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Effects of moderate-intensity endurance and high-intensity intermittent training on anaerobic capacity and VO(2max)


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This study consists of two training experiments using a mechanically braked cycle ergometer. First, the effect of 6 wk of moderate-intensity endurance training (intensity: 70% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), 60 min.d-1, 5 d.wk-1) on the anaerobic capacity (the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit) and VO2max was evaluated. After the training, the anaerobic capacity did not increase significantly (P > 0.10), while VO2max increased from 53 +/- 5 min-1 to 58 +/- 3 (P < 0.01) (mean +/- SD). Second, to quantify the effect of high-intensity intermittent training on energy release, seven subjects performed an intermittent training exercise 5 d.wk-1 for 6 wk. The exhaustive intermittent training consisted of seven to eight sets of 20-s exercise at an intensity of about 170% of VO2max with a 10-s rest between each bout. After the training period, VO2max increased by 7, while the anaerobic capacity increased by 28%. In conclusion, this study showed that moderate-intensity aerobic training that improves the maximal aerobic power does not change anaerobic capacity and that adequate high-intensity intermittent training may improve both anaerobic and aerobic energy supplying systems significantly, probably through imposing intensive stimuli on both systems.
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Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
Issue: Volume 28(10), October 1996, pp 1327-1330
Copyright: © Williams & Wilkins 1996. All Rights Reserved.
Publication Type: [Applied Sciences: Physical Fitness and Performance]
ISSN: 0195-9131
Accession: 00005768-199610000-00018
[Applied Sciences: Physical Fitness and Performance]
Effects of moderate-intensity endurance and high-intensity
intermittent training on anaerobic capacity and ·VO2max
Author Information
Department of Physiology and Biomechanics, National Institute of Fitness and Sports,
Shiromizu-cho 1, Kanoya City, Kagoshima Prefecture, 891-23 JAPAN
Submitted for publication November 1994.
Accepted for publication December 1995.
The training protocol used in experiment 2 was first introduced by Kouichi Irisawa, who
was a head coach of the Japanese National Speed Skating Team. The training has been used
by the major members of the Japanese Speed Skating Team for several years.
Present addresses: I. Tabata, Laboratory of Exercise Physiology, Division of Health
Promotion, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku City, Tokyo
162 Japan; Y. Hirai, Number 1 Fitness Club, 5-14-6 Shimo-Takaido, Suginami City, Tokyo 168
Japan; K. Nishimura, General Research and Development Section, Product Development
Department, Moon-Star Chemical Corporation, Kurume City, Fukuoka Prefecture, 830-91
Japan; F. Ogita, Swimming Performance Laboratory, National Institute of Fitness and Sport,
Shiromizu-cho 1, Kanoya City, Kagoshima Prefecture, 891-23 Japan; M. Miyachi, Department
of Health and Sports Sciences, Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare, 288 Matsushima,
Kurashiki City, Okayama Prefecture, 701-01 Japan; and K. Yamamoto, Nagoya YMCA, 2-5-29
Kamimaezu, Naka-ku, Nagoya City, Aichi Prefecture, 460 Japan.
Address for correspondence: I. Tabata, Ph.D., Laboratory of Exercise Physiology, Division
of Health Promotion, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shijuku City,
Tokyo 162, Japan.
This study consists of two training experiments using a mechanically braked cycle
ergometer. First, the effect of 6 wk of moderate-intensity endurance training
(intensity: 70% of maximal oxygen uptake (·VO2max), 60 min·d-1, 5 d·wk-1) on the
anaerobic capacity (the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit) and ·VO2max was
evaluated. After the training, the anaerobic capacity did not increase significantly(P >
0.10), while ·VO2max increased from 53 ± 5 ml·kg-1·min-1 to 58 ± 3 ml·kg-1·min-1 (P <
0.01) (mean± SD). Second, to quantify the effect of high-intensity intermittent
training on energy release, seven subjects performed an intermittent training exercise
5 d·wk-1 for 6 wk. The exhaustive intermittent training consisted of seven to eight
sets of 20-s exercise at an intensity of about 170% of ·VO2max with a 10-s rest between
each bout. After the training period, ·VO2max increased by 7 ml·kg-1·min-1, while the
anaerobic capacity increased by 28%. In conclusion, this study showed that moderate-
intensity aerobic training that improves the maximal aerobic power does not change
anaerobic capacity and that adequate high-intensity intermittent training may
improve both anaerobic and aerobic energy supplying systems significantly, probably
through imposing intensive stimuli on both systems.
