Hepatitis C virus among health care workers
The purpose of our study was to describe the results of a seroprevalence survey for HCV antibody among health care workers at our center. 961 specimens were consecutively obtained under code and screened for anti-HCV by the second generation immunoblot assay (RIBA 2) and hepatitis B core antibody by CORAB test. After serum samples were tested, we reviewed demographic data and categorized four groups: intravenous drug abusers (IVDAs), blood recipients, health care workers and apparently healthy subjects. 51/97 (52.6%) IVDAs, 8/77 (10.4%) transfusion recipients, 12/472 (2.5%) health care workers and 8/285 (2.8%) apparently healthy subjects were anti-HCV positive. Furthermore dividing health care personnel by type of profession we found that surgeons have a higher seroprevalence (4.3%) compared to other professions. Therefore severe preventive standards are required for health care workers.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hospital-related hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections continue to occur even after the introduction of blood donor screening. We report an outbreak of HCV in nine patients of a pediatric oncology ward in 1996/1997. Sequencing of the hypervariable genomic region 1 (HVR1) of the E2/NS1 region showed near identity between HCV isolates from these patients as evidence for infection with the same virus. Despite a detailed and careful investigation, the source of infection and the mode of virus transmission could not be established. Based on a review of the current literature about nosocomial HCV infection and HCV infection in children, hypotheses for possible means of transmission in this outbreak are discussed.0Comments 29Citations
- "Klein et al (1991) found significantly more dentists (1.7%) than blood donors (0.14%) to be seropositive for HCV, the highest rate (9%) was seen among oral surgeons. Higher prevalence rates have been reported for surgeons (4.3%) (DeMercato et al, 1996) and for health care workers involved with liver transplantation (5.3%) (Goetz et al, 1995) or working in internal medicine, pathology, or intensive care units (up to 7.1%) (Mihaly et al, 1996). The most important risk factor appears to be unintentional needlestick injury, and transmission of HCV by this route has been confirmed using sequence comparisons of HCV isolates (Mizuno et al, 1997; Suzuki et al, 1994). "
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Much of the recent research related to occupational infections in healthcare workers has focused on the evaluation of the effectiveness of preventive measures, the cost-effectiveness of such measures, and alternative approaches to preventing common occupational infections. This article reviews recent information on healthcare workers about occupationally acquired diseases and considers the risks from unusual or re-emerging pathogens. Among recent advances of note are effective post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV, approaches to achieving immunity to hepatitis B in vaccine non-responders, better diagnostic tests for hepatitis C and improved equipment for preventing blood exposure and tuberculosis.0Comments 3Citations
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus is a common causative agent of chronic liver disease and the health-care workers are among the greatest risk groups to acquire this virus. Otherwise, the prevalence of HCV infection in health-care workers is not firmly established yet, and the literature goes on discussing the epidemiological pattern in this group. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and the occupational transmission risk of HCV infection in health-care workers. A systematic review was performed, with a search of databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and LILACS, between 1989 and February 2001, according to the NHS Center for Reviews and Dissemination advice, with the inclusion of papers published in the English, Spanish, and Portuguese languages and containing at least 50% of the systematized criteria. Of all studies retrieved, 65/ 319 (20.2%) were included for final analysis. The studies about the frequency of positive HCV health-care workers, showed the range from 0.0% to 11.0% (mean 1.57%). Meanwhile, the seroconversion studies (occupational injuries) showed a mean of 3.36% (range 0.0%-10.0%). In conclusion, the studies about seroconversion sustained the transmission possibility, and genotyping analysis reinforces the idea of occupational risk. The results of this study showed a relatively low frequency rate of HCV infection in health-care workers, but they must be considered a risk group to acquire this virus, and the universal caution and prevention features must be unbendingly ensured to minimize the risk.0Comments 2Citations