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Massage and relaxation therapies' effects on depressed adolescent mothers

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Massage and relaxation therapies' effects on depressed adolescent mothers

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Abstract

Thirty-two depressed adolescent mothers received ten 30-minute sessions of massage therapy or relaxation therapy over a five-week period. Subjects were randomly assigned to each group. Although both groups reported lower anxiety following their first and last therapy sessions, only the massage therapy group showed behavioral and stress hormone changes including a decrease in anxious behavior, pulse, and salivary cortisol levels. A decrease in urine cortisol levels suggested lower stress following the five-week period for the massage therapy group.

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... Massage therapy is being used with increasing frequency to treat pain, stress and burn-out in the general population (8,9) and among health care professionals (4)(5)(6)10,11). Recent randomized, controlled studies have shown massage therapy to be effective in reducing a variety of negative mood states including depression, anxiety, fatigue and confusion (5,10,12,13). ...
... These findings fit well both with the greater reduction in pain and tension reported by the massage group participants and with the increased percentage of participants reporting relaxation following massage. The results are also consistent with recent controlled (12) and uncontrolled (4,6) studies that have examined changes in hemodynamic variables after massage therapy. For example, Field et al (12) found a significant reduction in pulse rate following 30 min massage treatments, but not after relaxation therapy, for depressed adolescent mothers. ...
... The results are also consistent with recent controlled (12) and uncontrolled (4,6) studies that have examined changes in hemodynamic variables after massage therapy. For example, Field et al (12) found a significant reduction in pulse rate following 30 min massage treatments, but not after relaxation therapy, for depressed adolescent mothers. However, because pulse rate was measured shortly after the participants arrived for the session, we do not know whether the higher pretreatment values in the massage group reflect a higher resting heart rate or the effects of physical exertion and an insufficient period of time to become habituated. ...
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OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether a series of eight 15 min, on-site massage treatments would be effective in reducing pain and tension in nursing staff at a large teaching hospital. HYPOTHESES: On-site massage treatment would result in reduced pain intensity and tension levels and increased relaxation compared with a control group receiving seated rest. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled trial of eight sessions of Swedish massage therapy versus eight sessions of seated rest. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-two hospital staff (29 registered nurses and three clerical staff) volunteers. SETTING: Participants were recruited from a tertiary care centre. OUTCOME MEASURES: Pulse rate (beats/min), pain measured using a 10 cm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), tension (VAS), relaxation (yes/no) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) were measured before and after each session. RESULTS: The groups did not differ significantly on baseline demographic variables or in attendance rates. Post-treatment VAS pain, VAS tension, and total POMS scores showed the same pattern of results: one-way ANCOVAs revealed a significant effect of the covariate (mean pretreatment score averaged across sessions attended) and a significant main effect for groups indicating that post-treatment pain, tension and POMS scores were significantly lower in the massage group than in he seated rest group (all P
... There is growing evidence to suggest massage has significant effects on outcomes in diverse populations. The majority of literature on massage therapy focuses on associated outcomes supporting pain and tension reduction [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11], stress and anxiety reduction [1,3,4,8,[12][13][14][15], alleviating depressive symptoms [1,2,12,16,17], and general well-being/quality of life [3,4,10,14,18]. Fewer studies have evaluated additional outcomes including immune function [19,20], blood flow [10], nausea management [3], and quality of sleep [6,13,21]. ...
... To support the validity of findings, previous research has relied on objective biomarkers to demonstrate effects of massage. Psychological outcome measures have been used to demonstrate changes in cortisol [12,13,16,17,22], norepinephrine [13], and serotonin levels [16]. Physiological objective measures have focused on impacts on electrocardiogram (EKG) [23] and electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns [15], respiratory rate [4,22], pulmonary function [22], blood glucose [24], serum insulin and IGF-1 levels [24,25], natural killer cells [19,20], white blood cells [26], and neutrophil counts [26]. ...
... To support the validity of findings, previous research has relied on objective biomarkers to demonstrate effects of massage. Psychological outcome measures have been used to demonstrate changes in cortisol [12,13,16,17,22], norepinephrine [13], and serotonin levels [16]. Physiological objective measures have focused on impacts on electrocardiogram (EKG) [23] and electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns [15], respiratory rate [4,22], pulmonary function [22], blood glucose [24], serum insulin and IGF-1 levels [24,25], natural killer cells [19,20], white blood cells [26], and neutrophil counts [26]. ...
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term effects of massage therapy using gas discharge visualization (GDV), a computerized biophysical electrophoton capture (EPC), in tandem with traditional self-report measures to evaluate the use of GDV measurement to assess the bioenergetic whole-person effects of massage therapy. This study used a single treatment group, pre-post-repeated measures design with a sample of 23 healthy adults. This study utilized a single 50-min full-body relaxation massage with participants. GDV measurement method, an EPC, and traditional paper-based measures evaluating pain, stress, muscle tension, and well-being were used to assess intervention outcomes. Significant differences were found between pre- and post-measures of well-being, pain, stress, muscle tension, and GDV parameters. Pearson correlations indicate the GDV measure is correlated with pain and stress, variables that impact the whole person. This study demonstrates that GDV parameters may be used to indicate significant bioenergetic change from pre- to post-massage. Findings warrant further investigation with a larger diverse sample size and control group to further explore GDV as a measure of whole-person bioenergetic effects associated with massage.
... Other responses may include changes in regional pain perception or neuromuscular control, or generalized changes in the whole animal such as relaxation or altered behavior [2]. Several studies have shown that massage may have effects on stressrelated emotions and hormones in humans [4][5][6] and changes in autonomic signaling such as heart rate (HR) in humans, horses, and other species [7][8][9]. ...
... Massage is a widely used manual therapy that has been described as a manipulation of body tissue using repetitive pressure to provoke a positive physiological or psychological response [4]. Morhenn et al [6] reported significant shifts in oxytocin and several adrenocorticotropin hormone levels associated with the application of massage in humans. ...
... Decreased HR may be an indicator of relaxation associated with shifts in the ANS toward parasympathetic dominance. This cardiovascular effect has been well documented in humans [4][5][6] and horses when alternative therapies are used such as massage [1,8,9,13] and acupuncture [49]. It has been shown by Keay et al [50] in a controlled study with rats that HR can be lowered as a result of binding opioid receptors within the brain. ...