During high-intensity exercise lasting more than a few seconds, adenosine
triphosphate (ATP) is resynthesized by both aerobic and anaerobic processes (7). The
ability to resynthesize ATP may limit performance in many sports. Thus, if possible,
the training of athletes for sports involving high-intensity exercise should improve the
athletes' ability to release energy both aerobically and anaerobically. The success of
different training regimens can and should be evaluated by the athletes' performance.
However, performance is influenced by other factors such as psychology. In addition,
an adequate training regimen may have several different components, all of which
may not improve the athletes' ability to resynthesize ATP. Training programs should
therefore be evaluated by other means, e.g., by laboratory experiments.
The aerobic energy releasing system is conventionally evaluated by maximal
oxygen uptake (·VO2max) (10), and there are many studies on the effect of training on
·VO2max(9). However, until recently methods for quantifying anaerobic energy release
have been inadequate and thus information on the effect of training on anaerobic
capacity, i.e., the maximum amount of energy available from anaerobic sources, is
incomplete. We have proposed that the accumulated oxygen deficit, first introduced
by Krogh and Lindhard in 1920 (4), is an accurate measure of the anaerobic energy
release during treadmill running (6) and bicycling (7). This principle may allow
examination of the anaerobic capacity (3), taken as the maximal accumulated oxygen
deficit during 2-3 min of exhaustive exercise (6,7). Therefore, the effect of specific
training on the anaerobic capacity may be evaluated by measuring the maximal
accumulated oxygen deficit before and after training. Generally, the more demanding
the training, the greater the fitness benefits. Therefore, we were interested in
learning whether the effects of training on anaerobic capacity are dependent on the
magnitude of anaerobic energy release developed by the specific training. To study
this issue, we compared two different training protocols: a moderate-intensity
endurance training that is not supposed to depend on anaerobic metabolism and a
high-intensity intermittent training that is supposed to recruit the anaerobic energy
releasing system almost maximally.
Subjects. Young male students majoring in physical education volunteered for
the study (Table 1). Most were physically active and were members of varsity table
tennis, baseball, basketball, football (soccer), and swimming teams. After receiving a
detailed explanation of the purposes, potential benefits, and risks associated with
participating in the study, each student gave his written consent.
TABLE 1. Characteristics of the subjects.
Protocol. All experiments, as well as pretests, were done on a mechanically
braked cycle ergometer (Monark, Stockholm, Sweden) at 90 rpm. Each test or high-
intensity intermittent training session was introduced by a 10-min warm-up at about
50% of ·VO2max.
Experiment 1. The subjects started training after their·VO2max and maximal
accumulated oxygen deficit were measured. They exercised 5 d·wk-1 for 6 wk at an
intensity that elicited 70% of each subject's ·VO2max. The pedaling rate was 70 rpm,
and the duration of the training was 60 min. As each subject's ·VO2max increased
during the training period, exercise intensity was increased from week to week as
required to elicit 70% of the actual ·VO2max. During the training, the maximal
accumulated oxygen deficit was measured before, at 4 wk, and after the training.
·VO2max was determined before and after the training and every week during the
training period.
