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Investigations on the protective action of Codonopsis pilosula (Dangshen) extract on experimentally-induced gastric ulcer in rats

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Abstract

The action of Codonopsis pilosula extract in 5 animal models of gastric ulcer was investigated. It was found that the extract had higher efficacy on gastric ulcer induced by stress, acetic acid and sodium hydroxide and little significant effect on ulcers induced by pyloroligature and indomethacin. The C. pilosula extract was also capable of reducing gastric acid pepsin secretion. It is possible that inhibition of gastrointestinal movement and propulsion is one of the mechanisms underlying the antiulcer action of C. pilosula extract.

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... The gastric acid pepsin secretion could be decreased by the C. pilosula extract as well. One of the potential mechanisms underlying the antiulcer activity of C. pilosula extract is the potential suppression of gastrointestinal motility and propulsion [16]. ...
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Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is an important global public health problem. More than 2 million people worldwide are estimated to be receiving treatment with dialysis or transplantation for chronic kidney failure, and this population has been growing at an approximate rate of 7% per year. A Case report recently published claimed that use of natural formulation (eefooton). After the Eefooton adjuvant therapy was finished, the patient was monitored for a further three months. Renal function of the patient was enhanced, and CKD progression was slowed down. Following Eefooton therapy, the patient's blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine concentrations dropped while the size of both kidneys rose by 8%. In addition, 2 months after therapy, a further decrease in BUN concentration was seen. This review gives an objective to the reserchers if the eefooton has potential benefits. After performing several literature reviews it was revealing that more research is required to prove the efficacy of eefooton on reversing CKD condition.
... Many of the herbs applied by MLG have been put into clinical use to treat the diseases of the digestive system for a long run and have shown their faculty in gastric protection and anti-inflammatory (Wang et al., 2012;Lv et al., 2018;Cao et al., 2020;Meng et al., 2020). Although their therapeutic mechanisms have not yet been known, their therapeutic efficacy has been speculated to be largely related to their antioxidant effect, for example, Dangshen (Wang et al., 1997;, Shanyao (Qiao et al., 2018), Dingxiang (Agboola et al., 2022), Banxia (Yu L et al., Frontiers in Pharmacology frontiersin.org 03 Fu et al., 2021), Tianma (Dong et al., 2021), and Shengjiang (Haniadka et al., 2013). ...
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Modified Lvdou Gancao decoction (MLG), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, has been put into clinical use to treat the diseases of the digestive system for a long run, showing great faculty in gastric protection and anti-inflammatory, whereas its protective mechanisms have not been determined. The current study puts the focus on the protective effect and its possible mechanisms of MLG on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in mice. In addition to various gastric lesion parameters and histopathology analysis, the activities of a list of relevant indicators in gastric mucosa were explored including ALDH, ADH, MDA, T-SOD, GSH-Px, and MPO, and the mechanisms were clarified using RT-qPCR, ELISA Western Blot and immunofluorescence staining. The results showed that MLG treatment induced significant increment of ADH, ALDH, T-SOD, GSH-Px, NO, PGE2 and SS activities in gastric tissues, while MPO, MDA, TNF-α and IL-1β levels were on the decline, both in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast to the model group, the mRNA expression of Nrf-2 and HO-1 in the MLG treated groups showed an upward trend while the NF-κB, TNFα, IL-1β and COX2 in the MLG treated groups had a downward trend simultaneously. Furthermore, the protein levels of p65, p-p65, IκBα, p-IκBα, iNOS, COX2 and p38 were inhibited, while Nrf2, HO-1, SOD1, SOD2 and eNOS were ramped up in MLG treatment groups. Immunofluorescence intensities of Nrf2 and HO-1 in the MLG treated groups were considerably enhanced, with p65 and IκBα diminished simultaneously, exhibiting similar trends to that of qPCR and western blot. To sum up, MLG could significantly ameliorate ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions in mice, which might be put down to the activation of alcohol metabolizing enzymes, attenuation of the oxidative damage and inflammatory response to maintain the gastric mucosa. The gastroprotective effect of MLG might be achieved through the diminution of damage factors and the enhancement of defensive factors involving NF-κB/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. We further confirmed that MLG has strong potential in preventing and treating ethanol-induced gastric lesions.
... ③ IBD patients are susceptible to malnutrition including anemia, amino acid, and vitamin deficiency [96], which could be rescued by PP [97] due to its hematopoiesis-promoting effect [98][99][100] and by the addition of pearl that is produced from shellfish mollusks which contain 20 amino acids and Fe and Mg elements [101]. ④ Additionally, pearl powder [84,85,102] and BT [103] are conductive to re-epithelization by activating the transforming growth factor (TGF) signaling pathway, and CH alleviates mucosal injury by increasing mucus production and suppressing gastric acid secretion [104,105]. (e) Orchestrating drug metabolism: since most TCM formulas have multiple herbs functioning in a synergistic or counteracting mode to achieve homeostasis, drug interaction is a major challenge for drug efficacy and safety. As seen in our metabolomics analysis, cytochrome P450 (CYPs), enzymes with catalytic activities regulating drug metabolism and drug-drug interactions [106], was inhibited by the JW treatment, suggesting that the JW treatment facilitates the bioavailability of active components, which might be attributable to PP [107], BD [89,108], and LC [109,110]. ...
