Azcue MP, Zello GA, Levy LD, Pencharz PB. Energy expenditure and body composition in children with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy. J Pediatr 129, 870-876

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Journal of Pediatrics (Impact Factor: 3.79). 01/1997; 129(6):870-6. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-3476(96)70031-8
Source: PubMed


To determine the relationship between resting energy expenditure and body cell mass in a group of children with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy (SQCP) in comparison with a group of healthy volunteers.
Children with SQCP (n = 13) and healthy control subjects (n = 21) participated in the study. Resting energy expenditure (REE) by indirect calorimetry, as well as body composition measurements were obtained. Those included skinfold measurements, isotope dilution methods for total body water and extracellular water (2H2O or H2(18)O and NaBr, respectively), and bioelectrical impedance analysis. Intracellular water was calculated as total body water minus extracellular water.
Overall REE in children with SQCP was significantly less than in control subjects or from predicted World Health Organization equations. There was a poor correlation between REE and weight or height for children with SQCP and those for control subjects. Children with SQCP showed a higher variance and small improvement in the correlation between REE and lean body mass or intracellular water in comparison with control subjects. Nine of the thirteen children with SQCP had significantly reduced REE per unit of lean tissue or intracellular water. Furthermore, bioelectrical impedance analysis was validated against dilution methods as a suitable technique for measuring total body water (r2 = 0.90, r = 0.95) and extracellular water (r2 = 0.84, r = 0.92) in children with SQCP.
REE in children with SQCP is poorly correlated with body cell mass. We postulate that the central nervous system plays a crucial role in energy regulation. In children with SQCP, individual energy expenditure should be measured so that optimal nutritional status can be achieved. Bioelectrical impedance analysis can be used in this population to measure body water spaces.

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    • "The literature suggests that single measurements of body mass, or of body mass and body height, are insufficient for determining obesity and malnutrition, since these measurements do not evaluate the constituents of the body and do not clarify whether “fat” or “skinny” individuals present adequate percentages of fat in relation to their total body mass.3,4,18 This inaccuracy may be worse for physically handicapped individuals whose neuromuscular abnormalities form part of their clinical condition and impede such measurement techniques.6–8 "
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    ABSTRACT: To compare skin folds in the dominant and nondominant halves of the body in a group (A) of 20 individuals with cerebral palsy and spastic hemiplegia and a group (B) of 30 normal volunteers. Body mass, height and skin folds were measured, and the percentage of body fat was estimated by adipose tissue measurement and densitometry. The mean age in group (A) was 24.6 +/- 5.6 years (ranging from 16.1 to 38.1 years). The mean age in group (B) was 25.3 +/- 3.8 years (ranging from 19.0 to 34.11 years). Statistically significant differences were observed between the dominant and nondominant halves of the body for biceps, triceps, thoracic, suprailiac, thigh and midcalf skin folds in group A; the biceps, subscapular, midaxillary, suprailiac, abdominal, thigh and midcalf skin folds in group B; and the percentage fat obtained by adipose tissue measurement in both groups. Statistically significant differences were observed for the triceps skin fold when the dominant halves of the body in groups A and B were compared. Statistically significant differences were also observed for the biceps, triceps, thigh and midcalf skin folds as well as the adipose tissue measurements between the dominant and nondominant halves of the body in the two groups. The percentage fat as estimated by densitometry was significantly correlated with the adipose tissue measurement. There were statistically significant differences between the skin folds in the dominant and nondominant halves of the body, both in group A and in group B (greater in group A). There was a statistically significant correlation in the percentage fat as estimated by densitometry and as measured by adipose tissue in groups A and B.
