This study was performed to determine predictors of subacute stent thrombosis (SST) in the era of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided coronary stenting without anticoagulation.
The incidence of stent thrombosis has declined with the application of high pressure stent deployment with only antiplatelet therapy. However, no data are available on predictors of stent thrombosis in this era.
Between March 30, 1993 and July 31, 1995, 1,042 consecutive patients underwent coronary stenting without anticoagulation. For this analysis, we excluded patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery, died or had acute stent thrombosis within the 1st 24 h after stenting (41 patients). A total of 1,001 patients (1,334 lesions) were included; 982 patients (1,315 lesions) without SST and 19 patients (19 lesions) with SST.
The rate of SST was 1.9% (per patient). There was no difference between the SST and No SST groups in rescue stenting (12% vs. 13.5%, p = 1.0) or mean +/- SD reference diameter (3.11 +/- 0.58 vs. 3.19 +/- 0.53 mm, p = 0.54). A preexisting thrombus was present in 12% of the SST group and in 4.5% of the No SST group (p = 0.19). Predictors of SST by univariate analysis were low ejection fraction (p = 0.004), more stents per lesion (p = 0.049), use of combination of different stents (p = 0.012), smaller balloon size (p = 0.012) and suboptimal result in terms of smaller lumen dimensions by angiography (p = 0.016) and IVUS (p = 0.004), residual dissections (p = 0.027) and slow flow (p = 0.0001). In stepwise logistic regression analysis, ejection fraction (p = 0.019), use of a combination of different stents (p = 0.013) and postprocedure dissections (p = 0.014) and slow flow (p = 0.0001) were predictive of SST.
In the present era of stent implantation, factors that may predispose to SST are low ejection fraction, intraprocedural complications leading to utilization of more stents, particularly with different stent designs, and suboptimal final result in terms of smaller lumen dimensions and persistent slow flow and dissections.
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"The first study using IVUS to evaluate subacute stent thrombosis observed that a smaller
lumen and post-procedure dissection were independent predictors for this outcome in
univariate and multivariate analysis, respectively31. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The impact of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) use on stenting has shown inconclusive results.
Systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of IVUS on stenting regarding the clinical and angiographic evolution.
A search was performed in Medline/Pubmed, CENTRAL, Embase, Lilacs, Scopus and Web of Science databases. It included randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that evaluated the implantation of stents guided by IVUS, compared with those using angiography alone (ANGIO). The minimum follow-up duration was six months and the following outcomes were assessed: thrombosis, mortality, myocardial infarction, percutaneous and surgical revascularization, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and restenosis. The binary outcomes were presented considering the number of events in each group; the estimates were generated by a random effects model, considering Mantel-Haenszel statistics as weighting agent and magnitude of effect for the relative risk (RR) with its respective 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Higgins I² test was used to quantify the consistency between the results of each study.
A total of 2,689 articles were evaluated, including 8 RCTs. There was a 27% reduction in angiographic restenosis (RR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.54-0.97, I² = 51%) and statistically significant reduction in the rates of percutaneous revascularization and overall (RR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.51 to 1.53, I² = 61%, RR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.54 to 0.99, I² = 55%), with no statistical difference in surgical revascularization (RR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.52-1.74, I² = 0%) in favor of IVUS vs. ANGIO. There were no differences regarding the other outcomes in the comparison between the two strategies.
Angioplasty with stenting guided by IVUS decreases the rates of restenosis and revascularization, with no impact on MACE, acute myocardial infarction, mortality or thrombosis outcomes.
"However, issue of stent thrombosis has been one of the concerns. Although BMS implantation in small vessels had been previously cited as a risk factor for stent thrombosis,50–52 improved techniques of optimal stent deployment and dual antiplatelet therapy appear to have largely resolved this problem so that the risk of stent thrombosis of BMS in small vessel stenting now seems to be similar to that in large vessel stenting.53,54 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Small vessel (<3 mm) coronary artery disease is common and has been identified as independent predictor of restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. It remains controversial whether bare-metal stent (BMS) implantation in small vessels has an advantage over balloon angioplasty in terms of angiographic and clinical outcomes. Introduction of drug-eluting stent (DES) has resulted in significant reduction in restenosis and the need for repeat revascularization. Several DESs have been introduced resulting in varying reduction in outcomes as compared with BMS. However, their impact on outcomes in small vessels is not clearly known. It is expected that DES could substantially reduce restenosis in smaller vessels. Large, randomized studies are warranted to assess the impact of different DESs on outcomes in patients with small coronary arteries.
Preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Vascular Health and Risk Management
"Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and thienopyridine 34—36 and high-pressure stent deployment  have decreased the rate of post-PCI thrombotic events significantly to an incidence of 0.9% in the modern BMS era . The first IVUS study reporting IVUS predictors of subacute ST observed (based on 19 patients) that smaller lumen dimension was an univariate predictor and that post-procedural dissection was a multivariable predictor . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Intravascular ultrasound imaging has been pivotal in the understanding of coronary artery disease and the development of percutaneous coronary intervention. The ability to analyse vessel walls and measure atherosclerotic lesions more accurately has enabled the field of invasive cardiology to overcome the limits of angiography. In fact, intravascular ultrasound measurements correlate with functional measurement of coronary blood flow, as a result interest in their use for the diagnosis of lesion severity in ambiguous lesions and for left main trunk analysis has grown. On the interventional side, intravascular ultrasound is used to determine the major predictors of restenosis and stent thrombosis, which are the main pitfalls of percutaneous coronary intervention. In the bare-metal stent era, intravascular ultrasound-guided percutaneous coronary intervention was associated with a reduction in restenosis rates because it enabled identification and treatment of the risk factors for complications. Although drug-eluting stents have provided a great technological advance in percutaneous coronary intervention, further reducing the rate of in-stent restenosis, they have not abolished restenosis completely; intravascular ultrasound has also been used in this setting to identify the mechanisms responsible for drug-eluting stent restenosis. As in the bare-metal stent era, identification of the predictors of restenosis and stent thrombosis and their subsequent treatment may offer the promise of improved outcome in the drug-eluting stent era. This review focuses on the potential benefit of intravascular ultrasound-guided percutaneous coronary intervention with regard to restenosis and stent thrombosis in the bare-metal stent and drug-eluting stent eras.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases