Expression of Extracellular Matrix Macromolecules Around Demineralized Freeze-Dried Bone Allografts
In the present study histochemical techniques were used to identify specific macromolecular components of the extracellular matrix associated with the tissue reaction to demineralized freeze-dried bone allografts (DFDBA) placed under barrier membranes for ridge augmentation. Small biopsies were obtained from tissues underneath the membranes at various times after placement of the DFDBA and processed for routine immunohistochemistry. Sections were stained with antibodies to osteocalcin, collagen type I, collagen type III, decorin, and biglycan. Non-immune serum, irrelevant antibodies, and omission of the primary antibodies served as negative controls. Histologic examination of the biopsies revealed allograft particles surrounded by well-formed fibrous connective tissue with little or no evidence of new bone formation. Vital autogenous bone fragments were present in the peripheral portions of the biopsies and served as positive controls for comparative purposes with the DFDBA particles. Only 7 out of the 20 biopsies studied were found to have any signs of bone formation around the DFDBA particles and in these such bone formation was irregular and inconsistent around the DFDBA particles. Around the periphery of the allograft particles, osteocalcin, collagen type I, collagen type III, decorin, and biglycan all showed relatively strong staining. Osteocalcin staining was also noted within the vital bone matrix but not in the surrounding fibrous connective tissue. Decorin, biglycan, collagen type I, and collagen type III were also found within the vital bone matrix. None of these antibodies stained the DFDBA particles. The unremarkable osteogenic response of the tissues to the DFDBA particles after healing periods of up to 12 months raises questions as to the predictability of these agents in inducing new bone.
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