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This study tested Flowtrition, a non-invasive soft touch therapy, on the mean (HRavg) and maximum heart rate (HRmax), surface temperature in three body quadrants, and eight stress related behaviors in horses. Fourteen gelded horses were randomly assigned to a control (CON=5) group or a Flowtrition (TRT=9) group. Each horse underwent four sessions with each session split into three 20-minute stages: Pre, During, and Post. At the end of the Pre stage in which neither group received any intervention, baseline heart rate, temperature, and behaviors were recorded. A During stage followed in which the TRT group received therapy and the CON group was monitored and received no treatment. Within the Post period, both groups were monitored and response variables were recorded. The TRT group experienced a decrease (P < 0.05) of 10 ± 2.7 bpm in HRmax and 4.7 ± 0.8 bpm in HRavg between Pre and Post stages compared to the control group, which experienced no shifts in heart rate. The group receiving therapy showed an increase (P < 0.05) occurrence frequency and total duration of head lowering, licking and chewing, and yawning between Pre and Post stages; the control group showed no behavioral shifts. The results show that Flowtrition induces a more relaxed state in horses as evidenced by a decrease in HR and increase in occurrence and duration of relaxation-related behaviors.
... Interventions related to decreasing symptoms of depression and improving maternal and infant interactions were conducted by Field and her colleagues (Field, Grizzle, Scafidi, & Schanberg, 1996; Field et al., 2000). In the first study (Field et al., 1996), 32 depressed adolescents were randomly assigned to either massage or relaxation therapy conducted in 30-minute sessions over 5 weeks. ...
... Interventions related to decreasing symptoms of depression and improving maternal and infant interactions were conducted by Field and her colleagues (Field, Grizzle, Scafidi, & Schanberg, 1996; Field et al., 2000). In the first study (Field et al., 1996), 32 depressed adolescents were randomly assigned to either massage or relaxation therapy conducted in 30-minute sessions over 5 weeks. The results at treatment completion showed that both groups reported a pre-to post-test reduction in anxiety, but that the group receiving massage therapy showed behavioral and hormonal changes indicative of reduced stress. ...
Chapter
The United States has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy in the developed world. Pregnancy and parenting prior to age 20 are associated with compromised biopsychosocial outcomes for the mother, the fetus, and the future child—though the strong coupling of poverty and early pregnancy indicate that these outcomes may not be uniquely attributable to maternal age. This chapter reviews psychological as well as biological factors associated with risk for adolescent pregnancy, such as the potential correlation between conduct disorder and pregnancy, as well as data suggesting that environmental factors as varied as exposure to endocrine disrupters and psychosocial stress may contribute to the earlier onset of puberty, sexual activity, and, ultimately, conception. Pregnancy outcomes for both the mother and the child are reviewed, as well as what is known about mental health status in pregnant and parenting teenagers. This chapter covers the importance of social support for this population and the treatment of perinatal psychopathology in childbearing adolescents.
... Of the 11 studies, 8 demonstrated that MT had a significant effect on reducing anxiety, depression, and mood states [40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47] and 4 reported that pain was significantly reduced following MT. 43,[46][47][48] Three articles included specific assessment of the impact of MT on fatigue, 42,45,48 and two methodological rigorous randomised controlled trials (RCT) examined the effect of MT in immune function. ...
... The nonsignificant trend toward improved psychological well being in the foot massage group, using visual analogue scales for perceived levels of anxiety, may demonstrate that a more complete back massage is necessary to significantly reduce anxiety rather than MT of the extremities alone. Field, Grizzle, et al. 41 demonstrated a reduction in depression following ten 30minute sessions of MT compared to an equal number of relaxation sessions that included yoga and progressive muscle relaxation. ...
Article
Spinal cord injury results in global damage which has broad health and psychosocialramifications. Living with this injury is known to be associated with chronic secondaryconditions such as chronic pain, elevated levels of anxiety, increased prevalence offatigue, high risks of infections, and elevated risks of mood disorder. This chapter willdiscuss the efficacy of relaxation strategies such as massage, progressive musclerelaxation and hypnosis for managing these secondary conditions. Implications for futuretrends in rehabilitation are discussed.
... Of the 11 studies, 8 demonstrated that MT had a significant effect on reducing anxiety, depression, and mood states [40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47] and 4 reported that pain was significantly reduced following MT. 43,[46][47][48] Three articles included specific assessment of the impact of MT on fatigue, 42,45,48 and two methodological rigorous randomised controlled trials (RCT) examined the effect of MT in immune function. ...
... The nonsignificant trend toward improved psychological well being in the foot massage group, using visual analogue scales for perceived levels of anxiety, may demonstrate that a more complete back massage is necessary to significantly reduce anxiety rather than MT of the extremities alone. Field, Grizzle, et al. 41 demonstrated a reduction in depression following ten 30minute sessions of MT compared to an equal number of relaxation sessions that included yoga and progressive muscle relaxation. ...
This chapter aims to provide a summary of three important areas of research on pain after SCI: methodological concerns, risk factors associated with the development of pain after SCI, and the impact of pain across quality of life domains. In addition, an overview of cost-effectiveness analysis is provided. Given the increasing utilization costs associated with pain treatment, there will be an emerging interest nationally in cost-effectiveness studies as an important area of future SCI pain research.
... Relaxation, effleurage, and deep tissue massage are different types of therapeutic massage (Weier & Beal, 2004). In Field, Grizzle, Scafidi, & Schanberg's (1996) study of 32 depressed adolescent mothers, they compared the use of massage and relaxation therapies. Some outcomes they measured were depression and anxiety scores, cortisol levels, and specific behavior measures before and after the mother's sessions. ...
... Their results showed that across the study, only the massage therapy group had a significant decrease in stress and depression (measured by urinary cortisol levels and depression scores). It is suggested that stress and mood improve in short-range through massage therapy (Field et al, 1996). ...
... The results reported by Field et al. regarding the effects of relaxation on depression were different from the present study. In the study by Field et al., there was no statistically significant difference in the mean score of depression in the relaxation group before and after the intervention on the first and last days of exercises (25). Depression evaluation tool in the mentioned study was Profile of Mood States (POMS), which was applied half an hour before and half an hour after the intervention. ...