Experiment 2. Subjects exercised for 5 d·wk-1 for 6 wk. For 4 d·wk-1, they
exercised using exhaustive intermittent training. They were encouraged by the
supervisor to complete seven to eight sets of the exercise. Exercise was terminated
when the pedaling frequency dropped below 85 rpm. When they could complete more
than nine sets of the exercise, exercise intensity was increased by 11 W. One day per
week the subjects exercised for 30 min at an intensity of 70% ·VO2max before carrying
out four sets of the intermittent exercise at 170%·VO2max. This latter session was not
exhaustive. The anaerobic capacity was determined before, at 2 wk, and 4 wk into
the training, and after the training. ·VO2max was determined before, at 3 wk, 5 wk,
and after the training.
Pretest. Each subject's oxygen uptake was measured during the last 2 min of six
to nine different 10-min exercise sets at constant power. The power used during each
set ranged between 39% and 87% of the·VO2max. In addition, the power that would
exhaust each subject in 2-3 min was established. These pretests were carried out on
3-5 separate days.
·VO2max. After a linear relationship between exercise intensity and the steady-
state oxygen uptake had been determined in the pretests, the oxygen uptake was
measured for the last two or three 30-s intervals during several bouts of supramaximal
intensity exercise that lasted 2-4 min. The highest ·VO2 was determined to be the
subject's·VO2max (7,10).
Anaerobic capacity. Anaerobic capacity, the maximal accumulated oxygen
deficit during a 2-3-min exhaustive bicycle exercise, was determined according to the
method of Medbø et al.(6,7). The exercise intensity used to cause exhaustion within
the desired duration (2-3 min) was established on pretests. On the day that anaerobic
capacity was measured, the subjects exercised at the preset power to exhaustin
(defined as when they were unable to keep the pedaling rate above 85 rpm).
Methods of analysis. Fractions of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the expired air
were measured by a mass spectrometer (MGA-1100, Perkin-Elmer Cetus, Norwalk CT).
The gas volume was measured by a gasometer (Shinagawa Seisakusho, Tokyo, Japan).
Values are shown as means ± SD. The data were compared using a paired t-test. The
significance level for all comparisons was set at P < 0.05.
Calculations. For each subject linear relationships between the oxygen demand
and power (experiment 1: r = 0.997 ± 0.001, experiment 2: r = 0.998 ± 0.001) were
established from the measured steady state oxygen uptake at different power during
the pretests. The regression parameters are shown in Table 2. The regression
parameters did not change during training periods in either experiment 1 or 2.
TABLE 2. Regression characteristics of the subjects.
The oxygen demands of the 2-3 min of exhausting exercise were estimated by
extrapolating these relationships to the power used during the experiment. The
accumulated oxygen demand was taken as the product of the estimated oxygen
demand and the duration of the exercise, while the accumulated oxygen uptake was
taken as the measured oxygen uptake integrated over the exercise duration. The
accumulated oxygen deficit was taken as the difference between these two entities.
Experiment 1. After the 6 wk of training, the anaerobic capacity did not
change (Fig. 1) (P > 0.10). The·VO2max increased significantly during the training (Fig.
2) (P < 0.01).
Figure 1-Effect of the endurance training (ET, experiment 1) and the intermittent
training (IT, experiment 2) on the anaerobic capacity. Significant increase from
the pretraining value at*P < 0.05 and **P< 0.01; significant increase from the 2-wk
value at#P < 0.05.
Figure 2-Effect of the endurance training (ET, experiment 1) and the intermittent
training (IT, experiment 2) on the maximal oxygen uptake; significant increase
from the pretraining value at*P < 0.05 and **P< 0.01, respectively.
Experiment 2. The anaerobic capacity increased by 23% after 4 wk of training
(P < 0.01, Fig. 1). It increased further toward the end of the training period. After the
training period, the anaerobic capacity reached 77 ± 9 ml·kg-1, 28% higher than the
pretraining capacity.
After 3 wk of training, the ·VO2max had increased significantly by 5 ± 3 ml·kg-
1·min-1 (P < 0.01, Fig. 2). It tended to increase in the last part of the training period,
but no significant changes were observed. The final·VO2max after 6 wk of training was
55 ± 6 ml·kg-1·min-1, a value of 7 ± 1 ml·kg-1·min-1 above the pretraining value.
