyle interventions are the first step towards a good overall, reproductive and sexual health. Cessation of unhealthy habits, such as tobacco, alcohol and drug use, poor nutrition and sedentary behavior, is suggested in order to preserve/improve fertility in humans. However, the possible risks of physical exercise per se or sports on male fertility are less known. Being“fit”does not only improve the sense of well-being,but also has beneficial effects on general health: in fact physical exercise is by all means a low-cost, high-efficacy method for preventing or treating several conditions, ranging from purely physical (diabetes and obesity) to psychological (depression and anxiety), highly influencing male reproduction. If male sexual and reproductive health could be positively affected by a proper physical activity, inadequate bouts of strength–both excessive intensity and duration of exercise training–are more likely to have detrimental effects. In addition, the illicit use of prohibited drugs (i.e. doping) has reached pandemic proportions, and their actions, unfortunately very often underestimated by both amateur and professional athletes, are known to disrupt at different levels and throughout various mechanisms the male hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, resulting in hypogonadism and infertility.
Article
Intensive sports practice seems to exert negative effects on semen parameters; in order to assess these effects, the objective of this study was to assess semen, including DNA fragmentation, and hormone parameters in elite triathletes. Twelve high-level triathletes preparing for a National Triathlon Championship participated in the study. The qualitative sperm parameters analysed were volume, sperm count, motility, morphology and DNA fragmentation; when needed, additional testing was performed. Assessed hormones were testosterone (T), cortisol (C) and testosterone-cortisol ratio (T/C). Maximum oxygen consumption and training characteristics were also assessed. Hormonal values and physical semen parameters were within normal ranges. DNA fragmentation showed high values (20.4 ± 6.1%). Round cells in semen were higher than normal (2.8 ± 1.5 million/ml), with the presence of macrophages. Correlations were found for several parameters: concentration of round cells positively correlated with progressive sperm motility (p = .01) and sperm morphology (p = .02); contrarily, the correlation found with DNA fragmentation was negative (p = .04). Sperm DNA fragmentation and the T/C ratio, however, were correlated in a positive manner (p = .03). As evidenced by the observed results, sperm DNA fragmentation is affected by high-level sports practice; therefore, high loads of endurance training could potentially interfere with the athlete's fertility potential.
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Acute exercise-induced changes in cortisol concentration (C) and training related adaptation within hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been widely examined, but their influence on muscle strength performance is at best uncertain. Twenty four young healthy men were randomly assigned to an endurance training group (ET, n=12) or to a non-exercising controls (CON, n=12). ET performed supervised endurance training on cycle ergometer for 20 weeks. Endurance training program improved exercise capacity (14% increase in power output generated at peak oxygen uptake - VO(2peak)), muscle strength performance (increase in MVC - maximal voluntary contraction - by 9% and in TTF 50% MVC - time to fatigue at 50% MVC - by 21%) and led to a decrease in basal serum C concentration (P=0.006) and an increase in basal testosterone to cortisol (T/C) and free testosterone to cortisol (fT/C) ratios (P=0.01 and P=0.02, respectively). It was found that the decrease in C concentration (deltaC) was positively correlated to the increase in local muscular performance (deltaTTF 50% MVC). No significant hormonal changes were seen in CON group. It is concluded that greater decrease in cortisol concentration after the endurance training is accompanied by poorer improvement in skeletal muscle performance in previously untrained subjects.