Article
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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Depression is the most common mental disorder in patients undergoing hemodialysis. This disorder has adverse effects on the course of disease and treatment process and is recognized as an independent risk factor for death in hemodialysis patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the relaxing effects of Benson relaxation technique on depression in patients undergoing hemodialysis. METHODS: This clinical trial was performed on 65 hemodialysis patients. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: control group (n=32) and intervention group using Benson relaxation technique (n=33). The intervention group performed Benson relaxation exercises twice a day for 20 minutes over one month. Beck Depression Inventory was completed one month before and one month after the intervention. The control group received usual treatments (IRCT: 2014011115393N2( FINDINGS: Overall, 51 patients were male in the present study. The mean age of participants was 48.57±9.18 years in the intervention group and 49.93±8.17 years in the control group. Before the intervention, there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the studied variables. The mean score of depression in the intervention group decreased from 32.46±9.86 before the intervention to 23.30±9.23 after the intervention the difference was statistically significant (p
... The few that target teen mothers test novel approaches for reducing symptoms of depression (Hodgkinson et al., 2014). For example, group therapy, massage for teens' infants, and relaxation or massage for teens as components of a larger program have reduced depressive maternal symptoms relative to controls (Field, Grizzle, Scafi di, & Schanberg, 1996;Field et al., 2000;Miller et al., 2008;Oswalt, Biasini, Wilson, & Mrug, 2009). Compared to traditional mental healthcare, these programs offer teen-friendly approaches located at trusted, convenient sites that are more easily integrated into teen mothers' hectic schedules. ...
Article
Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate principles of strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.
... Over the past two decades, investigators have shown the effects of massage therapy on various physiological features, such as blood pressure [4,5], heart-rate variability (HRV) [6], and electroencephalogram (EEG) [3,7], and also in terms of psychological abilities, such as mental operations and psychological record [8][9][10][11]. In most studies, researchers have reported that massage therapy relieves psychological or physiological stress, for instance, chronic pain (e.g., headache and low back pain) [12][13][14], muscle fatigue, anxiety [15,16], or depression [7,17,18]. Therefore, massage therapy is often used for rehabilitation purposes, often in combination with other rehabilitation methods to maximize the effect. ...
Article
Full-text available
Various types of massages are reported to relieve stress, pain, and anxiety which are beneficial for rehabilitation; however, more comprehensive studies are needed to understand the mechanism of massage therapy. In this study, we investigated the effect of massage therapy, alone or in combination with infrared heating, on 3 different aspects: physical, physiological, and psychological. Twenty-eight healthy university students were subjected to 3 different treatment conditions on separate days, one condition per day: control, massage only, or massage with infrared heating. Physical (trunk extension [TE]; maximum power of erector spinae), physiological (heart-rate variability [HRV]; electroencephalogram [EEG]), and psychological (state-trait anxiety inventory [STAI]; visual analogue scale [VAS]) measurements were evaluated and recorded before and after each treatment condition. The results showed that massage therapy, especially when combined with infrared heating, significantly improved physical functioning, increased parasympathetic response, and decreased psychological stress and anxiety. In the current study, we observed that massage therapy contributes to various physical, physiological, and psychological changes, where the effect increases with thermotherapy.
... Several reviews and original investigations have reported decreases in cortisol after subjects have received MT. [22][23][24]30,31,33,55 It is worth noting, however, that several quantitative reviews have found that MT's mean effect on cortisol is very small or not statistically distinguishable from zero. [49][50][51] Discrepant findings may be attributable to some of the authors reporting within-group analysis 23 or using percentage of change as the measure of effect, 24 whereas other authors converted the results of RCTs into standardized MD effect sizes that compared the effect of MT against control treatment. ...
Article
Massage therapy (MT) has shown potential in reducing blood pressure (BP); however, the psychophysiological pathways and structures involved in this outcome are unclear. The aims of this scoping review were twofold. (1) To summarize the current knowledge of the mechanisms of action of MT on BP. (2) To highlight the research gaps and challenges that researchers must overcome to further elucidate how MT attenuates BP. A scoping review was conducted to examine the evidence regarding the mechanisms of action of MT on BP. This review included the thematic analysis of 27 publications that considered the influence of MT on BP. Based on this analysis, six potential BP mediating pathways were identified Current theories suggest that MT exerts sympatholytic effects through physiologic and psychological mechanisms, improves hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical axis function, and increases in blood flow, which, in turn, may improve endothelial function. Future study is needed, using more scientifically rigorous methodology, to fully elucidate the mechanism of action of MT. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... It has been suggested that physical contact between mother and infant also activates the opiate systems in humans (Kalin et al., 1995). In other studies, touch has been linked to increased levels of serotonin (Field et al., 1996), which were shown to reduce psychosocial stress reactivity in animals and in humans (Hanley and Van de Kar, 2003). In particular, the neuropeptide oxytocin has been shown to play a central role in the social modulation of stress responses in various regions of the limbic system (Carter, 1998;Uvnas-Moberg, 1998b;Landgraf and Neumann, 2004). ...
Article
In animal studies, positive social interaction and physical contact play a preeminent role in the control of behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stress. The aim of this study was to determine whether specific kinds of couple interaction reduce hypothalamic–pituitary– adrenal (HPA) and autonomic responses to psychosocial stress in women. Sixty-seven women, aged 20–37 years, who had been married or cohabiting with a male partner for at least 12 months at the time of the study, were exposed to a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor (Trier Social Stress Test). Participants were randomly assigned to three study groups differing in the type of a 10-min period of social interaction with their partner prior to stress: n ¼ 25 with no partner interaction, n ¼ 22 with verbal social support, and n ¼ 20 with physical contact (standardized neck and shoulder massage). Salivary free cortisol levels, plasma levels of oxytocin, heart rate, and psychological responses to stress were compared among the three study groups. Women with positive physical partner contact before stress exhibited significantly lower cortisol and heart rate responses to stress but no different plasma oxytocin levels compared to women who received social support or no social interaction. Verbal social ARTICLE IN PRESS (M. Heinrichs). Psychoneuroendocrinology (2007) 32, 565–574 support alone was not associated with reduced stress responsiveness. Our results are in line with previous human studies indicating reduced responsiveness to verbal social support by a spouse in women. More importantly, these findings imply a direct protective effect of touch on stress-related neurobiological systems as a possible underlying mechanism of health beneficial effects of positive couple interaction.
... Cruess et al. [20,21], Field et al. [22], found that relaxation techniques such as progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) [23], have been proven to be reliable methods in reducing self-reported stress and stress-related physiological activity in various non-pregnant clinical populations, as well as in healthy subjects. ...
Article
Full-text available
Stress is defined as “the non-specific response of the body to any demand placed upon it”. The study seeks to assess the stress level among the Employed women and house wives and its management through Progressive muscle relaxation (PMRT) and Mindfulness breathing. It made use of purposive sampling in selecting the 100 women 50 employed (working) and 50 housewives. The sample responded to the valid and reliable instrument. Sings personal stress source inventory was used to assess the level of Stress. Pre and posttest research design was used. Here the ‘t’ stat was used to calculate the significance of difference t=7.280 which was significant at 0.05 level of significance. Results reveal that the stress level was high among the Employed women in comparison to house wives. Intervention sessions of Progressive muscular relaxation technique (PMRT) and mindfulness breathing were provided to the experimental group of 25 Employed women and no intervention was given to other 25 employed women i.e., control group. After the intervention posttest was taken t=23.778 significant at 0.05 level of significance in Experimental group and t=1.685 non-significant at 0.05 and 0.01 level of significance in control group. This determined the significant decline in the stress level of Experimental group of employed women and no decline in the control group. The stress level was reduced from moderate to low level of stress.