The main finding of this study was that 6 wk of aerobic training at
70%·VO2max improved the ·VO2max by 5 ml·kg-1·min-1 in moderately trained young men
but that the anaerobic capacity, as judged by the maximal accumulated oxygen
deficit, did not change. The second finding is that 6 wk of training using high-intensity
intermittent exhaustive exercise improved ·VO2max by 7 ml·kg-1·min-1 and the
anaerobic capacity by 28%.
The observation in experiment 1 that anaerobic capacity did not change after 6
weeks of moderate-intensity endurance training but that·VO2max did increase has
several implications. First, it shows the specificity of training; aerobic training does
not change anaerobic capacity. Since lactate production accounts for about 75% of
maximal anaerobic energy release (11), significant improvements in anaerobic
capacity will probably require that the subjects can produce more lactate after
training. Consequently, lactate production should be stressed to increase the
anaerobic capacity during “anaerobic” training. However, since the blood lactate
concentration during the exercise was low (about 2 mmol·l-1), the major part of
anaerobic energy released during the exercise probably comes from the breakdown of
phosphocreatine (PCr). Therefore, the training sessions in experiment 1 probably did
not tax the lactate producing system much and therefore did not tax the whole
anaerobic energy releasing system to any significant extent. Actually, the
accumulated oxygen deficit during the first minutes of the exercise at 70%·VO2max was
only 37 ± 6% (N = 7) of the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (data not shown).
Second, the results of experiment 1 support the idea that the accumulated
oxygen deficit is a specific measure of the maximal anaerobic energy release. Due to
the increased ·VO2max after the training period, the subjects could exercise for more
than 6 min at the power used for the pretraining 2- to 3-min anaerobic capacity test.
Therefore, the exercise power for the posttraining anaerobic capacity test was
increased by 6 ± 3% to exhaust each subject in 2-3 min. However, the accumulated
oxygen deficit appeared unaffected by the higher power used at the posttraining test,
suggesting that this entity is able to distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic energy
release at different powers. The alternative interpretation, that there was a change
in the anaerobic capacity but that this change was obscured by a bias in the
accumulated oxygen deficit, cannot be ruled out, but the findings here suggest that
the latter interpretation is less likely.
The high-intensity intermittent training in experiment 2 improved anaerobic
capacity by 28%. Medbø and Burgers (5) reported that 6 wk of the intermittent
training (their group B) increased the anaerobic capacity of untrained men by 16%.
Since there are no clear differences in exercise intensity, exercise duration, and
number of exercise bouts between the two studies, this quantitative difference in
improving anaerobic capacity is probably explained by the difference between the
two studies in magnitude of the anaerobic energy release during each training session.
The peak blood lactate concentration after each training session in the previous
study (5) was 69% of the peak blood lactate concentration after the 2-min exhaustive
running. Therefore, anaerobic metabolism, and especially the lactate producing
system, was probably not taxed maximally. In contrast, the peak blood lactate
concentration after the intermittent training in this investigation was not significantly
different from the value observed after the anaerobic capacity test that recruited
anaerobic energy releasing systems maximally. In addition, our subjects exercised to
exhaustion, but in the previous study, the subjects' rating of perceived
exertion (1) was only 15 (“hard”). This difference may also reflect the recruited level
of anaerobic energy release. Therefore, these results support our hypothesis that the
higher the anaerobic energy release during each training session the higher the
increase in anaerobic capacity after a training period.
In addition to anaerobic capacity, the intermittent training
increased·VO2max significantly in experiment 2. This is to our knowledge the first study
to demonstrate an increase in both anaerobic capacity and maximal aerobic power. It
should be emphasized that during the last part of each training session the oxygen
uptake almost equaled each subject's maximal oxygen uptake (data not shown). High-
intensity intermittent training is a very potent means of increasing maximal oxygen
uptake (2). It is interesting to note that the increase in the maximal oxygen uptake
that we found is almost identical to that expected for intermittent training by
Fox (2). Consequently, the protocol used in training in experiment 2 may be optimal
with respect to improving both the aerobic and the anaerobic energy releasing
The intensive bicycle training may have affected the efficiency of cycling,
meaning that the relationship between power and ·VO2 may have changed. This
change may affect the measurement of anaerobic capacity because the accumulated
oxygen deficit is a calculated entity assuming a constant mechanical efficiency.