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Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality due to its repetitive remission and relapse. The Jian-Wei-Yu-Yang (JW) formula has a historical application in the clinic to combat gastrointestinal disorders. The investigation aimed to explore the molecular and cellular mechanisms of JW. Methods: 2% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) was diluted in drinking water and given to mice for 5 days to establish murine models of experimental colitis, and different doses of JW solution were administered for 14 days. Network pharmacology analysis and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) were utilized to predict the therapeutic role of JW against experimental colitis and colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). 16S rRNA sequencing and untargeted metabolomics were conducted using murine feces. Western blotting, immunocytochemistry, and wound healing experiments were performed to confirm the molecular mechanisms. Results: (1) Liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry was utilized to confirm the validity of the JW formula. The high dose of JW treatment markedly attenuated DSS-induced experimental colitis progression, and the targets were enriched in inflammation, infection, and tumorigenesis. (2) The JW targets were related to the survival probability in patients with colorectal cancer, underlying a potential therapeutic value in CRC intervention. (3) Moreover, the JW therapy successfully rescued the decreased richness and diversity of microbiota, suppressed the potentially pathogenic phenotype of the gut microorganisms, and increased cytochrome P450 activity in murine colitis models. (4) Our in vitro experiments confirmed that the JW treatment suppressed caspase3-dependent pyroptosis, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α), and interleukin-1b (IL-1b) in the colon; facilitated the alternative activation of macrophages (Mφs); and inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in intestinal organoids (IOs). Conclusion: The JW capsule attenuated the progression of murine colitis by a prompt resolution of inflammation and bloody stool and by re-establishing a microbiome profile that favors re-epithelization and prevents carcinogenesis.
... In addition, lobetyolin of CR, a polyacetylene compound, has a good protective effect on gastric mucosal damage caused by ethanol and has obvious anti-ulcer effects Bailly, 2021). Modern pharmacology has proved that CR and its active ingredients can treat stomach diseases (Sui et al., 2005;Xu et al., 2008;Li et al., 2017;Bailly, 2021) by ameliorating gastrointestinal motility (Wang et al., 1997;Wang et al., 2015) and regulating oxidase levels (Ma et al., 2014;Li et al., 2017). However, the detailed molecular mechanism is still unclear. ...
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Objective: This study aimed to systematically evaluate the efficacy of Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf. ( Codonopsis Radix , CR) and reveal the mechanism of its effects on suppressing Gastric Precancerous Lesions. Methods: First, we established the GPL rat model which was induced by N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, a disordered diet, and 40% ethanol. The CR’s anti-Gastric Precancerous Lesions effect was comprehensively evaluated by body weight, pathological section, and serum biochemical indexes. Then, quantitative proteomics and metabolomics were conducted to unveil the disturbed protein-network and pharmacodynamic mechanism. Furthermore, serum pharmacology was employed to confirm that CR’s anti-gastritis and anti-cancer phenotype in cell models. Results: In animal models, CR had been shown to control inflammation and ameliorate Gastric Precancerous Lesions. Considering the combination of proteomics and metabolomics, we found that CR could significantly reverse the biological pathways related to energy metabolism which were disturbed by the Gastric Precancerous Lesions model. Furthermore, the results of serum pharmacology indicated that the Codonopsis Radix containing serum could ameliorate gastritis injury and selectively inhibit the proliferation of gastric cancer cells rather than normal cells, which was closely related to ATP production in the above mentioned cells. Conclusion: In summary, CR exerted anti-Gastric Precancerous Lesions effects by ameliorating gastritis injury and selectively inhibiting the proliferation of gastric cancer cells rather than normal cells. Proteomics and metabolomics unveiled that its efficacy was closely related to its regulation of the energy-metabolism pathway. This research not only provided new ideas for exploring the mechanism of complex systems such as Chinese herbals but also benefited the treatment strategy of Gastric Precancerous Lesions via regulating energy metabolism.
... On the one hand, it has been a widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) since the Qing Dynasty. Examined plant can help to treat immunodeficiency [4], coronary heart disease, hypotension [5], learning and memory impairment, gastric ulcer, chronic atrophic gastritis [6], etc. On the other side, Codonopsis Radix is also an important food material with a broad market and has been widely used in China and Southeast Asian countries, such as tea, wine, soup, and porridge [2]. ...
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As a valuable medicine food homology plant, Codonopsis Radix has been widely used in China. This study aimed to analyze the content of nine potentially toxic elements in three Codonopsis Radix varieties and evaluate their health risks to the human body. In this study, a total of 147 samples were collected from five provinces in China. The content of nine potentially toxic elements (Al, Mn, Cu, Cr, Ni, As, Pb, Cd, and Hg) were determined by ICP-MS. Results showed that the average contents of Al, Mn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, As, Cd, and Hg were 486.81, 30.30, 5.59, 1.38, 1.24, 0.40, 0.20, 0.16, and 0.11 mg/kg, respectively. The Codonopsis tangshen Oliv. samples from Hubei showed the highest contents of eight elements (Al, Mn, Cr, Ni, Pb, As, Cd, and Hg) among three varieties, and the highest Cu level was found in Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf. samples from Shanxi. The content of toxic elements in three Codonopsis Radix varieties showed significant differences (p < 0.05). LDA models facilitated the identification of three Codonopsis Radix varieties with a 91.2% classification score and 89.1% prediction score. Further, when Codonopsis Radix was used as food or medicine, both the hazard quotient values for single element and the hazard index values for nine elements (0.87 for food and 0.84 for medicine) were far below one. The carcinogenic risk values for Pb in Codonopsis Radix when used as food or medicine were 1.14 × 10–6 and 5.51 × 10–8; the values for As were 4.80 × 10–5 and 4.98 × 10–6, respectively. It indicated that under the current consumption of Codonopsis Radix, the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks from these potentially toxic elements were acceptable for consumers.
... In all in vitro experiments, CPPS treatment showed no effects on autophagosomes formation induced by DHAV or rapamycin, suggesting that CPPS did not take part in and affect the autophagy-mediated antiviral pathway. In traditional Chinese medicine, C. pilosula is usually used as a tonic agent (Lin et al., 2013) and used to relieve fatigue and increase appetite (Wang et al., 1997). As the primary bioactive ingredient of C. pilosula, CPPS has effects on immunomodulatory, anticancer, and attenuating cognitive impairments Sun et al., 2019;Zhang et al., 2019) but no effect on antivirus. ...