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Le football moderne est caractérisé par des efforts intermittents de très haute intensité. Pendant un match, les joueurs réalisent des performances, qu'elles soient physiques ou techniques, en lien direct avec la spécificité de leur poste de jeu, leur rôle tactique et leur positionnement sur le terrain. Un match de football de haut niveau induit des variations de fréquence cardiaque, une baisse de réserves énergétiques, une augmentation des dommages musculaires, du stress oxydatif et une affectation du statut immunitaire. Incidences physiologiques auxquelles se rajoutent des modifications de perception de la fatigue, des douleurs musculaires, du bien-être, de la qualité du sommeil, du stress psychologique et de l'humeur. Toutes ces incidences se mesurent, se quantifient et s'analysent en lien direct avec des facteurs contextuels comme le lieu du match, le moment de la journée, le système de jeu, …, et les périodes d'enchainement de match (e.g. deux à trois matchs par semaine) qui peuvent avoir une influence significative. La présente thèse a pour objectif principal l'étude de l'influence de l'enchainement de matchs sur les performances physiques et sur les cinétiques de récupération mesurées sur des marqueurs sanguins, salivaires et des questionnaires de perception, sur des joueurs de football de haut-niveau
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OBJECTIVES To review occupational health, laboratory, and sports literature on neuroendocrine reactivity and recovery from mental, combined mental and physical, or physical tasks. METHODS A systematic literature search was performed in eight databases. Studies with catecholamines or cortisol as effect variables measured in blood, urine, or saliva were included. RESULTS After application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 77 studies from the initial 559 identified were taken into account. In occupational settings it was found that relatively few studies were conclusive about recovery, which formed a contrast with sports research. For reactivity and recovery up to 1 hour after performing the task, half of the studies considered physical tasks and more than two thirds showed incomplete recovery compared with baseline excretion of catecholamines and cortisol. Recovery extending to 3 days after the task was performed was often incomplete for cortisol after combined mentally and physically demanding tasks, and less often after solely mental or physical tasks. This type of recovery was more often incomplete for adrenaline (epinephrine) than for noradrenaline (norepinephrine), which was the case after mental as well as combined mental and physical tasks. CONCLUSIONS The results from laboratory and sports research may be transferable to some occupations, but more research is needed on the course of recovery relative to health effects in occupational settings.
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Glucocorticoids are widely used as therapeutic substances, but sometimes diverted from their primary use by athletes. The ergogenic effect of short-term glucocorticoid administration was previously demonstrated in men subjects but its effect in women as well as the mechanisms involved remain unknown. In a first study, we investigated the effects of short-term prednisone intake (50 mg/j/7j) during a submaximal exercise until exhaustion in healthy recreationally-trained women. Under glucocorticoid, performance was significantly improved, with comparable hormonal and metabolic alterations vs placebo as in male subjects. It appears therefore that there is no "gender" effect, except an absence of glucocorticoid- induced insulin resistance in women. In a second study realized during a more prolonged exercise, prednisone intake induced vs. placebo, an increase in branched amino acids and in blood glucose concentrations at the end of exercise, which can be interpreted as an increase in gluconeogenesis. In a third study, we have highlighted that 1-week per os prednisone treatment only suppressed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in very transient manner, with a return of cortisol and DHEA concentrations to basal values 3 days after the end of treatment. Finally, in a preliminary study on animal model, thanks to the Neurobiology Laboratory, prednisone seemed to increase serotonin and its metabolite in resting sedentary mices.
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Background &Purpose:Exercise along with the desired effect on some physical systems may be associated with the disorder of other systems. Although endurance training is a "golden exercise" for general health, but based on the scientific studies,it can be associated with reproductive system disorders; the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of endurance swimming on the histomorphometric indices of testis in adult male Wistar rats.Methodology:For this purpose, rats(N=10)were randomly divided into control(C)(n=5)and endurance swimming(ES)(n=5)groups.The rats in the ES group were exposed to 45 minutes' endurance swimming three sessions a week for 6 weeks.Forty-five hours after the last swim session, rats were euthanized, research ethics considered. Their testes were placed in 10% buffered formalin solution and sent to the laboratory for histomorphometric evaluations.Data were analyzed using an independent t-test at α=0.05 using SPSS software version 24. Results: Tubular differentiation indices(TDI)(p=0.000), cumulative coefficient (RI)(p=0.000), spermiogenesis index(SI)(p=0.000)and number of Sertoli cells (p=0.02) of ES group were significantly less than C group , but differences in Leydig cell parameters (p=0.44), testicular capsule thickness (p=0.08), tube diameter Spermatogenesis (p=0.92),sperm tube-forming epithelium height (p=0.12), number of spermatogenic tubes(p=0.55)and inner tube lumen diameter Spermatogenesis (p =0.28) were not significant. The histological profile of the testis of the ES group showed severe spermatogenesis. Conclusion: In conclusion, Endurance swimming protocol of this study can provoke reproductive and infertility disorders, and given the role of endurance activity in public health,especially cardiovascular health, complementary strategies should be considered to prevent the occurrence of such complications.