However, our subjects were sufficiently familiar with bicycle exercise through
repeated testing and experiments so that the relationship between the steady state
oxygen uptake and power did not change during the training periods. Therefore, the
pre- and posttraining data of the accumulated oxygen deficit should be comparable.
In summary, this investigation demonstrated that 6 wk of moderate-intensity
endurance training did not affect anaerobic capacity but that 6 wk of high-intensity
intermittent training (20 s exercise, 10 s rest; intensity 170%·VO2max) may improve
both anaerobic capacity and ·VO2max simultaneously.
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High Intensity Interval Training is a training method based on a combination of periods in which high-intensity load alternate with low-intensity exercise or passive rest, the so-called rest interval or inactive phase. Nowadays it is gaining more popularity among the general population and is applied in modern fitness centers. The authors found that more than 95 % sports centers organizing group lessons in Brno offer some form of HIIT (“Tabata System”, especially). Changing one of the HIIT components will affect the efficiency of the whole system. This effect is demonstrable on the aerobic and anaerobic performance and the composition of body tissues. Our goal within the broad research is to find out what effect changing one variable has on the most widely used HIIT program, and we wanted to examine whether the method is suitable for recreational athletes.The authors have made the first step in the form of pilot research described in this article, trying to design the system and applying the components in it. The experiment involved twenty deliberately selected male probands. They were randomly divided into two intervention groups of ten probands. In both intervention groups, we observed: number of repetitions performed, subjective load assessment (on the Borg scale) and heart rate. The original design of the pilot study included three training units per week for two weeks (a total of six training units). Basic multiple articulated exercises (Burpees and Jump Squats) were selected for both sets in these protocols in order to achieve key intensity for HIIT. There were some limitations of the experiment described in the article.The result of the first pilot study was essential concerning the adequacy of the cycle settings. The authors were forced to stop the piloting after the completion of the first week due to the acute overtraining of the probands. The reason to stop the experiment is attributed to an inadequate frequency of training units in individual weeks, which we reflected in the design of the following pilot study and reduced the number to two. The authors have kept the research questions and present the results of the modified piloting below.It can be assumed that the prolongation of the rest interval has an impact on the ability to perform repeated exercises, heart rate and subjective perception of stress in selected exercises. These results of our pilot research are also related to people's desire to get as much as possible in as little (time) as possible. The HIIT method is (in many aspects) more effective than the continuous method. Its undeniable advantage is time saving, but efficiency is "redeemed" by intensity and demanding character (proved not just in the described experiments). Where is the line between benefit sport and health-threatening sport? What is the "correct" HIIT setting/programming and what causes a change in one of the key variables? Is less sometimes more or more demanding means more effective? Respecting people's demands and desires for performance, mental fitness and physical beauty, with regard to sustainability and health above all, we will seek answers to all these questions. The first step towards finding them is the study carried out.
The purpose of this study was to examine the risk factors of stress fractures in terms of training distance and intensity in young male Japanese high school long-distance runners. Nine hundred and twenty-five runners from high schools, colleges, and work teams responded to our questionnaire. Our analysis of the questionnaire found that the onset rates of stress fractures in males were 25.0%, 40.2%, and 55.3% in high school runners, collegiate runners, and work team runners, respectively, suggesting that young Japanese long-distance runners are more likely to suffer from stress fractures than European and American runners. Stress fractures occurred in male high school and collegiate runners after training that had increased running distance (24.7 % and 33.1%, respectively) or running intensity (17.0% and 9.6%), or both increased running distance and increased running intensity (29.8 % and 34.6%), suggesting that an increase in running distance at moderate intensity might be a major risk factor in stress fractures in young male long-distance runners. Data from college and work team runners that ran all three years of high school show that stress fractures are most likely to occur in May of the high school freshman year. These results suggested a need to reconsider training programs for freshmen to prevent stress fractures in young runners.