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Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV) infection causes duck viral hepatitis and results in enormous loss to poultry farming industry. We reported that phosphorylated Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide (pCPPS) inhibited DHAV genome replication. Here we further explored its underlying antiviral mechanisms. Autophagosomes formation is essential for the genome replication of picornaviruses. In this study, Western blot, confocal microscopy observation, and ELISA methods were performed to analyze polysaccharides' effects on autophagy by the in vitro and in vivo experiments. Results obtained from in vitro and in vivo experiments showed that Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide did not play a role in regulating autophagy and had no therapeutic effects on infected ducklings. However, pCPPS treatment downregulated LC3-II expression level activated by DHAV and rapamycin, indicating the inhibition of autophagosomes formation. The interdiction of autophagosomes formation resulted in the inhibition of DHAV genome replication. Further study showed that pCPPS treatment reduced the concentration of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P), an important component of membrane, in cells and serum, and consequently, autophagosomes formation was downregulated. In vivo experiments also verified the therapeutic effect of pCPPS. Phosphorylated Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide treatment increased the infected ducklings' survival rate and alleviated hepatic injury. Our studies verified the effects of pCPPS against DHAV infection in duck embryo hepatocytes and ducklings and confirmed that phosphorylated modification enhanced the bioactivities of polysaccharides. The results also stated pCPPS's antiviral mechanisms, provided fundamental basis for the development of new anti-DHAV agents.
... . 한편, 당삼에 대한 서양 의학적 연구 결과 들을 살펴보면, 항암 [13], 항당뇨 [3], 위 점막 보호 [12], 항혈전 [7], 면역 조절 [11] ...
Article
Although major advances have been achieved in our understanding and treatment of diseases in many areas of medicine, relatively few improvements have been made in the area of gastrointestinal (GI) motor function. The dried root of Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf. (CP) has been used as a traditional folk medicine for improving poor GI function in East Asia, including China and Korea. In the present study, neither aqueous (CP-W) nor ethanolic (CP-E) extracts of CP showed significant toxicity, even at an oral dose of 5 g/kg to mice. The effects of CP-W and CP-E on GI motor function were investigated by measuring in vivo the gastric emptying rate (GER) and intestinal transit rate (ITR) in mice. In normal mice, the ITR was significantly increased by CP-W in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the GER was not significantly affected by any CP extracts. The ITR was significantly retarded in the mice with experimental GI motility dysfunction (i.e., peritoneal irritation by acetic acid) compared with that in normal mice. However, the retardation was significantly recovered by the pre-treatment of CP-W in a dose-dependent manner. The above results suggest that CP-W might be a potential prokinetic agent preventing or alleviating GI motility dysfunctions in human patients.
... It exhibits similar therapeutic effects of Panax ginsengas as tonic agents and is used in many cases as a substitute of the much more costly Panax ginseng 1 . Previous studies showed that extracts of the C. pilosula roots exhibited pharmacological effects in protecting against peptic ulceration and promoting its healing, enhancing immunity, and improving learning and memory behavior, as well as inhibiting inducible NO synthase and protein oxidation and attenuating the cardiac-impaired insulin-like growth factor II receptor pathway [2][3][4][5][6] . Meanwhile, different types of chemical constituents were isolated from the extracts, such as phytosteroids, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, alkaloids, alkyl alcohol glycosides, phenylpropanoid glycosides, polyacetylene glycosides and polysaccharides [7][8][9][10][11][12] , of which only polysaccharides were biologically evaluated [13][14][15][16][17] . ...
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Four new acetylenes (1–4) and one new unsaturated ω-hydroxy fatty acid (5), together with 5 known analogues, were isolated from an aqueous extract of Codonopsis pilosula roots. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods. The new acetylenes are categorized as an unusual cyclotetradecatrienynone (1), tetradecenynetriol (2), and rare octenynoic acids (3 and 4), respectively, and 3 and 4 are possibly derived from oxidative metabolic degradation of 1 and/or 2. The absolute configuration of 1 was assigned by comparison of the experimental circular dichroism (CD) spectrum with the calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra of stereoisomers based on the quantum-mechanical time-dependent density functional theory, while the configuration of 2 was assigned by using modified Mosher׳s method based on the MPA determination rule of ΔδRS values for diols.
... , 신경세포 재생 효과 12) , 항당뇨 효과 13) , 면역증강 14) , 위궤 양에 대한 효과 15) , 항암효과 16) 에 대한 연구가 이루어져있다. 난알부민(ovalbumin, OVA)와 같은 항원은 효과적으로 알 레르기 과민반응을 유발할 수 있는 물질로써 B세포의 활성화 에 의한 혈청 내 IgE 농도의 증가와 더불어 T세포 매개에 의 한 염증성 사이토카인들은 물론, 화학주성의원인인 케모카인 (chemokine)의 생산을 증가시키는 것으로 알려졌다 17) . ...
Article
Objectives : The root of Codonopsis pilosula (Fr.) Nannf. (Codonopsis Pilosulae Radix) has been traditionally used as a oriental medicine with an anti-thrombotic, antidiabetic, anticancer, and anti-gastric ulcer effects and immunological adjuvant. In this study, we investigated the effect of 70% ethanol extract of Codonopsis Pilosulae Radix (CPR-E) on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic responses in mice. Methods : Mice were sensitized (1, 8, and 15 days) with OVA and airway challenged(22, 24, 26, 28, and 30 days) to induced allergic responses. CPR-E extract at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg/body weight was orally administered from days 21 to 30 consecutively. The levels of allergic mediators such as histamine, OVA-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E, and Th1/Th2 cytokines such as IFN- and IL-4 were measured in the sera of mice by ELISA. The histological change of lung tissue was observed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Results : CPR-E extract significantly decreased the serum levels of histamine, OVA-specific IgE, and IL-4 compared with those of OVA control group, but significantly increased the serum level of IFN-. Based on H&E staining, CPR-E extract inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells into lung tissues with histological changes. Conclusions : These results indicate that CPR-E extract has anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic responses through regulating the cytokine balance, suggesting that the extract may be useful for the treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases such as bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis.
... systems, and has been widely used to treat fatigue, thirst and loss of appetite (Wang et al. 1997). Three closely related species are officially regarded as medicinal plants in China (C. ...