... Also, researchers reported that lower anxiety and depression follow after sessions of relaxation training. [23][24][25] Another factor that promotes mental health in Penn Program is decision-making training. Indecision causes anxiety and depression. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: Education in university is difficult for some students and so depression, stress, and anxiety are prevalent problems in colleges across the country. People experiencing such psychosocial difficulties are more likely to be defeated in the course. Resilience training can target these risk factors, but there is little research evaluating the effectiveness of such programs. This paper describes the design and measures of a study to evaluate a resilience training program to decrease emotional problems. Methods: This study followed a randomized controlled trial and included a pretest and posttest. A purposive sampling was used. In this way, participants were 30 students randomly selected between who have emotional problems in 2014 at Tabriz University, Iran. They were assigned into control and experimental group. Data were collected using depression, anxiety, and stress scale 21. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for each subscale indicate high internal reliability. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was run to analyze the data. Results: The findings of this study show a decrease in the mean score in the mean score of the experimental group in the posttest. Multivariate variance analysis MANOVA showed difference in posttest mean scores of participants' anxiety, depression, and stress in the experimental group. Conclusions: The Penn Resiliency Program will promote psychosocial well-being for student with emotional problems.
... Second, the initial study focused on a specific type of affection deprivation, that of touch. This was due to the research pointing to the power of touch in terms of stress reduction and both mental and physical wellness (e.g., Field, 2002;Field, Grizzle, Scafidi, & Schanberg, 1996;Grewen, Anderson, Girdler, & Light, 2003). However, the bulk of research focusing on the relational benefits of affection have used a more general lens to examine how levels of various types of affectionate communication are related to variables such as closeness and satisfaction (e.g., Floyd, 2002;Hesse & Floyd, 2011). ...
Article
The current study examined the role of affection deprivation, the need for greater affection than an individual is currently receiving, in the context of romantic relationships. Using affection exchange theory, the authors hypothesized several testable relationships between affection deprivation and relational outcomes (relational satisfaction, closeness, and commitment). The study also examined the possible moderating roles of relational maximization and relational uncertainty. Overall, the results supported the predictions, with affection deprivation significantly related to satisfaction and closeness. Relational maximization moderated the significant relationships between deprivation and relational satisfaction and commitment. Relational uncertainty moderated the significant relationships between deprivation and closeness and commitment. Implications and possible directions for future research are discussed.
... Pregnant women in the massage group had fewer complications during labor, anxiety during labor about perceived contractions and the outcome of the baby being delivered had fewer postnatal complications, and lower rates of prematurity than the relaxation therapy group at 0% versus 17% . Massage therapy has a positive effect on women experiencing prenatal anxiety by reducing stress hormones during labor (Field, 1996;Field, 1997). ...
Article
Full-text available
Non-pharmacological treatment that can be given to overcome antenatal anxiety is Pregnancy massage. Pregnancy massage is a modification of technique and body position for pregnant women given since pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Pregnancy massage on the anxiety of pregnant women. This study is a quantitative study with a Quasy Experiment research design with Pre-Posttest Design with Nonequivalent Control Groups. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling. Measurement of anxiety in pregnant women using the Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire (PRAQ). The difference test was carried out before and after treatment using a nonparametric test. Pregnancy massage had a significant effect on anxiety in both groups. The results showed that pregnancy massage 846 was effective in reducing anxiety in third-trimester pregnant women. Pregnancy massage is most effective interventions to reduce anxiety during pregnancy period. Non pharmacological interventions may be applied by applied by nurses and midwives to reduce anxiety during pregnancy.
... Somatosensory stimulation can produce emotional responses in addition to eliciting sensations. For example, noxious stimulation often evokes fear and anxiety [1,2], whereas innocuous tactile stimulation can be pleasurable or even anxiolytic [3][4][5][6]. Recently, we showed that serotonin (5-HT) release in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), an area important for emotional responsivity [7,8], changes in response to somatosensory stimulation in anesthetized animals [9]. ...
Article
Noxious cutaneous stimulation increases, whereas innocuous cutaneous stimulation decreases serotonin (5-HT) release in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) in anesthetized rats. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptors and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) to those responses. Release of 5-HT in the CeA was monitored by microdialysis before and after 10-min stimulation by pinching or stroking. Increased 5-HT release in the CeA in response to pinching was abolished by CRF2 receptor antagonism in the DRN. Decreased 5-HT release in the CeA in response to stroking was abolished by either CRF1 receptor antagonism or GABAA receptor antagonism in the DRN. These results suggest that opposite responses of 5-HT release in the CeA to noxious versus innocuous stimulation of the skin are due to separate contributions of CRF2, CRF1 and GABAA receptors in the DRN.
... 인간은 나이가 들면서 신체적 능력이 크게 떨어져 중년여성의 경우 주름 증가와 기미, 여드름, 검버섯과 같은 잡티 증 가, 보습력 저하 등의 고민거리가 늘어나게 된다 (Kang, 2004). 피부관리는 젊고 아름다운 얼굴을 가꾸기 위해 선택하는 가장 기본적이면서도 중요한 외모관리행동 중 하나이며, 동시에 여성들이 가장 많이 선택하는 외모 관리행동 중 하나인 것으로 나타났다 (Jeon, 2010;Shin, 2009 (Field & Grizzle, 1996) (Cho, 1999;Kwak & Lim, 1999 ...
Article
The interest and importance of appearance can be expanded by changes in social awareness about appearance, the extension of life expectancy, and the development of science, technology and technology and medicine. Especially, down-aging syndrome through a variety of mediums, amplifies consumer`s interest in youth-pursing. This study discusses the relationship of youth-pursuing, appearance concern and appearance management behavior focused on the middle-aged. Data were collected from 300 females aged 40-65 in the areas of Seoul, Daejeon and Chungbuk areas. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, factor analysis, regression analysis, using the SPSS-WIN 20.0 program. Youth-pursuing formed social, psychological, and appearance factors. Each of these three dimensions influenced the appearance concern; consequently, appearance had the highest influence. Only appearance influenced appearance management behavior in the regression analysis of youth-pursuing and appearance management behavior. Appearance concern affected significantly appearance in the management behavior of the dimension regression analysis results for the appearance concern and appearance management behavior.