The article is devoted to actual problems that are solved in the process of physical education of students in training sessions aimed at mastering the program material, allowing to provide general and professionalapplied physical fitness, determining the psychophysical readiness of the student to his chosen profession. At present, in social and social relations, the requirements are raised for a person, for his physical potential, namely for endurance as a physical quality. Endurance helps a person to resist a long time coming fatigue, to endure it without reducing the quality of the work. The main indicator of endurance is time, during which muscular activity of a certain nature and intensity is carried out. In cyclical sports, endurance manifests itself as an indicator of the minimum time during the period of overcoming a given distance. When educating endurance in the classroom, the main methods include: variable, uniform, continuous and interval. Their choice is due to the physical fitness of students. In the first year it is advisable to use a uniform method and the optimal combination of duration and intensity of the load. The Tabata method belongs to modern trends in fitness and is "fashionable" among young people. The method allows for a short period of time to increase the aerobic and anaerobic capacity of the body and purposefully cultivate endurance. The peculiarities of the lesson (training) include the sequence of increasing load and breathing technique. Tabata training is high- intensity, many students are not physically ready for the proposed loads, in this regard, it is advisable to include in the main part of the lesson, blocks of simple exercises with less repetition. This method is contraindicated in the recovery period, students with low levels of physical fitness and suffering from cardiovascular disease. There are various tests to determine the level of endurance: Harvard step test, functional test on the Kverg, step test with Burger.
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Anaerobic energy release is of great importance for shortlasting exercise but has been difficult to quantify. In order to determine the amount of anaerobic energy release during shortlasting exercise we let 17 healthy young males exercise on the ergometer bike to exhaustion. The power during exercise was kept constant and selected to cause exhaustion in approximately 30 s, 1 min, or 2-3 min. The O2 uptake was measured continuously during the exercise, and the anaerobic energy release was quantified by the accumulated O2 deficit. The work done as well as the total energy release rose linearly with the exercise duration and was therefore a sum of a component proportional to time plus a constant addition. The accumulated O2 deficit increased from 1.86 +/- 0.07 (SE) mmol/kg for 30 s exercise to 2.25 +/- 0.06 mmol/kg for 1 min exercise and further to 2.42 +/- 0.08 mmol/kg for exercise lasting 2 min or more (P less than 0.01). The accumulated O2 uptake increased linearly with the duration, and as a consequence of this the relative importance of aerobic processes increased from 40% at 30 s duration to 50% at 1 min duration and further to 65% for exercise lasting 2 min. These results show that both aerobic and anaerobic processes contribute significantly during intense exercise lasting from 30 s to 3 min.
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We present a method for quantifying the anaerobic capacity based on determination of the maximal accumulated O2 deficit. The accumulated O2 deficit was determined for 11 subjects during 5 exhausting bouts of treadmill running lasting from 15 s to greater than 4 min. The accumulated O2 deficit increased with the duration for exhausting bouts lasting up to 2 min, but a leveling off was found for bouts lasting 2 min or more. Between-subject variation in the maximal accumulated O2 deficit ranged from 52 to 90 ml/kg. During exhausting exercise while subjects inspired air with reduced O2 content (O2 fraction = 13.5%), the maximal O2 uptake was 22% lower, whereas the accumulated O2 deficit remained unchanged. The precision of the method is 3 ml/kg. The method is based on estimation of the O2 demand by extrapolating the linear relationship between treadmill speed and O2 uptake at submaximal intensities. The slopes, which reflect running economy, varied by 16% between subjects, and the relationships had to be determined individually. This can be done either by measuring the O2 uptake at a minimum of 10 different submaximal intensities or by two measurements close to the maximal O2 uptake and by making use of a common Y-intercept of 5 By using these individual relationships the maximal accumulated O2 deficit, which appears to be a direct quantitative expression of the anaerobic capacity, can be calculated after measuring the O2 uptake during one exhausting bout of exercise lasting 2-3 min.