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Codonopsis pilosula Nannf., as an important traditional Chinese medicinal plant species, has been used to treat fatigue, thirst and loss of appetite. In this study, we developed 10 new microsatellite loci primers from the genome of this species using the combined biotin capture method. The polymorphism of each locus was further assessed through 27 individuals from four geographically distant populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 11. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.15 to 0.24 and 0.27 to 0.40, respectively. We further performed cross-priming tests of these loci in the other three congeneric species. These microsatellite markers will be useful for investigating genetic diversity within and between populations of these species.
... The root of C. pilosula, of the family Campanulaceae, is beneficial to the immune, digestive and haematopoietic systems. It also induces saliva production, and has been used to treat fatigue, thirst and loss of appetite (32) . In a study by Wang et al. (10) , C57BL/6 mice that received drinking water containing a polysaccharide-enriched fraction prepared from C. pilosula root exhibited lower mitogenic responses by splenocytes to concanavalin A and lipopolysaccharide. ...
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Rose geranium (Pelargonium graveolens, Geraniaceae) has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties, and promotes wound healing. Similarly, Ganoderma tsugae (Ganodermataceae), Codonopsis pilosula (Campanulaceae) and Angelica sinensis (Apiaceae) are traditional Chinese herbs associated with immunomodulatory functions. In the present study, a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to examine whether the Chinese medicinal herb complex, RG-CMH, which represents a mixture of rose geranium and extracts of G. tsugae, C. pilosula and A. sinensis, can improve the immune cell count of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy to prevent leucopenia and immune impairment that usually occurs during cancer therapy. A total of fifty-eight breast cancer patients who received chemotherapy or radiotherapy were enrolled. Immune cell levels in patient serum were determined before, and following, 6 weeks of cancer treatment for patients receiving either an RG-CMH or a placebo. Administration of RG-CMH was associated with a significant reduction in levels of leucocytes from 31·5 % for the placebo group to 13·4 % for the RG-CMH group. Similarly, levels of neutrophils significantly decreased from 35·6 % for the placebo group to 11·0 % for the RG-CMH group. RG-CMH intervention was also associated with a decrease in levels of T cells, helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells compared with the placebo group. However, these differences between the two groups were not statistically significant. In conclusion, administration of RG-CMH to patients receiving chemotherapy/radiotherapy may have the capacity to delay, or ease, the reduction in levels of leucocytes and neutrophils that are experienced by patients during cancer treatment.
... Dangshen [Codonopsis Pilosula (French) Nannf.] is a traditional Chinese medicine herb distributed in the Northeast Provinces of China, belonging to the family Campanulaceae (Yongxu and Jicheng, 2008). It is beneficial to the immune, digestive and hematopoieric systems and has the effect of inducing saliva production (Wang et al., 1997). Previous studies have shown that dangshen regulated gastric basic electrical rhythm disorder in stress conditions and inhibited gastric motility in acute gastric ulcers in rats (Zheng et al., 1998). ...
Article
This study evaluates the proliferative and migrative effects of dangshen on RSC96, Schwann cells. We investigated the molecular signaling pathways, which include: (1) survival signaling, IGFs-IGFIR-Akt-Bcl2 and proliferative signaling, cell cycle factors and MAPK pathways. (2) migrate and anti-scar signaling, FGF-2-uPA-MMPs. After treatment with different concentrations (20 microg/ml, 40 microg/ml, 60 microg/ml, 80 microg/ml, and 100 microg/ml) of dangshen. We observed a dose dependent proliferative effect using PCNA Western blotting assay, MTT assay and the wound healing test. We also found that dangshen stimulates the protein expressions of IGF-I pathway regulators, cell cycle controlling proteins and excites the MAPK signaling pathway regulators ERK and P38. Dangshen even stimulates the FGF-2-uPA-MMP 9 migration pathway in RSC 96 Schwann cells. Using MAPK chemical inhibitors, U0126, SB203580, and SP600125, the proliferative effects of dangshen on RSC 96 cells were identified to be ERK- and P38- dependent. Based on these results, applying an appropriate dose of dangshen with biomedical materials would be a potential approach for enhancing neuron regeneration.
... The root of C. pilosula, of the family Campanulaceae, is used commonly in traditional Chinese medicine, and is beneficial to the immune, digestive and hematopoietic systems. It also induces saliva production, and can be used to treat fatigue, thirst and loss of appetite (Wang et al., 1997b).Wang and colleagues (1996)showed that splenocytes in C57BL/6 mice exhibited lower mitogenic responses to concanavalin A (ConA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) when given drinking water containing a polysaccharide-enriched fraction prepared from C. pilosula root. A. sinensis has been used in traditional Chinese medical therapy for a wide variety of diseases for thousands of years (Hardy, 2000). The A. sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) provides many pharmacological effects, including immunoregulation (Sun et al., 2005a), immunostimulation (Yang et al., 2006), antitumor activity (Shang et al., 2003;Cao et al., 2006) and promotion of hematopoiesis (Bradley et al., 1999). ...
Article
Leukopenia and immunity impairment usually occur during cancer therapy. Citronellol, an oil soluble compound derived from the geranium, has anticancer and antiinflammatory properties, as well as promoting wound healing. Ganoderma lucidum, Codonopsis pilosula and Angelicae sinensis are traditional Chinese herbs, all of which have proven immunomodulatory functions in laboratory-based research. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined whether the Chinese medicinal herb complex (CCMH; a mixture of citronellol and extracts of G. lucidum, C. pilosula and A. sinensis) improves the immune cell counts of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. A total of 105 cancer patients receiving chemotherapy or radiotherapy were enrolled. The quantities of immune cells in the blood of the subjects were determined before and after 6 weeks of cancer treatment, with either CCMH or a placebo. CCMH significantly reduced the depletion of leukocytes (14.2% compared with 28.2%) and neutrophils (11.0% compared with 29.1%). Analysis of the lymphocyte phenotype revealed that the patients receiving the placebo had reduced CD4 lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells than the CCMH-treated patients. Treatment with CCMH for patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy may improve their immune function, improving their ability to fight off the cancer, as well as any secondary infections that could compromise their treatment and their health.