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Obesity and overweight along with metabolic disorders associated with them is one of the very importance concerns in today’s world. The impact of high intensity interval training on obesity is intense attention recently, but a little research in this area. We aim to review the effects of high intensity interval training 12 week on lipid profile, testosterone to cortisol ratio, Maximal oxygen consumption and body composition in obese and overweight children. In this study twenty obese boys aged 9-12 years, were randomly divided into two groups, the high intensity interval training (HIIT, n=10) and the control (n=10) groups. Anthropometric measures, maximal aerobic speed, lipid profile, cortisol and testosterone levels in fasting mode were measured in all subjects, before and after doing period of high intensity interval training. Then, the intervention group participated in a training program at 100 to 110% of MAS/3 times/week for 12 weeks. Independent t-test and Paired t-test with a significance level (P≤0.05) was used to analysis data. Results showed that cholesterol levels, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, BMI, percentage body fat and waist-hips ratio in training group were significantly decreased, but testosterone to cortisol ratio, Maximal oxygen consumption and HDL-cholesterol were significantly increased. But, cholesterol levels, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol and anthropometric measures in control group were significantly increased. While HDL-cholesterol level were significantly increased. With regard to this topic that Prescribing practice the idea for utility loaders ideal for physical activity for obese people not well specified. Results this study, high intensity training as economic potential and efficiency training Protocol for obese and overweight and children and adolescents recommended.
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Chapter
Athletes typically train to enhance performance and achieve competition goals; however, too much exercise training with insufficient recovery can result in the athlete becoming overtrained. When the overtraining syndrome occurs, decrements in performance are the most prominent symptom, but others include fatigue, changes in mood state, competitive incompetence, and changes in sleep patterns, just to name a few. As the endocrine system is very involved in physiological adaptations and recovery to stress, it has received substantial attention in the overtraining literature. Ultimately, it appears that there is no single endocrine marker capable of identifying overtraining, and evidence to date suggests there probably never will be. Since the primary symptom of overtraining is a decrement in performance, regular monitoring is key to preventing its development through guiding the planning of training sessions to ensure sufficient recovery and consistent positive adaptations.
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Any sufficiently long stressor agent causes an alteration of the endocrine system (General Adaptation Syndrome). The purpose of this change is to respond efficiently to preserve the balance of the organism (mobilizing energy reserves and protein resources, adapting the immune response and / or altering neural responses). Some hormones play their main role during the recovery period: testosterone, thyroid hormones, growth hormone, insulin or Cortisol are fundamental in controlling the adaptive protein synthesis. The first publication about endocrine system and basketball dates back to 1976, even if the turning point in this type of studies came in 2000. The most thoroughly studied hormones are Testosterone and Cortisol, usually analyzed through blood sampling. The fact that there is no standardized measurement unit for each of these hormones makes difficult to reach to conclusions: the use of grams or moles causes differences in the results, mostly when indexes, ratios or quotients are being employed (i.e. Testosterone/Cortisol ratio). Similarly, the homogenization of the use of the free or total fraction of each hormone would help with the interpretation of separate investigations. On the other hand, it is necessary to differentiate the studies depending on the effect of the exercise that is being studied (acute, retarded or accumulated), given that knowing this effect will provide us with information on how the player is assimilating the training/competition period. Even though the endocrine indicators are an objective tool that provides with information on the player's condition, the great dispersion observed in the conclusions of the current bibliography -probably due to the variety of hormonal modulators (gender, age, racial origin, stress, nutrition, etc.)-, inclines us to think that, in order to reach a maximum level of understanding of the real condition of an athlete, a multifactorial analysis (hormonal indicators, swelling indicators, emotional state indicators, etc.) is suitable, as well as a continuous study of the relationship of these markers and the stimuli to which they are subjected, as a means to provide the most exhaustive information possible about them (hormonal modulators).
Thesis
Humans adapt differently to standardized endurance training programs. While some individuals may achieve huge improvements in physical fitness, other individuals may even suffer from negative adaptations. Special attention should be paid to identification of non-responders, which would enable to modify training to be more effective. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether running performance, cardiac autonomic regulation and neuromuscular performance can be used in 1) predicting subsequent endurance training adaptations; 2) monitoring training adaptations; and 3) individualizing training prescription in recreational endurance runners. Three longitudinal training studies were performed consisting of: 1) a 28-wk period with progressively increasing training volume and intensity (n = 28); 2) an 18-wk period including either a high volume of low-intensity (HVT) or high-intensity training (HIT) (n = 40); and 3) a 12-wk study with heart rate variability (HRV) guided training (n = 40). Nocturnal HRV was the strongest pretraining subject characteristic to predict training adaptation being negatively associated with the adaptation to HVT and positively to HIT. Thus, runners with lower HRV showed greater positive changes in endurance performance after HVT, while runners with higher HRV responded well to HIT. Running speeds of 80-90% of HRmax in a three-stage warm-up running protocol were the most competent variables to monitor changes in maximal endurance performance during the training period. In the final study, the HRV-guided group trained according to daily HRV measures. HIT was completed, if HRV was within a normal range. Otherwise, low-intensity training was performed. Endurance and neuromuscular performances improved in the HRV-guided group but not in the traditional predefined training group. The findings of the thesis suggest that resting HRV and the warm-up running protocol show great potential as practical tools for monitoring of adaptations and individualizing training by selecting the content of training and for prescribing the timing of HIT sessions.