... For example, the study of Oswalt et al. (2009) showed that the training of infant massage for adolescent mothers can enhance maternal-infant physical contact and decrease depressive symptoms. Field et al. (1996) found that infant massage and relaxation therapy also decreased depression in adolescent mothers. This suggests that the mothers who attended the class on infant massage substantially enhanced mother-infant bonding. ...
Article
Full-text available
Postpartum depression (PPD) is a major public health problem affecting 10–57% of adolescent mothers which can affect not only adolescent mothers but also their infants. Thus, there is a need for interventions to prevent PPD in adolescent mothers. However, recent systematic reviews have been focused on effective interventions to prevent PPD in adult mothers. These interventions may not necessarily be applicable for adolescent mothers. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to examine the effectiveness of the existing interventions to prevent PPD in adolescent mothers. A systematic search was performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, and SCOPUS databases between January 2000 and March 2017 with English language and studies involving human subjects. Studies reporting on the outcomes of intervention to prevent PPD particularly in adolescent mothers were selected. Non-comparative studies were excluded. From 2002 identified records, 13 studies were included, reporting on 2236 adolescent pregnant women. The evidence from this systematic review suggests that 6 of 13 studies from both psychological and psychosocial interventions including (1) home-visiting intervention, (2) prenatal antenatal and postnatal educational program, (3) CBT psycho-educational, (4) the REACH program based on interpersonal therapy, and (5) infant massage training is successful in reducing rates of PPD symptoms in adolescent mothers in the intervention group than those mothers in the control group. These interventions might be considered for incorporation in antenatal care interventions for adolescent pregnant women. However, this review did not find evidence identifying the most effective intervention for preventing postpartum depression symptoms in adolescent mothers.
... Pregnant women in the massage group had fewer complications during labor, anxiety during labor about perceived contractions and the outcome of the baby being delivered had fewer postnatal complications, and lower rates of prematurity than the relaxation therapy group at 0% versus 17% . Massage therapy has a positive effect on women experiencing prenatal anxiety by reducing stress hormones during labor (Field, 1996;Field, 1997). ...
Article
Full-text available
Non-pharmacological treatment that can be given to overcome antenatal anxiety is Pregnancy massage. Pregnancy massage is a modification of technique and body position for pregnant women given since pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Pregnancy massage on the anxiety of pregnant women. This study is a quantitative study with a Quasy Experiment research design with Pre-Posttest Design With Nonequivalent Control Groups. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling. Measurement of anxiety in pregnant women using the Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire (PRAQ). The difference test was carried out before and after treatment using a nonparametric test. Pregnancy massage had a significant effect on anxiety in both groups. The results showed that pregnancy massage was effective in reducing anxiety in third-trimester pregnant women. Pregnancy massage is most effective interventions to reduce anxiety during pregnancy period. Non pharmacological interventions may be applied by applied by nurses and midwives to reduce anxiety during pregnancy.
... Sex of child Studies conducted within western societies have found no association between the sex of child and postpartum depression. Studies provide evidence from India and China which suggest that spousal disappointment with the sex of the baby, specifically if the baby is girl associated with developing postpartum depression.12 Postpartum depression was shown to be associated with fear of childbirth (OR 2.71, 95% CL), caesarean section birth (OR 1.38, 95% CL) and major congenital anomaly (OR 1.67, 95% CL). ...
Article
Background: The postpartum period is a time of tremendous emotional and physical change for most women as they adapt to new roles and alteration in their physiology. Postpartum depression has seen its rise lately. Multiple factors might be responsible for causation. Symptoms include depression, tearfulness, emotional liability, guilt, anorexia, sleep disorders, feeling inadequate, detachment from the baby, poor concentration, forgetfulness, fatigue, and irritability.Methods: We have conducted a study in 225 postpartum females and assessed them for depression and associated postnatal depression. The 10-question Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used for assessing depression.Results: Depression was evaluated as 6%. It was also found that 2% mothers with IUD babies developed postnatal depression. 1.33% cases with babies having congenital anomaly developed postnatal depression. 1.33% cases with babies having nursery admission developed postnatal depression. This has been correlated with many other studies.Conclusions: It is found that perinatal factors do affect postnatal depression as it is found in mothers who have an adverse perinatal outcome. Further research is implicated in this field.
... Only the massage group showed significant reduction of saliva cortisol after the massage session in both the first and the last days of intervention and significant reduction of the urine cortisol level over the course of the study. 10 On the other hand, there are a few studies that showed no effect of massage on stress. Lindgren et al 11 conducted a randomized intervention study for patients scheduled for elective aortic surgery. ...
... The pressure that is exuded from massage may stimulate parasympathetic activity as shown by reduced saliva cortisol levels (33). Changes in hormonal levels (serotonin and cortisol) after massage mostly in specific conditions such as patients with low back pain, HIV-positive patients, and depressed adolescent mothers have been reported (13,(21)(22)(23). Weinberg et al. (34) reported that massage has a significant positive mood enhancement with significant decreases in tension, confusion, fatigue, anxiety, anger, and depression. ...
... [15] However, Field et al. have reported that relaxation techniques were not as effective as massage therapy in postnatal depression. [16] Due to the conflicting results about the effects of relaxation therapy on PPD, and the fact that no previous study compared the effects of PST and relaxation on PPD, the question comes to mind that which method is more effective on the severity of PPD? ...
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Background: Postpartum depression with high prevalence and unpleasant complications needs to be identified and treated. Objective: This study aimed to compare the effect of problem-solving therapy (PST) and relaxation on the severity of postpartum depressive symptoms. Methods: This randomized controlled trial was performed in health-care centers of Mashhad city, Iran, in women on the 3rd postpartum week. A total of 120 women were selected conveniently and randomly assigned to three groups (i.e., PST, relaxation, and control groups). The women completed Edinburgh Depression Scale and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Problem-solving skills were educated during six weekly sessions. Progressive muscle relaxation exercises and guided imagery were performed daily and once a week during 6 weeks, respectively. In the control group, women received usual postpartum care. All groups completed a daily checklist for recording depression symptoms. The three groups completed the BDI once again a week after the end of the intervention. Data analysis was conducted using Chi-square, paired t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and repeated measures ANOVA. Results: The mean difference of severity of depressive symptoms was significantly different between the three groups at 9 weeks after delivery (−14.86 ± 6.15 in PST group, −10.71 ± 5.23 in relaxation group, and −4.72 ± 4.51 in the control group, P < 0.001). The frequency of mild depression decreased from 57.1% to 3.8% in PST group, from 65.4% to 23.1% in the relaxation group, and from 60.7% to 33.3% in the control group. Conclusion: Both PST and relaxation can reduce the severity of depressive symptoms. However, the effects of PST were more than those of relaxation.
