Chang LD, Buncke G, Slezak S, Buncke HJ: Cigarette smoking, plastic surgery, and microsurgery

ArticleinJournal of Reconstructive Microsurgery 12(7):467-74 · November 1996with37 Reads
DOI: 10.1055/s-2007-1006620 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Although tobacco smoking is known to result in coronary heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, lung cancer, and other smoking cancers, many surgeons believe that smoking also results in impaired wound healing and poor surgical results. Large clinical experiences in several areas of plastic surgery reinforce this suspicion. Procedures that have been noted to be adversely affected by cigarette smoking include rhytidectomy, abdominoplasty, breast reconstruction, free-tissue transfer, and digital replantation. This article reviews the available data, introduces new clinical data, and hypothesizes about the ways in which some procedures are more affected than others.
    • "Smoking has local and systemic effects on the microcirculation (Lehr 2000), wound healing (Silverstein 1992) and the immune system (Kinane & Chestnutt 2000, Sørensen et al. 2004). As well as impairing hard tissue healing (W-Dahl & Toksvig-Larsen 2004, Castillo et al. 2005, Gullihorn et al. 2005) and soft tissue healing (Webster et al. 1986, Chang et al. 1996), smoking is associated with wound infection after soft tissue incision procedures (Sørensen et al. 2003). Smoking is likely to affect healing in surgical endodontic cases that involve bony and soft tissue healing. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this review was to analyse the literature to assess the possibility of an association between smoking and endodontic disease and the prognosis of endodontically treated teeth. The review of the prognosis of endodontically treated teeth involved taking account of any potential associations with smoking and endodontic disease and marginal periodontitis, and smoking and prosthodontic outcomes. In addition, the role of smoking in implant failure and surgical wound healing was analysed with a view to drawing parallels regarding the possible implications of smoking on the outcome of surgical endodontics. A MEDLINE and Cochrane library search including smoking and various endodontic keyword searches identified three papers which discussed the variables, and did not just mention them separately in the text. The literature demonstrates a paucity of evidence relating smoking with endodontic disease and prognosis, but nevertheless presents evidence of a possible influence on the prognosis of endodontically treated teeth in smokers and a likely increase in surgical complications. The possible merits of a smoking cessation protocol prior to surgical endodontics are also discussed.
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