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Introduction: Testosterone and cortisol, are known as anabolic and catabolic hormones, strongly affected by obesity, and are essential in the management and treatment of obesity. We aim to review the effect of high intensity interval training on testosterone levels, cortisol and T/C ratio in obese and overweight children. Materials and Methods: In this study twenty obese and overweight boys aged 9-12 years, were randomly divided into two groups, the high intensity interval training (HIIT, n=10) and the control (n=10) groups. An explanatory and instructive session was held, in order to familiarize subjects with the training protocol, measurement of maximal aerobic speed and their anthropometric indices. Forty-eight hours after the introductory session, untrained subjects of the intervention group undertook a session of acute high intensity interval training. The intervention group then participated in a training program at 100 to 110% of MAS/3 times per week for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of regular exercise, the subjects of the intervnention group were trained and another bout of high intensity interval training was conducted to assess the acute effects of exercise on the trained children. Cortisol and testosterone levels in fasting mode were measured in all subjects, before and after sessions of the acute high intensity interval training. The maximal aerobic speed of the subjects was measured using the 20 meter shuttle test. Results: In both training sessions, serum testosterone increased, in the HIIT group, but the increase was not significant in the first session, while it was in the second. In both sessions, cortisol increased significantly. In both acute sessions T/C ratio were significantly decreased. Conclusion: According to these results, high intensity interval training can be manipulated as a method for improving some indicators, related to health promotion in obese and overweight children, and it can be used as a safe, fun and entertaining way to draw their attention to the exercise.
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Background and Aims Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation has been investigated in patients with altered cortisol levels and is proposed to ameliorate the metabolic profile related to adipose tissue. However, further research is warranted and evidence is no compelling for liver safety. Hence, we aimed to meta-analyze the effects of DHEA supplementation on circulating levels of cortisol, liver enzymes, and adipokines. Methods We searched literature published in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Scopus, until December 2020. We obtained overall results using the generic inverse of variance method with a random-effects model. Results Through 10 arms, serum cortisol levels decreased significantly after DHEA supplementation [weighted mean difference (WMD): -53.581 nmol/L, 95% confidence interval (CI): -88.2, -18.9, p = 0.002], without significant heterogeneity (I² = 36%, p = 0.117). In contrast, any significance was noted for adiponectin (WMD: -0.045 ug/ml, 95% CI: -0.56, 0.47; p = 0.865), leptin (WMD: -2.55 ug/ml, 95% CI: -6.2, 1.06; p = 0.166), aspartate transaminase (AST) (WMD: -3.7 U/L, 95% CI: -10.35, 2.95; p = 0.276), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (WMD: -1.7 U/L, 95% CI: -3.45, 0.06; p = 0.058). Conclusion DHEA supplementation decreased circulating cortisol but did not alter adiponectin, leptin, AST, and ALT levels. Hence, DHEA supplementation could be considered as an adjunct in the management of hypercortisolemia and is safe for the liver.
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BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify the acute hormonal responses of salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations during and after two different resistance exercises involving the lower and the upper body, respectively. METHODS: For this reason, 13 healthy recreationally trained male athletes performed an identical strength protocol (5x10 reps, with ~75% of 1 RM) with the exercises bench press and back-squat in a cross-over design. Saliva samples were taken at baseline (t0), mid training (t1), immediately after (t2), 15 (t3) and 45 minutes after the training (t4). Samples were analyzed for T and C, and the T/C ratio was calculated. RESULTS: T concentrations increased significantly from t0 to t2, t3 and t4 and also at t3 and t4 for C in the back-squat protocol (P<0.05). There were no significant changes for T and C in the bench press protocol (P<0.05). The T/C ratio remained constant for the bench press protocol. The T/C ratio increased in the squat protocol at t2 and decreased at t3 and t4. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that back-squat exercise can change the hormonal state of the body after an intense resistance training workout, while an exercise with a lower amount of muscle mass (i.e. bench press) has almost no influence on T and C.