Article
Codonopsis Radix (CR) is a plant that is important in the practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2020 records dried roots prepared from three varieties of Campanulaceae plants under the designation CR (“Dang-shen” in Chinese), including Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf (C. pilosula), Codonopsis pilosula Nannf.var.modesta (Nannf.) L81. T. Shen (C. pilosula var. modesta) and Codonopsis tangshen Oliv (C. tangshen). As major constituents of CR, oligosaccharides might contribute to its clinical efficacy except for other known active compounds, yet the differences in the oligosaccharide profiles of these three varieties of CR remain incompletely understood. In the present study, 135 samples from these different CR varieties were harvested, and oligosaccharide fingerprints for these samples were characterized via HPLC-ELSD, with 19 common peaks being matched. Oligosaccharides were further identified through the combination of electrospray ionization MS/MS (ESI-MS/MS) with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) approaches were then used to compare the oligosaccharide profiles of these three CR varieties. These analyses ultimately revealed that CR was compared with principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant (LDA) methods. The analyses ultimately revealed that these CR samples contained high levels of inulin- and levan-type fructooligosaccharides (FOS), with variations in the relative levels of these FOS compounds among the three analyzed CR varieties. Through the combined analysis of oligosaccharide fingerprints and LDA results, it was possible to differentiate among these CR varieties, with an accurate classification rate of 96.3% and a cross-validation rate of 95.6%. Together, these results highlight a valuable approach to the classification and identification of different CR varieties.
Article
The feasibility of using chemometric techniques associated with multi-element analysis for the classification of three varieties of Codonopsis Radix samples was investigated, and the correlation between environmental factors and metal element content was further explored. It was found that R. Codonopsis was a good source of potassium (average content of 9420 μg/g), magnesium (average content of 1590 μg/g), calcium (average content of 388 μg/g) and iron (average content of 333 μg/g). The statistical analysis results indicated that twenty-two elements content (K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Se, Na, Zn, V, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Co, Sr, Pb, Cd, As, Hg, Al, Ba, Tl and U) were significantly different among three R. Codonopsis varieties, hence it was possible to discriminate R. Codonopsis according to their varieties by LDA (correct classification rate of 98.6% and cross-validation rate of 95.9%). In addition, the correlation analysis results indicated that the relative humidity showed significantly negative correlation with essential elemental content such as K, Mg, Ca and Se (correlation coefficients ranged from -0.321 to -0.564, p < 0.05); the annual average precipitation exhibited significantly positive correlation with toxic elemental elements such as As, Cd, Pb and Hg (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.266 to 0.897, p < 0.05).
Article
Background Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a class of the most commonly used medicines and proven to be effective for certain disorders. Some people use NSAIDs on daily basis for preventive purpose. But a variety of severe side effects can be induced by NSAIDs. Studies have shown that edible natural ingredients exhibit preventive benefit of gastric ulcer. This paper reviews the efficacy and safety of edible natural ingredients in preventing the development of gastric ulcer induced by NSAIDs in animal models. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted on PubMed, using the terms “herbal medicines” and “gastric ulcer”, “herbal medicines” and “peptic ulcer”, “food” and “peptic ulcer”, “food” and “gastric ulcer”, “natural ingredient” and “peptic ulcer”, “natural ingredient” and “gastric ulcer”, “alternative medicine” and “peptic ulcer”, “alternative medicine” and “gastric ulcer”, “complementary medicine” and “peptic ulcer”, “complementary medicine” and “gastric ulcer” in papers published in English between January 1, 1960 and January 31, 2016, resulting in a total of 6146 articles containing these terms. After exclusion of studies not related prevention, not in NSAID model or using non-edible natural ingredients, 54 articles were included in this review. Results Numerous studies have demonstrated that edible natural ingredients exhibit antiulcerogenic benefit in NSAID-induced animal models. The mechanisms by which edible, ingredient-induced anti-ulcerogenic effects include stimulation of mucous cell proliferation, antioxidation, inhibition of gastric acid secretion, as well as inhibition of H (+), K (+)- ATPase activities. Utilization of edible, natural ingredients could be a safe, valuable alternative to prevent the development of NSAID-induced gastric ulcer, particularly for the subjects who are long-term users of NSAIDs.
Article
By using high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection, a simple and accurate chromatographic fingerprint method was developed for the identification of Radix Codonopsis (roots of Codonopsis) from different sources. Eighteen herbs of Codonopsis at different habitats in China, including roots from Codonopsis pilosula, Codonopsis pilosula var. modesta and Codonopsis tangshen were analyzed by the fingerprint. The amount of lobetyolin was calibrated, which was found to be more consistent in roots of Codonopsis pilosula as compared to that of Codonopsis pilosula var. modesta and Codonopsis tangshen. Having the fingerprint results, hierarchical clustering analyses were performed to classify the eighteen herbs into three groups: Codonopsis pilosula, Codonopsis pilosula var. modesta and Codonopsis tangshen. This clustering analysis agrees very well with the pharmacognostic identification result, and which could be used as a tool in the quality control of Radix Codonopsis.