... In one of the study massage therapy showed behavioural and stress hormone changes including a decrease in anxious behavior [13] . Majority of working women in our study were aware about the relaxation techniques (63%), but despite of awareness, some were restricted from doing relaxation (36%) due to lack of time (75%) found to be the major restricting factor followed by the lack of energy (68%). ...
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Relaxation techniques are often employed as one element of a wider stress management program. Working women have to perform dual tasks at working place as well as at home which requires sufficient time and high level of energy and that increases not only physical stress but also mental stress. Hence our aim was to find out the prevalence of relaxation techniques in working women along with the commonest stress factor amongst them and the various relaxation techniques practiced by them. This was a cross-sectional study with a purposive sampling of 70 working women. Yoga (79%) was practiced majorly followed by meditation (71%). Despite of awareness, women were restricted from doing relaxation due to lack of time (75%) followed by lack of energy (69%). The present study concluded that relaxation techniques are helpful, cost-effective, and are most needed. It is very much advisable to all working women for their well-being.
... The experimental group, which received both massage treatments and psychother-apy, demonstrated a larger decline in depression, anxiety and cortisol levels than the control group treated solely with psychotherapy [38]. Further studies have confirmed the positive effect of massage on the cortisol [30,47] and noradrenaline [30] concentrations of depressed pregnant women. In addition, the concentrations of dopamine and serotonin have been found to increase significantly after massages, a fact that underpins the reports of decreased anxiety and depression levels [30]. ...
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Healthcare professionals and expecting mothers frequently voice concerns that massages during pregnancy might cause complications or premature labor. This PRISMA review outlines current results on effects, side effects and contraindications of relaxation massage during pregnancy. Inclusion criteria: all randomized controlled trials (RCT) comparing relaxation massage during pregnancy with standard care or standard care plus another intervention (i.e., progressive muscle relaxation). Restrictions were full text availability and English language. Results: 12 RCT were included. Trials had good methodological quality but unknown risk of bias. All women were at least 12 weeks gestation at the start of the study. The main benefits of massage during pregnancy were: reduced stress, back and leg pain, depression and anxiety; increased immune response; increased serotonin and dopamine levels; higher fetal birth weight and reduced risk of preterm delivery. Only 2 RCT reported potential side effects of massage, which were minor and transient. Seven RCT excluded women with difficult pregnancies or preexisting complications, five studies did not report preexisting conditions. Those obstetric or postnatal complications that occurred were most likely unrelated to massage treatments. In healthy pregnant women without complications, relaxation massage has positive effects throughout pregnancy. Precautions for massage during pregnancy (i.e., to prevent pulmonary embolism) are discussed.
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This paper describes evidence-based kernels, fundamental units of behavioral influence that appear to underlie effective prevention and treatment for children, adults, and families. A kernel is a behavior–influence procedure shown through experimental analysis to affect a specific behavior and that is indivisible in the sense that removing any of its components would render it inert. Existing evidence shows that a variety of kernels can influence behavior in context, and some evidence suggests that frequent use or sufficient use of some kernels may produce longer lasting behavioral shifts. The analysis of kernels could contribute to an empirically based theory of behavioral influence, augment existing prevention or treatment efforts, facilitate the dissemination of effective prevention and treatment practices, clarify the active ingredients in existing interventions, and contribute to efficiently developing interventions that are more effective. Kernels involve one or more of the following mechanisms of behavior influence: reinforcement, altering antecedents, changing verbal relational responding, or changing physiological states directly. The paper describes 52 of these kernels, and details practical, theoretical, and research implications, including calling for a national database of kernels that influence human behavior.
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Massage therapy has many kinds of effects on the physical and psychological conditions of healthy people and patients. Since it is well known that massage therapy can reduce anxiety, depression, and stress, it is given to patients with cancer. Many researchers examined the effects of massage therapy including aromatherapy massage and observed a reduced state and trait anxiety, and improved mood, depression, and quality of life (QoL) in healthy people. It was found that massage therapy including aromatherapy massage can decrease the scores of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and psychological confusion of Profile of Mood State in healthy volunteers. Furthermore, it was recognized that patients with mild depression was ameliorated by aromatherapy massage. There are many studies on the effect of massage therapy including aromatherapy massage on anxiety, depression, stress, and QoL in patients with cancer. It appears that massage therapy can reduce anxiety and stress and improved QoL. In conclusion, massage therapy including aromatherapy massage in cancer patients would be beneficial for the reduction of anxiety, depression, and stress as well as pain, and is generally safe. However, further studies, especially randomized clinical trials, should be performed.
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Despite extensive progress in the scientific understanding and the control of pain, 51–77% of patients with cancer, especially for patients with advanced cancer or approaching end-of-life phase, still experience moderate to severe pain at some time during their illness. This cancer pain can and does erode the quality of life of this patient population. For this and other reasons it is important for health professionals to advocate for appropriate pharmacological and non-pharmacological modalities, such as massage therapy (MT), for pain management in patients with cancer. Evidence from studies reviewed in this chapter documents that patients/subjects in massage groups appeared to have more positive outcomes compared to those in control groups in terms of decreasing pain intensity, nausea or vomiting, fatigue, distressing symptoms, anxiety, depression, and self-reports of relaxation. These and associated effects on measures of physiological arousal (blood pressure) can be documented during massages as well as 5 min, 10–20 min, and 2–3 h following massage, but not beyond 24 h. In contrast, the most notable inconsistent massage effects are more relevant to sleep, quality of life, and stress adaptation indicators (i.e. heart rate, respiratory rate, cortisol, IgA and α-amylase, natural killer cells or lymphocytes). Future studies with well-designed trials and research directed at the mechanism will clarify potential sensitive indications, subgroup effects in terms of types or dose of massage, types or stage of cancer or type of symptom as well as, the mechanism of massage and in which circumstance it does and does not work. Importantly, MT interventions examined in this systematic review appear to be safe for patients with cancer which is also feasible for patients with advanced cancer or bone metastases and MT appears to enhance the quality of life for this population.
