We examine the growing number of studies of survey respondents' global self-ratings of health as predictors of mortality in longitudinal studies of representative community samples. Twenty-seven studies in U.S. and international journals show impressively consistent findings. Global self-rated health is an independent predictor of mortality in nearly all of the studies, despite the inclusion of numerous specific health status indicators and other relevant covariates known to predict mortality. We summarize and review these studies, consider various interpretations which could account for the association, and suggest several approaches to the next stage of research in this field.
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"CopyrightIdler & Benyamini, 1997oss att det är kvinnligt att vara omhändertagande och samarbetsvillig, och manligt att vara fysiskt stark och tävlingsinriktad. Även aktiviteter är ofta könsmärkta där att sy förknippas med att vara kvinna och att laga bilar förknippas med att vara man. "
"Marital status, health-risk behaviours and health-related variables were obtained from the surveys . We measured smoking, high alcohol consumption (Rimm et al. 1999), insufficient physical activity (Kujala et al. 1998), body mass index, self-rated health (Idler & Benyamini, 1997), insomnia symptoms (Jenkins et al. 1988), usual sleep duration and psychological distress (Goldberg & Williams, 1988). Purchases of anxiolytics and sedatives (N05B) and hypnotics (N05C) were included in further sensitivity analysis. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Adverse effects of antidepressants are most common at the beginning of the treatment, but possible also later. We examined the association between antidepressant use and work-related injuries taking into account the duration of antidepressant use.
Antidepressant use and work-related injuries between 2000 and 2011 were measured among 66 238 employees (mean age 43.8 years, 80% female) using linkage to national records (the Finnish Public Sector study). We analysed data using time-dependent modelling with individuals as their own controls (self-controlled case-series design).
In 2238 individuals who had used antidepressants and had a work-related injury during a mean follow-up of 7.8 years, no increase in the risk of injury was observed in the beginning of antidepressant treatment. However, an increased injury risk was seen after 3 months of treatment (rate ratio, compared with no recent antidepressant use, 1.27, 95% confidence interval 1.10-1.48). This was also the case among those who had used only selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (n = 714; rate ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.83).
Antidepressant use was not associated with an increased risk of work-related injury at the beginning of treatment. Post-hoc analyses of antidepressant trials are needed to determine whether long-term use of antidepressants increases the risk of work-related injury.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Psychological Medicine
"Self-rated health was assessed using a single item, " How would you rate your health at the present time? " , answered using a 1 = bad to 5 = very good Likert scale that has been widely used in the social and behavioral sciences (for overview, seeIdler & Benyamini, 1997). Number of household dependents was quantified as number of children under the age of 16 living in the household. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unemployment is a major challenge to individuals' development. An important personal resource to ameliorate the negative impact of unemployment may be perceived control, a general-purpose belief system. Little is known, however, about how perceived control itself changes with the experience of unemployment and what the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of such change in perceived control are in different ages. We use data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (N = 413 who experienced unemployment and N = 413 case-matched controls; time period of data collection: 1994–1996) to examine whether perceived control changes with unemployment, explore the role of socio-demographic, psychosocial and health factors in moderating such change, and investigate whether levels of perceived control prior to unemployment and unemployment-related change in perceived control predict unemployment-related outcomes up to five years following. Results indicated that, on average, perceived control remained relatively stable with unemployment, and that younger and older workers did not differ in this regard. However, there were sizeable individual differences in change in perceived control, with women and those with fewer years of education experiencing greater unemployment-related declines in perceived control. Lower levels of perceived control prior to unemployment and steeper unemployment-related decrements in perceived control were each associated with a higher risk of remaining unemployed in the 12 months immediately following unemployment. Steeper unemployment-related declines in perceived control also predicted lower life satisfaction up to five years following. We discuss possible pathways by which perceived control may facilitate adjustment to unemployment, consider the role of perceived control for better understanding the dynamics of unemployment, and suggest routes for further more process-oriented inquiry.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Vocational Behavior