Article
A 12-week trial with 120 [(Landrace×Yorkshire)×Duroc] pigs (45.65 ± 1.93 kg) was conducted to evaluate the effects of Astragalus membranaceus, Codonopsis pilosula and allicin mixture (HM) supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, faecal microbial shedding, immune response and meat quality in finishing pigs. Pigs were allocated to one of three treatments with 0, 0.025% (HM1) and 0.05% (HM2) HM supplementation in a randomized complete block design according to sex and BW. Each treatment contained 10 replications with four pigs (two barrows and two gilts) per pen. Dietary HM resulted in a higher G:F (p < 0.05) than CON group during weeks 7 to 12 and the overall periods. Pigs fed HM2 diet had higher ADG than pigs fed CON diet. Pigs fed HM2 supplementation diet led to a higher (p < 0.05) apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter (DM) and gross energy (GE) than pigs fed CON diet at week 6, while the supplementation of HM led to a higher (p < 0.05) ATTD of DM and GE than pigs fed CON diet at week 12. The faecal E. coli counts were reduced, and Lactobacillus counts were increased by increasing HM supplementation (p < 0.05). Pigs fed HM1 diet had higher (p < 0.05) WBC concentration than those fed CON and HM2 diets at week 6. Pigs fed HM-supplemented diet had higher (p < 0.05) IgG and IgA concentrations than those fed CON diet at week 12. Pigs fed HM diet noted better (p < 0.05) meat colour and redness value than pigs fed CON diet. Pig fed HM2 reduced (p < 0.05) the lightness value compared with CON group. In conclusion, dietary HM supplementation exerted beneficial effects on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal microbial balance (increased Lactobacillus counts and decreased E. coli counts), immune response and meat quality.
Article
Jianpi Qinghua decoction (JPQH), a modified formulation of a classic Chinese prescription named Sengyang decoction, was clinically used to reverse kidney fibrosis in chronic renal failure. The present study was designed to examine whether JPQH has a protective effect on the renal function associated with phosphorylated nuclear factor-kB (p-NF-κB), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), intercellular adhesion molecular-1 (ICAM-1), interleukin-17a (IL-17a), and T helper cells 17 (Th17) in a rat model of adriamycin-induced focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Rat models of FSGS nephropathy were established by left nephrectomy and intravenous injection of adriamycin (ADR). Rats were then treated with JPQH. The levels of serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and 24-hour urine protein quantity (24-HUPQ) were measured. The renal expressions of p-NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-6, ICAM-1, IL-17a, and Th17 were detected. JPQH significantly decreased the levels of Scr, BUN, 24-HUPQ, Th17, IL-17a mRNA, p-NF-κBp65, TNF-α, IL-6, and ICAM-1 compared to the control group (P < 0.01). JPQH significantly attenuated renal damage. These results suggest that JPQH can protect renal function and may be a promising agent for treating FSGS.
Article
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the active component for the quality evaluation of Rdix Codonopsis. METHODS: The compounds were separated with chromatography techniques and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidences and physiochemical properties. RESULTS: Ten compounds were isolated from the n-butanol fraction of the ethanolic extract of Codonopsis pilosula and structurally identified as lobetyolin (1), syringin (2), hexyl-β-D- glucopyrannoside (3), butyl-β-D-fructofumanoside (4), lobetyolinin (5), geniposide (6), tryptophan (7), uracil (8), 3′,4′,5,9,9′- pentaydroxy-5-4,7′-epoxylignan (9) and emodin (10), respectively. CONCLUSION: Compound 4-10 are isolated from genus Codonopsis for the first time and lobetyolin (1) can be chosen for quality evaluation.
Article
OBJECTIVE: To establish the quality evaluation system of lobetyolin in Radix Codonopsis. METHODS: MetaChem RP-18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) was used with acetonitrile-water(22:78) as the mobile phase and UV detection was at 267 nm. RESULTS: 11 batches of Radix Codonopsis were analyzed. The content of lobetyolin ranged from 0.035-1.314 mg·g-1. CONCLUSION: The method was simple, reproducible and reliable. It can be used to control the quality of Radix Codonopsis.
Article
A neolignan codonopiloneolignanin A (1) with a novel 2,9:2ʹ,9:7,7ʹ-tricyclo-8,9ʹ-neolignane skeleton was isolated from an aqueous extract of the Codonopsis pilosula roots. Its structure including the absolute configuration was elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR and electronic circular dichroism calculation. The proposed biosynthetic pathway of compound 1 is also discussed.
Article
Objective: To establish the quality evaluation system for the roots of Codonopsis pilosula by using multipoint sampling and to analyze the quality differences in the roots of C. pilosula from different habitats. Methods: To detect the total ash, acid-insoluble ash, and ethanol-soluble extracts; to detect the contents of lobetyolin and establish the HPLC fingerprint for the roots of C. pilosula from different habitats; to combine the indexes of total ash; acid-insoluble ash, ethanol solubility extract, and the content of lobetyolin with HPLC fingerprint to establish the quality evaluation system for the roots of C. pilosula, which was used to assess the quality for the roots of C. pilosula from different habitats. Results: The detection results of ash and acid-insoluble ash indicated that these contents in most samples could meet the standard of Chinese Pharmacopeia 2010; There are significant differences among the contents of lobetyolin in different samples; HPLC fingerprint had nine common peaks and the correlation coefficient reached over 0.8; the quality evaluation system could be used to assess the quality for the roots of C. pilosula from different habitats. Conclusion: The quality for the roots of C. pilosula from different habitats could be assessed and controlled by the quality evaluation system established by multipoint combined with fingerprints in this research.
Article
This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the efficacy and safety of Dang shen [Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf., root] formulae for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). English and Chinese databases were searched, and 48 randomized controlled trials were included. Dang shen formulae improved lung function forced expiratory volume in 1 s compared with conventional pharmacotherapy (CP) [mean difference (MD) 0.22 L, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13–0.31, p < 0.001, I2 = 5%] and quality of life (St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire) compared with placebo (MD −7.19, 95% CI −10.82 to −3.56, p < 0.001, I2 = 0%) and when combined with CP versus CP (MD −9.05, 95% CI −12.72 to −5.38, p < 0.001, I2 = 89%). Dang shen formulae also increased distance walked in 6 min when combined with CP versus CP alone (MD 51.43 m, 95% CI 30.06–72.80, p < 0.001, I2 = 27%) and reduced frequency/days with COPD exacerbations. Risk of bias was evaluated using the Cochrane tool. Methodological shortfalls were identified. Adverse events were low and not different between intervention and control groups. Thirty-three events were reported, including gastrointestinal upset, dry mouth, and insomnia. Dang shen formulae appear to improve some aspects of the included COPD outcomes. However, owing to methodological flaws, the current evidence is inadequate to support the routine use of Dang shen formulae outside of Chinese medicine practice. However, these results justify further investigation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
The pharmacological activities of Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolium, and Panax notoginseng as herbal medicinal resources were reviewed to evaluate their biofunctional effects. P. ginseng contains relatively many kinds of ginsenoside that possess pharmacological activity compared with P. quinquefolium and P. notoginseng. However, the ratio of panaxatriol and panaxadiol of ginsenoside in P. notoginseng is higher than those of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolium. The free sugar content of P. ginseng is similar to P. quinquefolium but is different from P. notoginseng. The total free amino acid content is highest in P. ginseng and lowest in P. notoginseng. P. ginseng has the highest antioxidative effects and P. ginseng and P. quinquefoilum possess more potent cytotoxicities on A549 and SK-OV-3 cell lines than P. notoginseng. Particularly, red ginseng of P. ginseng shows the highest antidiabetic effects, suggesting that it possesses activity to enhance insulin secretion as well as to prevent a destruction of pancreatic islet cells.