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To examine the anaerobic energy release during intense exercise, 16 healthy young men cycled as long as possible at constant powers chosen to exhaust the subjects in approximately 30 s, 1 min, or 2-3 min. Muscle biopsies were taken before and approximately 10 s after exercise and analyzed for lactate, phosphocreatine (PCr), and other metabolites. O2 uptake was measured for determination of the accumulated O2 deficit (a whole body measure of the anaerobic energy release), and this indirect measure of the anaerobic energy release was compared with a direct value obtained from measured muscle metabolites. Muscle lactate concentration rose by 30.0 +/- 1.2 mmol/kg and muscle PCr concentration fell by 12.4 +/- 0.9 mmol/kg during the 2-3 min of exhausting exercise. The anaerobic ATP production was consequently 58 +/- 2 mmol/kg wet muscle mass, which may be the maximum anaerobic energy release for human muscle during bicycling. Because the anaerobic ATP production was 6 and 32% less for 1 min and 30 s of exercise, respectively, than for 2 min of exercise (P < 0.03), 2 min of exhausting exercise may be required for maximal use of anaerobic sources. Lactate production provided three times more ATP than PCr breakdown for all three exercise durations. There was a close linear relationship between the rates of anaerobic ATP production in muscle and the value estimated for the whole body by the O2 deficit (r = 0.94). This suggests that the accumulated O2 deficit is a valid measure of the anaerobic energy release during bicycling.
The effects of a 20-day period of bed rest followed by a 55-day period of physical training were studied in five male subjects, aged 19 to 21. Three of the subjects had previously been sedentary, and two of them had been physically active. The studies after bed rest and after physical training were both compared with the initial control studies. Effects of Bed Rest All five subjects responded quite similarly to the bed rest period. The total body weight remained constant; however, lean body mass, total body water, intracellular fluid volume, red cell mass, and plasma volume tended to decrease. Electron microscopic studies of quadriceps muscle biopsies showed no significant changes. There was no effect on total lung capacity, forced vital capacity, one-second expiratory volume, alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference, or membrane diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. Total diffusing capacity and pulmonary capillary blood volume were slightly lower after bed rest. These changes were related to changes in pulmonary blood flow. Resting total heart volume decreased from 860 to 770 ml. The maximal oxygen uptake fell from 3.3 in the control study to 2.4 L/min after bed rest. Cardiac output, stroke volume, and arterial pressure at rest in supine and sitting positions did not change significantly. The cardiac output during supine exercise at 600 kpm/min decreased from 14.4 to 12.4 L/min, and stroke volume fell from 116 to 88 ml. Heart rate increased from 129 to 154 beats/min. There was no change in arterial pressure. Cardiac output during upright exercise at submaximal loads decreased approximately 15% and stroke volume 30%. Calculated heart rate at an oxygen uptake of 2 L/min increased from 145 to 180 beats/min. Mean arterial pressures were 10 to 20 mm Hg lower, but there was no change in total peripheral resistance. The A-V 0 2 difference was higher for any given level of oxygen uptake. Cardiac output during maximal work fell from 20.0 to 14.8 L/min and stroke volume from 104 to 74 ml. Total peripheral resistance and A-V 0 2 difference did not change. The Frank lead electrocardiogram showed reduced T-wave amplitude at rest and during submaximal exercise in both supine and upright position but no change during maximal work. The fall in maximal oxygen uptake was due to a reduction of stroke volume and cardiac output. The decrease cannot exclusively be attributed to an impairment of venous return during upright exercise. Stroke volume and cardiac output were reduced also during supine exercise. A direct effect on myocardial function, therefore, cannot be excluded. Effects of Physical Training In all five subjects physical training had no effect on lung volumes, timed vitalometry, and membrane diffusing capacity as compared with control values obtained before bed rest. Pulmonary capillary blood volume and total diffusing