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The effect of 6-months' physical training on plasma testosterone, androstenedione and luteinizing hormone levels and the binding capacity of sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG capacity) were studied in thirty-nine army recruits. Highly significant increases in mean plasma testosterone (21%), androstenedione (25%) and LH (25%) were observed during the training period and were associated with a mean 16% increase in the estimated maximal oxygen uptake. The mean increases in hormone levels tended to be greater in the well conditioned group than in the poorly conditioned group. The mean ratio of testosterone to SHBG capacity increased by 32% (P less than 0.05), which may be in relationship with the various training-induced effects.
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Plasma cortisol and testosterone levels were examined in five, elite, male kayakers before and after 19-km and 42-km kayak races. Both races resulted in significant elevation in plasma cortisol and observed increase is likely to depend on race duration, being much more pronounced after 42-km race compared to 19-km. It should be stressed that observed elevation in cortisol level after 42-km race was higher than reported previously after a marathon run. This finding is in line with reports on hormonal changes in response to arms exercise. Both contests caused a decrease in plasma testosterone level, but the difference between races was not significant. Testosterone/cortisol ratio dropped significantly immediately after the races and the observed decrease was more dominant after the 42-km distance. On the next day, 18 h after the races plasma cortisol, testosterone levels and T/C ratio returned to basal level indicating recuperation from post exercise changes.
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Thirty-nine adult male guinea pigs, assigned to castratedsedentary, normal-sedentary, castrated-replacement-sedentary, castrated-trained, normal trained and castrated-replacement-trained treatment groups, were employed to assess the role of testosterone in exercise-induced glycogen supercompensation in skeletal muscle. Beginning on the seventh post-operative day, trained animals were run every other day for a total of ten trials, with trials one through five and trials six through ten being 30 and 40 min in duration, respectively. Forty-eight hours after the final exercise trial and 27 days after the onset of the experiment, the guinea pigs were killed and the vastus lateralis was rapidly removed for glycogen analysis. Normal-trained and castrated-replacement-trained treatment group glycogen means were significantly greater than those of castrated-trained and all sedentary treatment groups. The castrated-trained glycogen mean, which did not statistically differ from those of castrated-replacement-sedentary and normal-sedentary groups, was significantly greater than the glycogen mean of its sedentary counterpart. It was concluded that muscle glycogen levels are dependent on the chronic activity of the animal and this dependence is mediated in part through testosterone.
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Levator ani muscle glycogen levels fal rapidly after castration. Levels increase rapidly and considerably following the administration of testosterone, as a result of increased glycogen synthesis.This latter increase is a accompanied by increase in 2-deoxyglucose penetration and phosphorylation, and in xylose penetration.Testosterone also rapidly normalize the post-castration drop in Glc-6-P and Glc-1-P concentration levels.Investigation of enzyme activities involved in glycogen synthesis (hexokinase (EC 2.7.1.1.), phosphoglucomutase (EC 2.7.5.1.), UDPG pyrophosphorylae (EC 2.7.7.9) and Glc-6-P-dependent and -independent glycogen synthetase (EC 2.4.1.11)) revealed increased hexokinase and Glc-6-P-independent glycogen synthetase activity.Muscle glycogen synthesis response to testosterone occurs after an irreducible time lag of 6 h. The administration of actinomycin D and puromycin indicated that increased glycogen synthesis is dependent upon protein synthesis.Our data suggest that increased glycogen synthesis can be attributed to the greater penetration and more rapid phosphorylation of glucose, and also to increased Glc-6-P0independent glycogen-synthetase activity.
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The serum levels of FSH, LH, and testosterone were determined by radioimmunoassay in 63 men before, during, and after maximal and submaximal physical short- and long-term exercise (800-n running, climbing, 36-k cross-country skiing). In the 800-meter run, significant elevations of FSH, LH, and testosterone were observed, while in all other field and laboratory test (climbing, 36-km cross-country skiing, maximal stepwise bicycle and treadmill ergometry, 90-min submaximal bicycle ergometry) the hormone levels remained unchanged or were decreased. In contrast to FSH and LH, which did not show any clear modification with duration or intensity of exercise or with the state of training, changes of testosterone in the endurance field test (36-km cross-country skiing) seemed to be training dependent. In highly endurance-trained subjects, there was an increase and in less well-trained subjects a decrease of testosterone for equal distances and intensities of exercise.