Article
Although Codonopsis pilosula (C. pilosula) has long been considered as an important herbal medicine, no analytical method of marker compounds for quality assessment is registered in the Korean Pharmacopoeia. We developed a simple and robust analytical method of three marker components lobetyolin (1), lobetyol (2), and tangshenoside I (3) using HPLC-UV method. We also confirmed the three marker components using UPLC-qTOF/MS method. Various extraction conditions were optimized to achieve three marker compounds with faster extraction kinetics and higher recovery. The analytical condition was then validated by determining the linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantification, recovery, repeatability, robustness, and stability. By this method, the three markers were successfully quantified in 38 commercial samples along with three related species that are sometimes used as alternatives to C. pilosula. Finally, principal component and hierarchical clustering analyses were conducted to show the practicality of the method developed for the quality evaluation of C. pilosula.
Article
Objective To establish a validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the fingerprint analysis of Codonopsis Radix and for the determination of lobetyolin. Methods HPLC coupled with diode array detection method was employed to establish the fingerprint profile and quantitative determination of lobetyolin in Codonopsis Radix. Principal component analysis method was employed to analyze the 52 Codonopsis Radix samples. Results The reference chromatogram was generated with 25 common peaks showing good separation from adjacent peaks. Conclusion Statistical analysis of the obtained data demonstrates that the developed HPLC fingerprint combined with chemometric is a reliable method for the similar evaluation and quality assessment of Codonopsis Radix, and other traditional Chinese herbs.
Article
Two new 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid derived phenylpropanoid glucosides, tangshenoside V (1) and tangshenoside VI (2), were isolated from the roots of Codonopsis tangshenOliv., along with the two known compounds tangshenoside I (3) and tangshenoside III (4). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (IR and 1D- and 2D-NMR) and by mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS).
Article
Dang-shen, radix Codonopsis is one of the best-known traditional Chinese medicines and is used mainly as a tonic agent. Nine commercial products belong to three species of Codonopsis genus, Codonopsis tangshen, Codonopsis pilosula var. modesta and a cultivated species of Codonopsis pilosula, which were purchased from drug stores in Taipei and Taichung, Taiwan. To determine the chemical differences between samples of Dang-shen, a method combining solvent partition and HPLC-UV was used. An enriched fraction of n-butanol was obtained, after partition. Then, the chemical profile was determined using a C18 reversed column chromatography in a gradient solvent system with 10-40% acetonitrile in 0.1% formic acid, for 60 min. A comparison of the constituents in the nine commercial products of Dang-shen showed that compounds codonopyrrolidum A, B and codonoside A only exist in C. tangshen, but not in C. pilosula var. modesta and C. pilosula. A predominate compound, codonopyrrolidum A, can be used to distinguish the herbs, C. tangshen from C. pilosula var. modesta and C. pilosula. Low secondary metabolite content was found in the cultivated species of C. pilosula.
Article
Codonopsis pilosula is a perennial species of flowering plants propagated in Northeast Asia. A water-soluble polysaccharide, CPPS(3), was extracted from the root of Codonopsis pilosula by boiled water extraction and ethanol precipitation. The molecular weight was estimated to be 7.4 x 10(4) Da determined by using Gel permeation chromatography. Monosaccharide composition and the structure of the polysaccharide were determined by gas spectroscopy, Fourier transform IR (FT-IR) spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy and some chemical method analysis was made. The components were galactose, arabinose and rhamnose in the molar ratio of 1.13:1.12:1. The main chain of CPPS(3) is illustrated to be (1-->3)-linked-beta-GalpNAc, (1-->3)-linked-alpha-Rhap and (1-->2,3)-beta-Galp.
Article
Radix Codonopsis (Dangshen) is a famous traditional Chinese medicine and has long been used for replenishing energy deficiency, strengthening the immune system, lowering blood pressure and improving appetite in China, Japan and Korea. A highly specific quantification method using (1)H NMR has been developed for the simultaneous determination of novel quaternary ammonium alkaloids codotubulosine A and B, adenosine and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural in Radix Codonopsis materials Codonopsis pilosula, C. pilosula var. modesta, C. tangshen, C. tubulosa, C. subglobosa, C. clematidea, C. lanceolota and Campanumoea javanica collected from different regions of China and Taiwan. A solid-phase extraction with C-18 cartridge followed by elution with water can easily remove sugars the major components that may affect the determination of target constituents. In the (1)H NMR spectrum, the signals of N-CH(3) of codotubulosine A (delta 2.75) and B (delta 2.83), H-8 of adenosine (delta 8.15), and CHO signal of 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (delta 9.49) are well separated from other signals in [(2)H(4)]methanol. The quantity of the compounds was calculated by the relative ratio of the integral values of the target peaks of each compound to the known amount of internal standard pyrazine. The described NMR method is found to be relatively simple, specific, precise and accurate for the quality control of Radix Codonopsis herbs and no reference compounds are required for calibration curves, in comparison to conventional HPLC methods, for instance.