capacity were increased proportional to the increase in blood flow. Alveolar-arterial oxygen tension differences during exercise were smaller after training, suggesting an improved distribution of pulmonary blood flow with respect to ventilation. Red cell mass increased in the previously sedentary subjects from 1.93 to 2.05 L, and the two active subjects showed no change. Maximal oxygen uptake increased from a control value of 2.52 obtained before bed rest to 3.41 L/min after physical training in the three previously sedentary (+33%) and from 4.48 to 4.65 L/min in the two previously active subjects (+4%). Cardiac output and oxygen uptake during submaximal work did not change, but the heart rate was lower and the stroke volume higher for any given oxygen uptake after training in the sedentary group. In the sedentary subjects cardiac output during maximal work increased from 17.2 L/min in the control study before bed rest to 20.0 L/min after training (+16.5%). Arterio-venous oxygen difference increased from 14.6 to 17.0 ml/100 ml (+16.5%). Maximal heart rate remained constant, and stroke volume increased from 90 to 105 (+17%). Resting total heart volumes were 740 ml in the control study before bed rest and 812 ml after training. In the previously active subjects changes in heart volume, maximal cardiac output, stroke volume, and arteriovenous oxygen difference were less marked. Previous studies have shown increases of only 10 to 15% in the maximal oxygen uptake of young sedentary male subjects after training. The greater increase of 33% in maximal oxygen uptake in the present study was due equally to an increase in stroke volume and arteriovenous oxygen difference. These more marked changes may be attributed to a low initial level of maximal oxygen uptake and to an extremely strenuous and closely supervised training program.
Intense exercise of short duration is heavily dependent on energy from anaerobic sources, and subjects successful in anaerobic types of sports may therefore have a larger anaerobic capacity and be able to release energy at a higher rate. Performances in these kinds of sports are improved by training, suggesting that the anaerobic capacity is trainable. The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of training on anaerobic capacity. We therefore determined the anaerobic capacity, expressed as the maximal accumulated O2 deficit during treadmill running, of untrained, endurance-trained, and sprint-trained young men. In addition, seven women and five men trained for 6 wk, and their anaerobic capacity was compared before and after the training period. There was no difference in anaerobic capacity between the untrained and endurance-trained subjects, whereas the sprinters' anaerobic capacity was 30% larger (P less than 0.001). The women's anaerobic capacity was 17% less than the men's (P = 0.03). Six weeks of training increased the anaerobic capacity by 10%. We conclude that the anaerobic capacity varies significantly between subjects and that it can be improved within 6 wk. Moreover, there was a close relationship between a high anaerobic capacity and a high peak rate of anaerobic energy release.
Bicarbonate secretion from 12 mm segments of duodenum just distal to the Brunner's gland area was titrated (pH 7.60) in situ in anesthetized rats. Intravenous BW755C (10-20 mg/kg) increased both bicarbonate secretion and the transmucosal electrical potential difference and pretreatment with indomethacin (3 mg/kg intravenously) prevented these effects. Indomethacin also inhibited stimulation of HCO3- secretion by luminal acid (10 mM HCl) but had no effect on the rise in secretion in response to exogenous (luminal) prostaglandin E2. The results support previous suggestions of a role for endogenous prostaglandins in mediation of the HCO3- response to acid and are consistent with the recent demonstration that BW755C increased prostaglandin formation in homogenates of rat intestinal mucosa. Stimulation of HCO3- secretion by BW755C was not enhanced but attenuated by preexposure to luminal acid, suggesting that the latter increases secretion by effects other than mucosal mobilization of arachidonate.
Oxygen deficit during maximal exercise of short duration. (Abstract)
  • L Hermansen
  • J I Medbo
  • A.-C Mohn
  • I Tabata
  • R Bahr
Hermansen, L., J. I. Medbo, A.-C. Mohn, I. Tabata, and R. Bahr. Oxygen deficit during maximal exercise of short duration. (Abstract).Acta Physiol. Scand. 121:39A, 1984. [Context Link]