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Part 1: Neurobiology and Ontogenetic InfluencesPart 2: Separation Distress and Panic: Treatment Procedures and Protocols
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Stress related medical disorders such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and depression are serious medical issues that can cause disability and death. Techniques to prevent their development and exacerbation are needed. Casual video games (CVGs) are fun, easy to play, spontaneous and are tremendously popular. In this randomized controlled study we tested the effects of CVGs on mood and stress by comparing people playing CVGs with control subjects under similar conditions. Electroencephalography (EEG) changes during game play were consistent with increased mood and corroborated findings on psychological reports. Moreover, heart rate variability (HRV) changes were consistent with autonomic nervous system relaxation or decreased physical stress. In some cases CVGs produced different brain wave, heart rate variability and psychological effects. These finding have broad implications which include the potential development of prescriptive interventions using casual video games to prevent and treat stress related medical disorders.
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Introduction: Increasing trends for suicidal ideation and attempts among adolescents highlight the need for identifying risk factor profiles and interventions. In a recent survey study we reported that depression, anger, number of friends, and marijuana contributed to 66% of the variance on suicidal ideation in adolescents. In other studies with depressed adolescents we were able to reduce depression and suicidal ideation by massage therapy. The model explored in this paper on adolescents' suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts is (1) that depression, aggression, and body dissociation (physical anhedonia and higher thresholds to stimulation and pain) that may have derived from early touch deprivation/abuse may mediate suicidal ideation and attempts; and (2) that suicidal ideation and attempts might be reduced by massage therapy, a treatment that has already been effective with depressed adolescents. Underlying the risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempts are abnormal physiological factors including EEG alpha asymmetry and biochemical imbalances including depressed serotonin and elevated cortisol levels. Thus, some of the intervening mechanisms between touch deprivation/abuse and suicide may be the physiological (EEG asymmetry) and biochemical imbalances (depressed serotonin and elevated cortisol levels) that accompany depression and self-destructive behavior. Massage therapy may reduce suicidal ideation/behavior via reducing depression and cortisol levels and elevating serotonin levels and thereby reducing self-destructive behavior. TOUCH DEPRIVATION AND AGGRESSION AGAINST SELF (SUICIDE) AMONG ADOLESCENTS The critical importance of researching adolescent suicide is underscored by the fact that suicide is the biggest killer of adolescents in the United States (Madge & Harvey, 1999), and the United States has one of the highest suicide rates among industrialized countries (Weissman et al., 1999). © Cambridge University Press 2005 and Cambridge University Press, 2009.
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Die biologischen Wirkungen von Hautverformungen (taktile Körperstimulationen) auf den Menschen werden in den Fachbereichen Physiotherapie und manuelle Medizin unterschätzt. Demgegenüber existiert eine breite empirische Basis, die belegt, dass taktile Körperstimulationen (ohne physiotherapeutische oder manualmedizinische Zielsetzung) komplexe biochemische Veränderungen nach sich ziehen, die sich positiv auf den körperlichen und psychischen Status des Behandelten auswirken. Der vorliegende Übersichtsartikel legt die Effekte dar, die regelmäßige systematische taktile Körperstimulation im Verlauf der Schwangerschaft sowie während der Geburt in der Mutter und im Fetus auslösen können. Zentrale Befunde umfassen u. a. die Reduktion von Stresshormonen und Schmerz, die Zunahme von Immunzellen, ein höheres Geburtsgewicht, die Reduktion der Frühgeburtenrate sowie die Zunahme von Dopamin und Serotonin (und die damit einhergehende Reduktion von Angst- und Depressionssymptomen). ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Tactile stimulation (massage) during pregnancy and labor - Effects on pregnancy complications, growth, and the immune system. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The biological effects of skin deformations (tactile stimulation, massage) on humans are underestimated in the fields of physiotherapy and manual medicine. In contrast, a wide empirical basis exists to prove that tactile physical stimulation (without physio- or manual therapeutic objective) elicits complex biochemical changes that have a positive impact on the physical and psychological state of the patient. The current review presents the effects that repeated systematic tactile stimulation during pregnancy and labor can have on mother and fetus. Core findings include, e.g., a reduction in stress hormones and pain, an increase in immune cells, higher birth weight, a reduction in the rate of preterm births, and increased levels of dopamine and serotonin (with a correspondingly reduced risk of anxiety and depression symptoms).
Article
Introduction: Postpartum depression is a mental disorder after childbirth with high prevalence and unpleasant complications. Thus diagnosis and its treatment are considered important. Relaxation techniques training is simple method of treatment used by primary care providers, including midwives. The purpose of this study is the effect of relaxation training on severity of depressive symptoms in the postpartum period. Methods: This clinical trial was performed on 54 women in Mashhad community health centers in 2010. In third week after delivery, women with Edinburgh Depression Scale score ≥10 complete Beck Depression Inventory (score 14-28) and final diagnosis of depression was done by psychologist interview. Then the women were divided randomly into two groups of relaxation with guided imagery (n=26) and control (n=28). Relaxation and guided imagery were performed respectively once daily and once weekly during 6 weeks. Beck Depression Inventory was completed again in the ninth week after delivery. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and ANOVA test and SPSS software version 14 and p-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Mean of severity of depressive symptoms after intervention was 7.7±4.6 in relaxation group and 15.3±6.4 in control group that the difference was significant (p<0.000). Also severity of depression symptoms decreased in relaxation group and control group (58.1% and 23.5%, respectively). Conclusion: The relaxation training is an effective method in reduction severity of depressive symptoms in postpartum period.
Chapter
Postpartum depression (PPD) or, simply, postpartum are the most commonly used lay terms for describing major depressive disorder occurring in the postnatal period. Whether the disorder occurs de novo, is a relapse of a previous depressive episode, or has its origin in the antepartum period, depression after childbirth is associated with significant maternal and infant morbidity and, in worst cases, mortality. With most epidemiological studies demonstrating a prevalence of 10–13%, PPD is one of the most common complications of childbirth (1,2). Yet, the pathogenesis, natural history, and treatment of the disorder have been shrouded in mystery and myth as society and science has imbued motherhood with a cloak of sanctity that cuts both ways. Attempts to protect mothers and their offspring from unnecessary intrusions or potential harm have unwittingly limited detection of PPD in the clinical setting and the investigation of its pathogenesis and treatment in the scientific arena. p] Thus, PPD continues to be a major public health problem, with more than 400,000 women in the United States alone suffering each year from this potentially devastating disease. The overarching purpose of this chapter is to review the studies that provide the most rigorous and up-to-date findings regarding the detection, pathogenesis, and treatment of depression occurring in the postnatal period. In doing so, this chapter will enable the primary care provider to become more comfortable in assessing postpartum women and treating those who, in many cases, would otherwise go without care.