Article
A simple capillary electrophoretic method based on 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolon (PMP) derivatization has been developed for simultaneous separation and determination of nine aldoses (xylose, arabinose, glucose, rhamnose, fucose, galactose, mannose, glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid). The separation of PMP-labeled monosaccharide derivatives was carried out in uncoated capillary (48.5 cm x 75 microm i.d.) and under the selected optimum conditions of pH 11.0, 200 mM borate buffer at applied voltage 15 kV and capillary temperature 20 degrees C, the nine PMP-monosaccharides could be perfectly separated from each other within 40 min. Furthermore, the developed method was firstly applied to determine the sugar composition in the polysaccharide isolated from Chinese Codonopsis pilosula. The results showed that C. pilosula polysaccharide was a typically acidic heteropolysaccharide and was composed of arabinose, glucose, rhamnose, galactose, mannose, glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid in the molar contents of 48.1, 103.5, 16.1, 48.5, 7.5, 4.2 and 119.1 microM, respectively. The assay results were satisfactory.
Article
DNA sequence analysis of rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) were exploited for their applications in differentiating medicinal species Codonopsis pilosula, C. tangshen, C. modesta, and C. nervosa var. macrantha, from two related adulterants Campanumoea javania and Platycodon grandiflorus. The data demonstrated that the rDNA ITSI and ITSII sequences of the four Codonopsis are highly homologous but not identical, and are significantly different from those of the two adulterants. The sequence difference allows effective and reliable differentiation of Codonopsis from the adulterants by PCR-RFLP.
Article
The roots of Panax quinquefolium, Panax notoginseng, Glehnia littoralis, Codonopsis pilosula and Pseudostellaria heterophylla were extracted with an aqueous extraction method and also with an organic extraction method. The aqueous extracts of Glehnia littoralis and Codonopsis pilosula were the most potent in inhibiting erythrocyte hemolysis. The aqueous extracts of Panax quinquefolium and Panax notoginseng had lower potencies while the aqueous extract of Pseudostellaria heterophylla and the organic extract of Panax quinquefolium were only weakly active. The organic extracts of Glehnia littoralis, Panax heterophylla and Panax quinquefolium were potent in inhibiting lipid peroxidation while the organic extracts of Codonopsis pilosula and Panax notoginseng had weaker potencies. The aqueous extracts possessed much lower potencies the corresponding organic extracts. However, the Glehnia littoralis extract was the most potent aqueous extract. The results suggest that Glehnia littoralis, Codonopsis pilosula, Panax notoginseng and Panax heterophylla are cheaper substitutes of Panax quinquefolium with regard to antioxidant activity.
Article
The polysaccharide (PS) fractions from several medicinal herbs have been reported to have anti-ulcer effects against experimental ulcers in the rat. The water-soluble PS fractions from Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) have been shown to inhibit indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the PS fraction from G. lucidum on the healing of gastric ulcers induced by acetic acid in the rat and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved. The abdomen of rats was incised, and the stomach was treated with 10 M acetic acid (100 microL) for 1 minute, and then treated with G. lucidum PS (0.1, 0.5, or 1.0 g/kg) intragastrically, once a day for 14 consecutive days. The results indicated that the oral administration of G. lucidum PS at 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg for 2 weeks caused a significant acceleration of ulcer healing by 40.1% and 55.9%, respectively. In the mechanistic studies, additional rats were treated with 10 M acetic acid to induce acute ulcers, and then treated with G. lucidum PS (1.0 g/kg) for 3, 7, 10, or 14 days. Exposure of the rat stomach to acetic acid led to decreased mucus and increased prostaglandin levels. Treatment with G. lucidum PS at 1.0 g/kg significantly (P < .05) suppressed or restored the decreased gastric mucus levels and increased gastric prostaglandin concentrations compared with the control group. These results indicates that G. lucidum PS is an active component with healing efficacy on acetic acid-induced ulcers in the rat, which may represent a useful herbal preparation for the prevention and treatment of peptic ulcers.
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Various procedures have been reported on the biossay of antiulcer drugs . Pylorus ligation of the rat (1-3), restraint of the rat (4, 5), water immersion of the restrained rat (7) and the application of ulcerogenic agents on various animals (8-11) were used for producing experimental ulcers. In these methods the drug had been administered to the animal before the ulcer production and the preventive effect on the ulcer producing processes was tested. Although some drugs such as glutamine or methylmethionine sulfonium chloride were recently introduced to promote the repair of the ulcer which had existed already, suitable methods are lacking for their pharmacological test, and so it was hoped to develop a new method for pharmacological assay of curative activity of the drugs on existing ulcers. In the present paper curative effects of some drugs on the stress ulcer of the rat are reported.
Article
Effects of carbenoxolone Na on acute or chronic types of gastric lesions or ulcer models produced in rats, guinea pigs, or dogs were studied. Carbenoxolone Na, given either orally or intraperitoneally, produced a significant inhibition of stress-induced gastric lesions in intact or in pylorus-ligated rats. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)-induced or serotonin-induced gastric lesions in rats were also inhibited significantly by pretreatment with the drug. However, carbenoxolone Na did not affect the development of Shay ulceration in rats even though the peptic activity in gastric juices was markedly reduced by the drug. Histamine-induced gastric lesions in guinea pigs were not prevented by pretreatment with carbenoxolone Na. Although carbenoxolone Na, given for 10-20 days, did not promote the healing of stress-induced gastric lesions and acetic acid gastric jlcers in rats, it significantly accelerated the healing of chronic gastric ulcer produced in dogs by 3 weeks' treatment. Carbenoxolone Na prevented the acid back-diffusion caused by ASA without any influence on Na+ efflux in pylorus-ligated rats.
Studies on the pharmacological effects and mechanisms of Codonopsis pilosula (CP) and its efficacious chemical ingredients on preventing the gastric mucosal damage of rats IV. the effects of the fraction-2 of extract of CP on gastric mucosal barrier
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One experimental study of preventive effect of Chinese made isocrystal pirezjepine on reserpine-induced ulcer
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