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    ABSTRACT: There is an increase in the prevalence of obesity among people with schizophrenia thought to be due in part to the weight enhancing side-effects of medications commonly used to treat the symptoms of schizophrenia. Despite the deleterious health effects associated with obesity and its impact on quality of life and medication compliance, little is known about body composition and energy expenditure in this clinical group. The primary purpose of this thesis was to enhance understanding of body composition and energy expenditure, particularly resting energy expenditure in men with schizophrenia who take atypical antipsychotic medications. Unique to this investigation is the evaluation of clinical tools used to predict body composition and energy expenditure against reference methodologies in men with schizophrenia. Further, given the known links between obesity and physical activity, an additional but less comprehensive component of the thesis was a consideration of total and activity energy expenditure in addition to the interaction between psychiatric symptoms, side-effects of antipsychotic medications and physical activity also occurred as part of this thesis. Collectively, the goals of this thesis were addressed through a series of studies – the first two studies were related to the measurement and characteristics of body composition in men with schizophrenia, while the third and fourth studies were related to the measurement and characteristics of resting energy expenditure in men with schizophrenia. The fifth and sixth studies the utilised doubly labelled water technique to quantify activity and total energy expenditure in a small group of men with schizophrenia and explored the use of accelerometry in this cohort. The final study briefly considered the impact of psychiatric symptoms and self-reported medication side-effects on objectively measured physical activity. In the first study, thirty-one male adults previously diagnosed with schizophrenia and sixteen healthy male controls were recruited. Estimates of body composition derived from an anthropometry-based equation and from bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) using deuterium dilution as the reference methodology to determine total body water were compared. The study also determined the validity of equations commonly used to predict body composition from BIA in the men with schizophrenia. A further aim was to determine the superiority of either BIA or body mass index (BMI) as an indicator of obesity in this cohort. The inclusion of the control group, closely matched for age, body size and body composition demonstrated that there was no difference in the ability of body composition prediction methods to distinguish between fat and fat-free mass (FFM) in controls and men with schizophrenia when both groups had similar body composition. However this study indicated that an anthropometry-based equation previously used in people with schizophrenia was a poor predictor of body composition in this cohort, as evidenced by wide limits of agreement (25%) and systematic variation of the bias. In comparison, the best predictor of percentage body fat (%BF) in this group was gained when impedance values were used to predict percentage body fat via the equation published by Lukaski et al (1986). Although percentage body fat was underpredicted using the Lukaski et al. (1986) equation, the mean magnitude was relatively small (1.3%), with the limits of agreement approximately 13%. Linear regression analysis revealed that %BF predicted using the Lukaski et al. (1986) equation explained 25% more of the variance in percentage body fat than BMI. Further, this study also indicated that BIA was more sensitive than BMI in distinguishing between overweight and obesity in this cohort of men with schizophrenia. Because of the almost exclusive use of BMI as an indicator of obesity in people with schizophrenia, the level of excess body fat may be in excess of that previously indicated. The second study extended the examination of body composition in men with schizophrenia. In this study, the thirty-one participants with schizophrenia (age, 34.2 ± 5.7 years; BMI, 30.2 ± 5.7 kg/m2) were individually matched with sedentary controls by age, weight and BMI. Deuterium dilution was used to distinguish between FFM and fat mass. The previous study had indicated that while BIA was a suitable group measure for obesity, on an individual level the technique lacked the precision required for investigating body composition in men with schizophrenia. Waist circumference was used as an indicator of body fat distribution. The findings of this study indicated that in comparison with healthy sedentary controls of similar body size and age, men with schizophrenia had higher levels of body fat which was more centrally distributed. Percentage body fat was on average 4% higher and waist circumference, on average 5 cm greater in men with schizophrenia than the sedentary controls of the same age and BMI. Further, this study indicates that the use of BMI to predict body fat in men with schizophrenia will result in greater bias than when it is used to predict body fat in other sedentary men. Commonly used regression equations to predict energy requirements at rest are based on the relationships between weight and