Article
This Review reports on a scoping review followed by a systematic review to consider interventions designed to address or manage depression or anxiety in children and young people up to the age of 25 years without the need to involve mental health professionals. The scoping review identified 132 approaches, 103 of which referred to children or young people (younger than 25 years). These approaches included social interaction, engagement with nature, relaxation, distraction, sensory stimulation, physical activity, altering perceptions, engaging in hobbies, self-expression, and exploration. A systematic review of effectiveness studies from the literature identified in the scoping review found only 38 studies on seven types of intervention that met the inclusion criteria. 16 studies were based on cognitive or behavioural principles (15 on digital interventions and one on bibliotherapy), ten focused on physical exercise, five on light therapy, three on dietary supplements, two on massage therapy, one on online peer support, and one on contact with a dog. Most studies focused on adolescents or young adults. Evidence suggested that light therapy could be effective for season depression and that digital interventions based on attention bias modification are ineffective for anxiety. Mixed evidence was available on the effectiveness of computerised cognitive behavioural therapy for depression and anxiety, and of physical exercise for depression. All other studies had insufficient certainty to obtain even tentative conclusions about effectiveness. These results highlight the disparity between the extensive range of approaches identified in the scoping review and the restricted number and focus found in the systematic review of effectiveness of these approaches. We call for an expanded research agenda that brings evaluation rigour to a wide range of self or community approaches.
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Objective: The primary objective of this scoping review was to examine and map the range of neurophysiological impacts of human touch and eye gaze, and consider their potential relevance to the therapeutic relationship and to healing. Introduction: Clinicians, and many patients and their relatives, have no doubt as to the efficacy of a positive therapeutic relationship; however, much evidence is based on self-reporting by the patient or observation by the researcher. There has been little formal exploration into what is happening in the body to elicit efficacious reactions in patients. There is, however, a growing body of work on the neurophysiological impact of human interaction. Physical touch and face-to-face interaction are two central elements of this interaction that produce neurophysiological effects on the body. Inclusion criteria: This scoping review considered studies that included cognitively intact human subjects in any setting. This review investigated the neurophysiology of human interaction including touch and eye gaze. It considered studies that have examined, in a variety of settings, the neurophysiological impacts of touch and eye gaze. Quantitative studies were included as the aim was to examine objective measures of neurophysiological changes as a result of human touch and gaze. Methods: An extensive search of multiple databases was undertaken to identify published research in the English language with no date restriction. Data extraction was undertaken using an extraction tool developed specifically for the scoping review objectives. Results: The results of the review are presented in narrative form supported by tables and concept maps. Sixty-four studies were included and the majority were related to touch with various types of massage predominating. Only seven studies investigated gaze with three of these utilizing both touch and gaze. Interventions were delivered by a variety of providers including nurses, significant others and masseuses. The main neurophysiological measures were cortisol, oxytocin and noradrenaline. Conclusions: The aim of this review was to map the neurophysiological impact of human touch and gaze. Although our interest was in studies that might have implications for the therapeutic relationship, we accepted studies that explored phenomena outside of the context of a nurse-patient relationship. This allowed exploration of the boundary of what might be relevant in any therapeutic relationship. Indeed, only a small number of studies included in the review involved clinicians (all nurses) and patients. There was sufficient consistency in trends evident across many studies in regard to the beneficial impact of touch and eye gaze to warrant further investigation in the clinical setting. There is a balance between tightly controlled studies conducted in an artificial (laboratory) setting and/or using artificial stimuli and those of a more pragmatic nature that are contextually closer to the reality of providing nursing care. The latter should be encouraged.
Thesis
Neurofysiological effects of therapeutic touch
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of foot massages on physiological and psychological indicators, which reflect stress condition in healthy women volunteers. The subjects were 12 healthy adult women (23-44 years of age) who received both 20 minute foot massages and 20 minutes of quiet bed rest. Plasma catecholamines, plasma serotonin, blood pressure, pulse, VAS, and POMS were measured. The results showed that plasma noradrenaline, blood pressure, and pulse decreased with foot massages, and plasma serotonin increased. In simultaneously measured VAS and POMS, sensations of comfort, relaxation, and energy increased, and tension-anxiety, depression-mood dips, fatigue, and confusion decreased. This demonstrated that foot massages affect physiological and psychological indicators of stress, and suggests that they are an effective means to improve physiological and psychological stress responses of the level that are held by healthy adult women.
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Perinatal mood and anxiety disorders (PMAD) are the most common, yet underdiagnosed and undertreated complication of pregnancy, affecting up to 50% of pregnant and parenting teens. PMAD are a global health issue that can have devastating effects on the mental, physical, emotional, developmental health, and social life of the mother, infant, and family. Adolescents present with similar symptoms of PMAD as their adult counterparts, but also experience isolation from their peer group and lack of resources and coping strategies, as well as difficulty sleeping and lack of concentration and ability to focus. Nurses and nurse practitioners are in an ideal position to assess preexisting risk factors for PMAD. The current applied evidence-based article addresses the diagnosis of PMAD, provides a conceptual framework for understanding the intra-and interpersonal dynamics affecting teens with PMAD, and suggests a new screening tool to guide diagnosis. An easy to recall mnemonic for diagnosis and referral (SAIL AHEAD) is proposed. By using the SAIL AHEAD mnemonic, providers will impact adolescents’ parenting success and resiliency, thereby enhancing their future success in life.
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Die Zeit der Schwangerschaft als früheste Entwicklungsphase des Menschen kann die biologische und psychische Entwicklung des entstehenden Lebewesens bis ins Erwachsenenalter beeinflussen. Unter diesem Gesichtspunkt sind gute Bedingungen für eine optimale Entwicklung erstrebenswert. Wohlwollende Körperberührungen und Massagen haben das Potenzial, in Menschen jeden Lebensalters komplexe biochemische Reaktionen auszulösen, die sich positiv auf den körperlichen und psychischen Zustand des Behandelten auswirken. Angenehme Körperberührungen des mütterlichen Körpers im Verlauf der Schwangerschaft beeinflussen dabei sowohl die Mutter als auch den Fötus.
Article
This paper reviews studies that have examined the efficacy of relaxation training techniques in the treatment of childhood disorders. Methodological problems encountered in doing research in this area resemble those found in working with an adult population: imprecise definitions of subject populations and use of a variety of dependent variables from one study to another. Findings suggest that relaxation training is at least as effective as other treatment approaches for a variety of learning, behavioral, and physiological disorders when it is continued over an extended period of time and is augmented by other supportive measures. Needs for future research include better follow-up studies and further investigations with a behaviorally disruptive population.