resting energy expenditure (REE) and in such equations, weight acts as a surrogate measure of FFM. The objectives of study three were to measure REE in a small group of men with schizophrenia who were taking the antipsychotic medication clozapine and to determine whether REE can be predicted with sufficient accuracy to substitute for the measurement of REE in the clinical and/or research settings. Body composition was determined using deuterium dilution and REE was measured using a Deltatrac Metabolic Cart via a ventilated hood. The male participants, (aged 28.0 ± 6.7 yrs, BMI 29.8 ± 6.8 kg/m2) were weight stable at the time of the study and had been taking clozapine for 20.5 ± 12.8 months, with doses of 450 ± 140 mg/day. Of the six prediction equations evaluated, the equation of Mifflin et al. (1990) with no systematic bias, the lowest bias and the lowest limits of agreement proved to be the most suitable equation to predict REE in this cohort. The overestimation of REE can be corrected for by deducting 160 kcal/day from the predicted REE value when using the Mifflin et al. (1990) equations. However, the magnitude of the error associated with the prediction of REE for an individual is 370 kcal/day. The findings of this study indicate that REE cannot be predicted with sufficient individual accuracy in men with schizophrenia, therefore it was necessary to measure rather than predict REE in subsequent studies. In the fourth study, indirect calorimetry (Deltatrac Metabolic Cart via ventilated hood) and deuterium dilution were used to accurately determine REE, respiratory quotient (RQ) and FFM in 31 men with schizophrenia and healthy sedentary controls individually matched for age and BMI. Data from this study indicated that gross REE was lower in men with schizophrenia than in healthy sedentary controls of a similar age and body size. However, there was no difference between the groups in REE when REE was adjusted for FFM using the mathematically correct method (analysis of covariance with FFM as the covariate). There was however a statistically and clinically significant difference in resting, fasted RQ between men with schizophrenia and controls, suggesting that RQ rather than REE may be an important correlate worthy of further investigation in men with schizophrenia who take antipsychotic medications. Studies five and six involved the application of the doubly labelled water (DLW) technique to accurately determine total energy expenditure (TEE) and activity energy expenditure (AEE) in a small group of men with schizophrenia who had been taking the atypical antipsychotic medication clozapine. The participants were those who took part in study three. The purpose of these studies was to assess the validity of a commercially available tri-axial accelerometer (RT3) for predicting free-living AEE and to investigate TEE and AEE in men with schizophrenia. There was poor agreement between AEE measured using DLW and AEE predicted using the RT3. However, using the RT3 to measure inactivity explained over two-thirds of the variance in AEE. This study found that the relationship between current AEE per kilogram of body weight and change from baseline weight in men taking clozapine was strong although not significant. The sedentary nature of the group of participants in this study was reflected in physical activity levels, (PAL, 1.39 ± 0.27), AEE (435 ±352 kcal/day) and TEE (2511 ± 606 kcal/day) that fell well short of values recommended by WHO (2000) for optimal health and to prevent weight gain. Given the increasing recognition of the importance of sedentary behaviour to weight gain in the general community, further examination of the unique contributing factors such as medication side effects and symptoms of mental illness to activity levels in this clinical group is warranted. The final study used accelerometry (RT3) to objectively measure activity in a group of 31 men with schizophrenia who had been taking atypical antipsychotic medications for more than four months. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between psychiatric symptomatology, side-effects of medication and physical activity. Accelerometry output was analysed to provide a measure of inactivity and moderate intensity activity (MIA). The well-validated and reliable standardised clinical interview, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used as a measure of psychiatric symptoms. Perceived side-effects of medication were assessed using the Liverpool University Neuroleptic Rating Side-Effects Scale (LUNSER). Surprisingly, there was no relationship reported between any measures of negative symptoms and physical inactivity. However, self-reported measures of medication side-effects relating to fatigue, sleepiness during the day and extrapyramidal symptoms explained 40% of the variance in inactivity. This study found significant relationships between some negative symptoms and moderate intensity activity. Despite the expectation that as symptoms of mental illness reduce, inactivity may diminish and moderate intensity activity will increase, it may not be surprising that in practice this is an overly simplistic view. It may be that measures of social functioning and possibly therefore cognition may be better predictors of physical activity than psychiatric symptomatology per se.
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